Notes

Marriage: Offer and acceptance

[Marriage] becomes binding through offer and acceptance. Both the words must be in past tense such as zawwajtu and tazawwatu (I have married you) or it should be an imperative (amr) and a past tense such as zawwijni (marry me)[6] and then he responds, zawwajtu (I married you). [Marriage occurs] even if they did not understand the meaning. Marriage will occur from their statement, ’Given’[9] and ‘Accepted’ without [the pronoun] ‘I’ after [the proposer says] ‘You gave’ or ‘You accepted’ like the case of buying and selling.

Revision checklist: Nur al-Anwar

The checklist outlines key questions within usul al-fiqh which if answered one would have covered the core topics in usul.

The meaning of Iman

Iman is do tasdīq (assenting) to what is known that the Messenger (Allāh bless him and grant him peace) came with, briefly in that which is known briefly, and in detail in that which is known in detail. Note! Assent here refers to shar’i assent.

Nukhbah #1: Introduction

Hafid Ibn Hajar Asqalani (may Allah Almighty have mercy upon him) writes in Nukhbat al-Fikr:

الحمد لله الذي لم يزل عليماً قديراً وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد الذي أرسله إلى الناس كافةً بشيراً ونذيراً، وعلى آل محمد وصحبه وسلم تسليماً كثيراً. أما بعد:

All praise is to Allah who never ceases to be knowing and able. Peace be upon our master Muhammad who was sent to the people [as a person bearing] glad tidings and warning. [Blessing be] upon the family of Muhammad and his companions. Let there be abundant salutations upon them.

Manar: Qiyas 1 - Definition

Definition: Qiyas literally [means] “to determine” and technically [means] to determine 1 a fara’ (derivative issue) from an Asl (root issue) to ascertain the hukm (ruling) and illat (cause).

Fudhuli

ولو جرى العقد بين الفضوليين أو بين الفضولي والأصيل جاز بالإجماع.

هو يقول لو كان مأمورا من الجانبين ينفذ فإذا كان فضوليا بتوقف وصار كالخلع والطلاق والإعتاق على مال.

ولهما أن الموجود شطر العقد لأنه شطر حالة الحضرة فكذا عند الغيبة وشطر العقد لا يتوقف على ما وراء المجلس كما في البيع بخلاف المأمور من الجانبين فإنه ينتقل كلامه إلى العاقدين وما جرى بين الفضوليين عقد تام وكذا الخلع وأختاه لأنه تصرف يمين من جانبه حتى يلزم فيتم به.

lll

الكف عن الدنيا

كان ببغداد رجل اسمه رويم. فعرض عليه عليه القضاء فتولاه. فلقيه الجنيد يوما فقال: من أرتد أن يستودع سرّه لمن لا يفشيه فعليه برويم فإنه كتم حب الدنيا أربعين سنة حتي قدلر عليه.

There was, in Baghdad, a pious man. His name was Ruwaym. He was presented with judgeship. So he took responsibility of it. Then one day Junayd [Baghdadi] met him. Whoever wants to securely store their secret to someone who will not spread it, then upon them is [to go to] Ruwaym. He hid his love for the world for twenty years until he was able to get hold of it.

A primer to water

There are five types of water; clear cleanser, doubtful cleanser, clean but not a cleanser, unclean and the unknown. Water may be deemed uncontaminated or contaminated. The ruling differs based on the quantity and type of contamination.

Hadith Hiraql

Ibn Natur1 says, Heraclius was a soothsayer who would look at the starts2.

Usul al-Fiqh (Hanafi) - Terms

There are twenty key terms in usul fiqh which outline the core approaches to interpreting the nass in accordance to the Hanafi jurisprudence. The following are based on Mulla Jiwan's breakdown of the definition in Nur al-Anwar

How to study Sahih Muslim

To study Sahih Muslim, use Sharh Nawawi and Fath al-Mulhim as your base but supplement with relevant book dependent on the area of focus. Nawawi is better for sanad and aqa’id whilst Fath al-Mulhim for Hanafi fiqh and language.

Mishkat #1.1: Hadith Jibril

Hadith Jibril is a narration which outlines the interaction between the final Prophet and Hadrat Jibril. In their discussion, they summarise the dīn and outline the meaning of Iman, Islam and Ihsan as well as matters relating to the hereafter. Shaykh Muhammad Saleem Nawab explains.

Zad #3: الدعاء مخ العبادة

Dua is mubtada. Mukhkh is mudhaf and Ibadah is mudhaf ilayhi. Mudhaf and mudhaf ilayhi combined becomes khabr. Mubtada and khabr combined becomes jumlah ismiyyah khabriyyah.

Nukhbah #2: Links

الْخَبَرُ إِمَّا أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُ: طُرُقٌ بِلَا عَدَدٍ مُعَيَّنٍ ، أَوْ مَعَ حَصْرِ بِمَا فَوْقَ الِاثْنَيْنِ، أَوْ بِهِمَا، أَوْ بِوَاحِدٍ. فَالْأَوَّلُ: الْمُتَوَاتِرُ: الْمُفِيدُ لِلْعِلْمِ الْيَقِينِيِّ بِشُرُوطِهِ. وَالثَّانِي: الْمَشْهُورُ، وَهُوَ الْمُسْتَفِيضُ عَلَى رَأْيٍ. وَالثَّالِثُ: الْعَزِيزُ ، وَلَيْسَ شَرْطًا لِلصَّحِيحِ خِلَافًا لِمَنْ زَعَمَهُ. وَالرَّابِعُ: الْغَرِيبُ. وَكُلُّهَا - سِوَى الْأَوَّلِ – آحَادٌ. وَفِيهَا الْمَقْبُولُ وَالْمَرْدُودُ؛ لِتَوَقُّفِ الِاسْتِدْلَالِ بِهَا عَلَى الْبَحْثِ عَنْ أَحْوَالِ رُوَاتِهَا دُونَ الْأَوَّلِ. وَقَدْ يَقَعُ فِيهَا مَا يُفِيدُ الْعِلْمَ النَّظَرِيَّ بِالْقَرَائِنِ عَلَى الْمُخْتَارِ. ثُمَّ الْغَرَابَةُ: إِمَّا أَنْ تَكُونَ فِي أَصْلِ السَّنَدِ ، أَوْ لَا. فَالْأَوَّلُ: الْفَرْدُ الْمُطْلَقُ. وَالثَّانِي: الْفَرْدُ النِّسْبِيُّ، وَيَقِلُّ إِطْلَاقُ الْفَرْدِيَّةِ عَلَيْهِ.

Islamic economic system

Economic (prosperity) is a means rather than an end. The Shariah allows ownership and protects the autonomy of an individual but not at the expense of the autonomy of society. Hence, the shariah has set limits, ethical guidelines and permits intervention when the natural course of the market is impeded.

The minimum mahr

Allah Almighty has ordained that when a man marries a woman, he must give her something. Is there a minimum? The Ahnaf state ten dirhams, the Malikiyyah state 1/4 of a dinar and the others state no minimum so long as it is of some value.

Abjad Numerals

The abjad numerals is a decimal system which is used in Arabic to number lists. Remember the mnemonic أِبْجَدْ هَوَّزْ حُطِّي كَلِمَنْ سَعْفَص قَرْشَتْ ثَخَذْ ضَظِغْ

اليانع الجني – الجامع للإمام أبو عيسي الترمذي

يرويه شيخنا العلاّمة بإسناده الّذي مرَّ في (الموطّأ) إلى صدر الأئمة رضي الله تعالى عنه، قال: أخبرنا به الشيخ أبو طاهر المدنيّ، عن أبيه الشيخ إبراهيم الكرديّ، عن الشيخ المزّاحيّ، عن الشّهاب أحمد السّبكيّ، عن الشيخ النّجم الغيطيّ، عن الزّين زكريا، عن العزّ عبد الرّحيم، عن الشيخ عمر المراغيّ، عن الفخر ابن البخاريّ، عن عمر بن طبرزد البغدادي، قال: أخبرنا أبو الفتح عبد الملك بن عبد الله بن سهلٍ الهرويّ الكروخيّ، قال: أخبرنا القاضي الزّاهد أبو عامرٍ محمود بن القاسم بن مخمد الأزديّ والشيخ أبو نصرٍ عبد العزيز بن محمد بن عليّ بن إبراهيم التّرياقيّ والشيخ أبو بكرٍ أحمد بن عبد الصمد بن أبي ال

اليانع الجني – السنن للإمام أبو داود

عن شاه ولي اللله الدهلوي عن أبي طاهر بن ابراهيم الكردي عن حسن ابن علي العجيمي عن عيسي المغربي عن شهاب الدين الخفاجي عن بدر الدين حسن الكرخي عن جلال الدين السيوطي عن محمد مقبل الحلبي عن الصلاح بن عمر المقدسي عن أبي الحسن علي محمد البخاري عن أبي حفص عمر البغدادي عن ابي الوليد الكرخي و ابو البتح الدومي و كلاهما عن ابي بكر أحمد بن علي الخطيب البغدادي قال أخبرنا أبو عمر القاسم بن جعفر بن عبد الواحد الهاشمي قال أخبرنا أبو عمر اللولوي قال حدثنا أبو داود سليمان بن أشعث السجستاني. و روي مسند الهند بطريق أخر أيضا. رحمهم الله تعالي أجمعين

اليانع الجني – الصحيح للإمام مسلم

عن شاه ولي الله دهلوي عن الشيخ أبو طاهر بن إبراهيم الكردي عن أبيه عن سلطان بن أحمد المزاحي عن أحمد السبكي عن النجم الغيطي عن الزين زكريا عن ابن حجر العسقلاني عن الصلاح بن أبي عمر المقدسي عن علي بن أحمد البخاري عن المؤيد الطوسي عن أبي عبد الله الراوي عن عبد الغافر الارسي عن الجلودي عن ابي اسحاق ابراهيم بن محمد عن مسلم بن الحجاج. و للشاه ولي الله طريق اخر. رحمهم الله تعالي

Plants in the Quran

Revise the Arabic words used for plants in the Quran.


To navigate, use the direction buttons - up/down to reveal answers and left/right to scroll between terms.

Press 'options' to switch between Arabic and English as the primary term.

Muqaddimah Muslim: The men criticised

Imam Muslim in the introduction to his Sahih, outlines the need to critically analyse narrators in order to determine the reliability of the source of a narration attributed to the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him). In this context, he lists some 50 plus narrators who have been criticised in a variety of ways. Below is a background to these individuals.

Muqaddimah Muslim #1: Salutation

This is the exposition on the Muqaddimah of Imam Muslim which in effect is a preface to his famous Sahih. Here, if Allah almighty gives ability, I will clarify the text and summarise the issues rather than delve deep or prolong discussion for which I will merely point towards relevant article. Imam Muslim starts his Muqaddimah with the following declaration:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ وَالْعَاقِبَةُ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ وَصَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ خَاتَمِ النَّبِيِّينَ وَعَلَى جَمِيعِ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ وَالْمُرْسَلِينَ أَمَّا بَعْدُ

the difference between Illat and hikmat

On discussing the prohibition of interest, the difference between illat and hikmat is outlined. The principle is that the application of a law depends on the Illat and not on the Hikmat.

Abu Dawud ch. 40: forbearance

Anas b. Malik (RA) relates the forbearance of the Prophet. He says, I served the Prophet for 7 years and never did he say 'uff' to me or 'Why did you this or that'.

Mu'in al-Fara'idh #2: Payment schedule

By Mufti Mahmud Hasan Ajmeri
Translated by Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami – 28 Rabi II 1437 | 8 February 2016

(1) Shroud and burial: First and foremost, pay the shroud and burial expenses from the deceased's estate even if it requires that the entire estate be spent. You should be moderate in the funeral expenses. For example, the shroud should be of the standard which the deceased may have worn in jumua, the two Eids or when meeting friends.

Mu’in al-Fara’idh #1: Introduction

Before starting ilmul fara’id, we shall write the definition (ta’rif), subject matter (mawdu’), objective (ghard wa ghayat), some keywords and technical terms so that you may find learning this subject easy.

Mu’in al-Fara’idh #4: Impediment

By Mufti Mahmud Hasan Ajmeri
Translated by Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami – 29 Rabi II 1437 | 10 February 2016

Those eligible to inherit, sometimes due to a certain causes can be impeded (mahrum) from inheriting. These causes are known as ‘Mawani’ al-Irth’. There are four such causes: Riqq (slavery), Qatl(homicide), Tabayun Din (religion), and Tabayun Darayn (nationality). The details are mentioned below.

Mu’in al-Fara’idh #3: Succession

By Mufti Mahmud Hasan Ajmeri
Translated by Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami – 28 Rabi II 1437 | 9 February 2016

The estate which remains after shroud, burial, payment of debts and fulfilment of the bequest will be distributed amongst the heirs in accordance with the Quran, sunnah of the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) and ijma.

There are three types of heirs (waratha): Zawil Furudh‘Asabat, and Zawil Arham. Their order of priority will be mentioned below.

Preferred wordings for Tashahhud

The wordings of tashahhud in salah differ slightly in the narrations with the reports of Hadrats Umar, Abdullah b. Mas’ud, and Abdullah b. Ibn Abbas (may Allah Almighty be pleased with them) considered the clearest. If one were to read any of these it would be permissible. However, the schools differ as to which is the most preferred form of tashahhud of the three.

Lightning, thunder and thunderbolt

What is the difference between these three synonymic (mutaradif) words in the Quran; thunder (رعد), lightning (برق) and thunderbolt (صائقة)?

The class rules of Shaykh Zakariyya Kandalwi

By Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
11 Rabi II 1437 | 22 January 2016

Hadrat Shaykh al-Hadith Ml. Zakariyya Kandhalwi at the onset of the madrasah year used to state 10 rules for his class. The following is an abridged version of these rules.

Types of mutawatir

Tawatur can be achieved in four ways – tawatur fil isnad, tabaqat, ta’amul and qadr mushtarak. All of them lead to certainty.

An introduction to mutawatir

Allamah Abu Barakat al-Nasafi writes in Manar:

[Mutawatir] is the message which is narrated by a group whose number [is so high that it] cannot be accounted and it is [normally] impossible for them to have colluded upon a lie. This criterion extends [to every point in the chain]. Hence, its end will be like its start, its start like its end and middle like it two sides. For example, the reporting of the Quran and the five salahs. [Mutawatir] results in knowing with certainty (yaqin) like seeing gives necessary knowledge.

Where does tawatur start?

By Shaykh al-Hadith Ml. Muhammad Yunus Jawnpuri
Yawaqit al-Ghaliyah v.1 pp.40
Translated by Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami - 9 Rabi II 1437 | 20 Jan 2016

For tawatur, it is a condition in every stage that group be such that collusion upon a lie be normally impossible. All usul experts state this point.

Have wudu in lesson

Ilm is not gained, it is given. For this privilege, one cannot simply rely on the minimum; rather they must go beyond the fard and embrace the sunnahmustahab and the requisite etiquettes of which one is cleanliness. Verily Allah loves the repentant and the clean (Baqarah: 222). The prophet (peace be upon him) would encourage one to be in wudu even if it were just before going to sleep. Be clean, have wudu, when studying the din and seeking the love of Allah.

The principle of blocking the means

Blocking the means (sadd al-zara’i) or closing the ‘floodgate’ is a legal principle used as a device to stop the future occurrence of sin. Allamah Zafar Ahmad Usmani explains.

Overcoming personal challenges

By Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami

A scattered mind and frail body may become a hindrance to learning. The pious always faced one form of challenge or another. However, they made their mind and body subservient to the will of Allah Almighty and thus overcame all challenges. The key is focus and effort. They determined their focus and then tirelessly worked towards that goal regardless of state or circumstance. Those who lack focus or effort become the victim of their state and circumstance.

Hakim al-Ummat Ml. Ashraf Ali Thanwi says,

Not for public consumption

Knowledge should be shared but not everything learned is to be spread to the general public. Some things are best left amongst the ulama. This is not tantamount to hiding knowledge as that is applicable to necessary and preferable matters of din and not arcane issues. Take caution and be mindful of the consequence of what you tell the public for you may distance them further.

The Miqat

Miqat is the set boundary beyond which a Muslim intending to do hajj or umrah is not allowed to cross without ihram.

 

Thulathiyat of Ibn Majah

There are five thulathiyat in Sunan Ibn Majah all of which is via Jabarah b. Mughallith. Jabarah is a good person but his narrations from the famous Sahabi Anas b. Malik are classed weak.

Pray for knowledge of Hadith

Knowledge is light. It is a gift given by Allah almighty and cannot be merely acquired by sheer ability alone. We must beseech Allah for knowledge. Mufti Taqi Usmani advises students of Hadith how to pray and outlines a dua.

Hadiths reported by Sufis

The experts of hadith are weary of the hadith of sufis as highlighted by Imam Muslim. It should be noted that it is not the fact that they are sufi which makes them unreliable rather it is the manner in which they evaluate hadith.

Ml. Saharanpuri on Shami and Badai’

Ml.Khalil Ahmad Saharanpur advises that to create an affinity to fiqh one should read Shami (Radd al-Muhtar) and Badai’ al-Sanai’ comprehensively.

Different ways of the pious

Shah Waliullah, Ml. Fakhr al-Hasan and Mirza Mazhar Jani Jana were invited for food. The host forgot and left them for hours. They reacted differently when the host returned.

Hāfiż Ibn Hajar Asqalani’s day

The pious Ulama achieved greatness through dedication to Allah and maintenance of their duties to themselves and others for the sake of Allah. Allamah Sakhawi outlines Hafiz Ibn Hajar Asqalani's day.

Looking at a woman

It is prohibited to look at a woman's face or hand with desire. This is undisputed. The same is the case if there is fear that it may lead to mischief. In the absence of desire or fear, the fuqaha are divided. The Hanafis and Malikis permit whilst the Shafi'is and Hanbalis still prohibit.

The boundaries of hijab

Hijab is prescribed in the Shariah. This is a fact. However, the level of coverage differs depending on circumstance. This article highlights three boundaries which dictate the extent to which a woman must cover.

Hadith Musalsal bil Awwaliyat

الراحمون يرحمهم الرحمن – تبارك و تعالي –ارحموا من في الأرض يرحمكم من في السماء. رواه أبو داود و الترمذي و احمد عن عبد الله بن عمرو بن العاص رضي الله عنهما

The class rules of Mufti Muzaffar Husayn

There are general etiquettes and then there are etiquettes particular to teachers. The following are some classroom rules stated by Mufti Muzaffar Husayn who was the hadith teacher and former principal of Mazahirul Uloom in India. Wait for the lesson to start inside the class; do not loiter outside. Attend class and consistently so. Do not leave the classroom unnecessarily. Focus! Do not doodle, text or distract others during lesson. Do not do anything which is unrelated to the current lesson during lesson time such as grooming or reading a novel. Come prepared; do not leave your books at home.

Mufti Shafi Usmani’s day

The pious Ulama achieved greatness through dedication to Allah and maintenance of their duties to themselves and others for the sake of Allah. Grand Mufti Muhammad Shafi Usmani outlines his day.