How to study Sahih Muslim

Use Sharh Nawawi and Fath al-Mulhim as your base but supplement with relevant book dependent on the area of focus. Nawawi is better for sanad and aqa’id whilst Fath al-Mulhim for Hanafi fiqh and language.

By Muhaddith al-Asr Shaykh Yunus Jawnpuri
Yawaqit al-Ghaliya v.1 p. 275
Translated by Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami  – 28 Ramadan 1438 | 23 June 2017

In Muslim, there are both the disciplines of ilm riwayat al-hadith1 and ilm dirayat al-hadith2.

In the Muqaddimah, Imam Muslim discusses ilm dirayat al-hadith (usul hadith). Hence, you should get aid from the books usul hadith such as al-Kifayah of Khatib, ‘Ulum al-Hadith of Hakim, Fath al-Mughith of Sakhawi, Tadrib al-Rawi of Suyuti, Sharh Nukhbah of Ibn Hajar amongst others. Nawawi in Sharh Muslim has covered sufficient amount of usul. In Fath al-Mulhim there is also a significant amount, but in some instances, it is less than the Sharh of Nawawi.

After the Muqaddimah, the discipline of riwayat al-hadith starts. In riwayat, the sanad and matn are both worthy of attention.

In the present times, the practice of commenting on the sanads has ceased. However, if you want to review its, Sharh Nawawi has adequate records of the names and reports on the rijal (narrators). Before this check the books of rijal.3 Those hadith which are in Fath al-Bari etcetera, their status can be discovered there.

As for the matn of hadith, nowadays, there is a practice of commentary. On the matn, the usul is discussed as well as fiqh, lughat, and sarf. The points of usul are related to the muhaddithin as well as the mutakallimin.

The muhaddithin address the ilal (علل) and other matters of the matn. Hence, it is necessary to review the books of ilal. At present, Ilal Ibn Abi Hatim has passed my attention. If you can access other books of ilal review them such Ilal Darqutni, Ilal Kubra of Tirmidhi, Ilal Khallal among others.

The mutakallimin only comment on ahadith which relate to the names and qualities [of Allah Almighty]. Nawawi has elaborated on the issue significantly. Beyond this, you will find it a good amount in Mushkil al-Hadith of Ibn Furak and Mushkil al-Athar of Tahawi. Hafiz Ibn Hajar, Allamah Ayni and others in the commentaries of Bukhari have discussed it in detail. In Fatawa Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah, he addresses the issue of Istiwa ala al-Arsh and Nuzul Bari in fine detail, but due to it, the Asha’irah are on his throat.

In terms of Hanafi fiqh, Fath al-Mulhim is better. However, one should not suffice on it alone rather you should review the Sharh of ‘Ayni on Bukhari, Awjaz, Bazl, and Fath al-Bari. The lectures of A’lam al-Muta’khkhirin4 Mawlana Anwar Shah Kashmiri are essential and particularly important. These books also contain discussion on lughat and sarf. For further research [on fiqh] study the books of mutun5.

Muhaddith al-Asr Shaykh Muhammad Yunus Jawnpuri
Circa 1387 AH (1968 CE)6


Supplementary reading

Nawhami, Muhammad Saifur Rahman. (2014). Introduction to Hadith. Islamic Studies Bulletin (DIBAJ), Number 3. Available at

Nawhami, Muhammad Saifur Rahman. (2014). Muslim b. Hajjaj al-Qushayri – d. 261. Islamic Studies Bulletin (DIBAJ), Number 3. Available at

Nawhami, Muhammad Saifur Rahman. (2016). How to Prepare for Lesson. The Students’ Notebook. Available at:


[1] علم رواية الحديث هو علم بنقل اقوال النبي صلي الله عليه و سلم و افعاله و احواله بالسماع المتصل و ضبطها و تحريرها

[2] علم دراية الحديث هو علم يتعرف به انواع الرواية و احكامها و شروط الرواة و اصناف المرويات واستخراج معانيها

[3] Rijal relates to the critical study of narrators. In one lecture, in reference to Muslim, I heard Shaykh Yunus recommend Tahzib al-Kamal as a good choice for checking rijal.

[4] Lit. The most knowledgeable of the later scholars. The work is scattered but see Fayd al-Bari.

[5] Such as Quduri, Kanz, Wiqayah, Bidayah, Tuhfat, Majma’ al-Bahrayn, and Multaqa al-Abhur. See ‘How to study Hidayah’ available online at:

[6] The letter is not dated but the question was asked in 12 Zul Qa’dah 1387 AH.

Cite Key: #170624501 – 28 Ramadan 1438 | 23 June 2017

Revision checklist: Nur al-Anwar

Nur al-Anwar is an advanced level book on usul fiqh. Contrary to what some might assume, it is not restricted to fiqh as is understood in the modern sense. Rather, within it are principles required to understand the shariah in general. Hence, Nur al-Anwar contains Usul QuranUsul Hadith and Usul Aqa’id – in short, it may be more apt to consider it Usul Shariah.

This note contains key question which if one answers should summarise that which is found in Nur al-Anwar bar few.

The relationship between Usul Shashi and Nur al-Anwar is similar to that of Quduri and Hidayah respectively. It can be used by Usul Shashi student but they do not need to justify their answer rather they can suffice on presenting examples to illustrate the concepts. Also, this list may be invaluable for Usul Shashi students as a road-map so that may glean what is expected later.

Note: The Ijma and Qiyas section still needs to included which, if Allah Almighty wills, will be done before the end of the academic year.


(1) Justify that there are four sources of evidence in the shariah. Define them all. 

textual analysis – Kitab

(2) Define and differentiate between khas, ammushtarak, mu’awwal and takhsis.

(3) Justify the ruling of khas.

(4) Outline and justify the rulings of ‘am.

(5) Define amr and nahi. Justify that it is a statement (See article)

(6) Amr is for wujub by default. Justify. (Resource 1)

(7) Amr never demands repetition. Justify.

(8) Justify that qada is proven through ada without the need for a separate evidence. Include the definitions of ada and qada.

(9) Outline the types of ada and qada with their respective examples and rulings.

(10) Highlight the relationship between amr and nahi with good and evil respectively. Illustrate with examples.

(11) Outline the impact of ability (qudrat) in the requirement of fulfilling an amr.

(12) When must an amr be fulfilled? Outline with examples with a particular reference to the requirement of intention. Justify where necessary.

(13) Who does the amr address? Clarify and justify.

(14) Identify techniques with which to recognise ‘am (عام). Include example to demonstrate it use.

(15) Define and differentiate between zahirnassmufassar, muhkamkhafimushkilmujmal and mutashabih. State their respective rulings especially if they are conflicted.

(16) Define and differentiate between haqiqatmajazsarih and kinayah along with their respective ruling.

(17) Majaz, like haqiqat, can be khas or ‘am (عام). Justify.

(18) By default haqiqat will be given priority over majaz and they will never be combined. Justify.

(19) Outline the valid methods of forming majaz.

(20) Outline, with examples, cases where majaz takes priority over haqiqat.

(21) Define and differentiate between ibaratun nassisharatun nassdalalatun nass and iqtidaun nass along with their respective ruling.

(22) Outline eight methods of interpretation which the Ahnaf reject despite being recognised by some of the other school.

(23) Outline the types of ‘azimat and rukhsat with examples along with their respective rulings.

(24) Differentiate between illat, sabab and shart. Outline techniques to identify sabab and demonstrate it in ibadatmu’amalat and ‘uqubat.

source analysis – Sunnah

(25) Define and state the ruling of mutawatirmashhur and khabr wahid. Prove that khabr wahid is hujjat (valid evidence).

(26) Outline, with particular reference to mukhalafat thiqat and jahalat, conditions which lead to the demotion of a narrator in favour for another.

(27) Outline the minimum and aspirational (kamil) qualities required of a narrator.

(28) Outline the rulings if there are gaps (inqita’) within the reporting either as a result of ommission (irsal), defective narration (‘illal) or narrator.

(29) State the minimum criteria required of a source (sanad) dependant on the impact it has on the rights of others.

(30) Rank reports based on the quality of source and mode of reporting

(31) Outline the methodology to reconcile between conflicting reports

(32) The action of sahabah is evidence. Justify.

ijma’ –

To be included


To be included


Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
19 Ramadhan 1438
14 June 2017

Mishkat #1.1: Hadith Jibril

Hadith Jibril is a narration which outlines the interaction between the final Prophet and Hadrat Jibril. In their discussion, they summarise the dīn and outline the meaning of Iman, Islam and Ihsan as well as matters relating to the hereafter. Shaykh Muhammad Saleem Nawab explains.

By Shaykh al-Hadith Muhammad Saleem Nawab
From the notes of the Mishkat class (1438) at Madani College – 16 Ramaḍan 1438 | 11 June 2017

Hadrat Shaykh al-Hadith Ml. Muhammad Saleem Nawab Falahī (may Allah Almighty preserve him) while teaching Mishkāt (20 – 23 Sept 2016) said:

عن عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه قال : بينا نحن عند رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ذات يوم إذ طلع علينا رجل شديد بياض الثياب شديد سواد الشعر لا يرى عليه أثر السفر ولا يعرفه منا أحد حتى جلس إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فأسند ركبتيه إلى ركبتيه ووضع كفيه على فخذية وقال : يا محمد أخبرني عن الإسلام قال : الإسلام : أن تشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله وتقيم الصلاة وتؤتي الزكاة وتصوم رمضان وتحج البيت إن استطعت إليه سبيلا. قال: صدقت. فعجبنا له يسأله ويصدقه. قال: فأخبرني عن الإيمان. قال: أن تؤمن بالله وملائكته وكتبه ورسله واليوم الآخر وتؤمن بالقدر خيره وشره. قال صدقت. قال: فأخبرني عن الإحسان. قال: أن تعبد الله كأنك تراه فإن لم تكن تراه فإنه يراك. قال: فأخبرني عن الساعة. قال: ما المسؤول عنها بأعلم من السائل. قال: فأخبرني عن أماراتها. قال: أن تلد الأمة ربتها وأن ترى الحفاة العراة العالة رعاء الشاء يتطاولون في البنيان. قال: ثم انطلق فلبثت مليا ثم قال لي: يا عمر أتدري من السائل؟ قلت: الله ورسوله أعلم. قال: فإنه جبريل أتاكم يعلمكم دينكم. رواه مسلم


Umar ibn Khattab (RA) said: one day when we were sitting with the Messenger of Allah ﷺ; there appeared before us a man dressed in extreme white clothes, whose hair was jet black. There were no signs of a journey on him, and none amongst us recognised him. He sat with the messenger of Allah ﷺ; he sat with his knees in front of his knees, and placed his hands on his thighs and said: ‘Oh Muhammad, tell me about Islam?’ The Messenger of Allah ﷺ replied, ‘Islam is to testify that there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, to establish prayer, pay zakāt, observe fasting in Ramadhan and perform pilgrimage if you are able’. He said: ‘you have spoken the truth’. So we were surprised that he asks and affirms. Then he said: ‘tell me about imān?’ He replied: ‘It is to believe in Allah, His angels, His messengers, and the last day, to believe in destiny – good and bad’, he said: ‘you have spoken the truth’, he said: ‘tell me about ihsān?’ He replied: ‘It is to worship Allah as though you can see Him and if you feel you cannot see Him, Allah sees you’. He said: ‘Then tell me about the hour?’ He replied: ‘The answerer does not know more than the questioner’. He said: ‘Then tell me about its signs?’ He replied: ‘that the slave girl will give birth to her mistress and that you will see the barefooted, naked, poor men and shepherds competing in building tall buildings.’ Then he went away, but I stayed for some time. Then he ﷺ said: ‘Oh Umar, do you know who the questioner was?’ I replied: ‘Allah and His Messenger know best.’ He said: ‘It was Jibrīl, who came to teach you your religion.’

Titles of this Hadith

This Ḥadith is very comprehensive – Jāmi’

It is commonly known as Hadith Jibrīl as it reports that Jibrīl (AS) came down to relay the fundamentals of the dīn to the Prophet of Allah ﷺ.

Qadi ‘Iyād Maliki1 said that due to this Ḥadith addressing the outer and inner acts of worship,2 it can be termed Ulum al-Shari’ah as everything refers back to it.

Thus, Imam Qurtubi (R) calls this Hadith, Umm al-Sunnah.

Some even call this Hadith, Umm al-Jawāmi.’

Accordingly, the author of Mishkat, Allāmah Baghawi (R), mentioned this Ḥadith straight after the very first hadith which is Hadith al-Niyyah.

When did it occur

There is no definitive date as to when Jibrīl (AS) came to Rasulullah ﷺ with this Ḥadith. Allah knows best.

However, Mullā ‘Ali Qari (R) mentions in Mirqāt that this Ḥadith was most likely revealed near the end part of the life of the Prophet of Allah ﷺ. Hafiz Ibn Hajar Asqalani (R) also says the same in Fath al-Bari.

Allāmah Turpushti in his commentary of Mishkāt says that this took place in 10 AH (before Hajjatul Wadā’).

Question: Why would this Ḥadith not be revealed at the beginning of nabuwwat; would this not have been better and easier?

Answer: Mullā ‘Ali Qari (R) says that throughout the period of nabuwwat, Jibrīl (AS) came with different ahkām; so towards the end, this Ḥadith came as a summary (ijmāl) – to mention everything in one majlis (gathering). It made it even easier to remember the gist (khulasah). The timing ensured that these ahkām are not considered abrogated later on.

This Ḥadith covers three key points: ‘Aqāid (Imān), Ahkam (‘Ibādah) and Tasawwuf (Ihsan).

Historical context (Shan wurŪd)

People used to come and ask Rasulullah ﷺ questions: the sahaba and hypocrites both. While the sahabah used to ask for Islāh (self-rectification); the hypocrites used to ask only to waste time.

Hence, Allah Almighty revealed verse 101 in Surah Māida; wherein Allah warned the people regarding their questionings.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَسْأَلُوا عَنْ أَشْيَاءَ إِن تُبْدَ لَكُمْ تَسُؤْكُمْ وَإِن تَسْأَلُوا عَنْهَا حِينَ يُنَزَّلُ الْقُرْآنُ تُبْدَ لَكُمْ عَفَا اللَّهُ عَنْهَا ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌ

After that, the Sahabas become extremely careful with their questions, to the extent where there is a narration in Muslim in which Rasulullah ﷺ said, ‘Ask me!’. Still, out of fear and respect for the Quran they did not.

Due to this, Allah sent Jibrīl (AS) to ask these important questions instead to teach the people.


بَيْنَماBayn (بين) is ẓarf zamān, and (ما) is zā’idah (زائدة)

ذات – is zā’idah (زائدة)

يَوْم – day

It refers to daytime but can also mean day or night in general

بَارِزا – Clear

In a narration in Bukhari, it says bārizan. Rasulullah ﷺ used to sit intermingled among the people such that people had to ask who was the Prophet of Allah. So, the Sahabah decided he should be given a clear position and made for him a clay place. Bārizan is referring to this stepping.

اِذْا طلَعَ عَلَيْنَا رجُل – Suddenly, a man appeared to us.

Here, the narrator uses the word tala’a (طلَع) to allude to a celestial object (from the sky). This is because the being who came was from above viz. the angel Jibrīl (peace be upon him) as they found out later.

In this narration, there is no further use of word man (رجل). However, in a narration of this Ḥadith in Nasai, it adds:

رجل احسن الناس وجها، و اطيب الناس ريحا، كان ثيابه لم يمسه دنس

Adāb (etiquettes) of a student: The narrator then describes Jibrīl (AS). From these descriptions of you should understand how a student should look and be:

  • A genuine time of seeking knowledge is in young age (شديد سواد الشعر)
  • One seeking knowledge should be clean as mentioned in the narration of Nasai – your apparel has an impact on one’s spirituality. (شديد البياض)
  • Listen attentively from one’s teacher (فاسند ركبتيه الي ركبتيه)
شديد بياض الثياب – He had clean white clothing.

Mullā ‘Ali Qari (R) says, ideally a student should wear white clothing because as soon as you have a mark, you would see it and clean it.

A Ḥadith narrated by Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas states, البسوا ثيابكم البياض

Hāfiz bin Hajar Asqalani (R) also says,

Jibrīl (AS) is an angel made from light- and light is white; this is also why he came down dressed as such.

شديد سواد الشعر  – He had jet black hair.

This is an indication of youth and strength which are qualities found in angels who are a strong creation of Allah.3

لا يُرى عليه أثرُ السفر

Trans: there was no sign of journey apparent upon him.

This indicated has not travelled far and so must be local to Madinah. Hence, at least one person should have recognised him. However:

ولا يعرفه منا احد- No one recognised him.

This negates the assumption that this ‘man’ was from the local area.

Question: How is Umar (RA) saying that ‘No One recognised him’? Should he not only speak for himself?

Answer: Hāfiz ibn Hajar al Asqalani says that Umar (RA) said, ‘No one knew him’ as an educated guess. As Umar (RA) was amongst the most well-known and if he didn’t know of someone, usually no one would know of them.

Also, it can be said, due to the reaction of the people such as nudging and speculation, it was evident that no one knew him.

It is stated in Fathul Bari that the exchanged ‘looks’ were that of when a stranger appears.

Initially, it seems even Rasulullah ﷺ did not recognise the ‘man’ as Jibrīl (AS). He must not have come in his usual form of Dihya ibn Khalifa Farwa Qalbi.

Jibrīl (AS) used to usually assume the form of the Sahabi, Dihya al Qalbi. Allāmah Badruddin ‘Ayni mentions, he was so handsome that the women of Madina used to peep out of their windows just to get a glimpse of him. Hence, he used to wear a covering on his face when he used to leave his house to avoid fitnah.

فاسند ركبتيه الي ركبتيه

Trans: He placed his knees on the knees of Rasulullah ﷺ.

(1) Allāmah Rashīd Ahmed Gangohi (R) says: this does not refer to when one touches one kneecap with the other person’s kneecap. Rather it is an indication to his closeness in sitting.

(2) Mulla ‘Ali Qari (R) says: he sat in a manner in which a man would sit in prayer in tashahhud as it is more humbling.

This closeness in sitting shows the man’s need, and eagerness in seeking knowledge.

On this point of sitting with good manners, Hāfiz bin Hajar Asqalani points out how on one side the ‘man’ behaves ill-mannered much like the Bedouins – He called the Prophet by his name by saying, ‘O Muhammad!’ instead of ‘Rasulullah’. On another, he seemed to be full of etiquettes. There are many subtle points to be learnt here.

و وضع كفيه علي فَخِذَيهِ

Trans: He placed his palms on his thighs.

The ه in فَخِذَيهِ refers to either putting his hands on the thigh of Rasulullah ﷺ or putting his hands on his own thighs.

(1) Imam Nawawi (R) says it is more preferred to say that he put it on his own thighs and this is more humble.

(2) Imam al Baghawi (R) says, in Sharh al-Sunnah, that the ه refers to the thigh of Rasulullah ﷺ. This is supported by some narrations.

Question: Is it not against manners to place hands on another’s thigh.

Answer: some say that it was only done to gain Rasulullah’s attention, to show the importance of what is about to be discussed, or to hide his Angel status.

(3) Some say that for a short time his hands were on his own thighs, and for some time they were on Rasulullah’s thighs, or vice versa.

قال يا محمد – He said, ‘O Muhammad!’

To call Rasulullah ﷺ by his name is considered against manners. This is discouraged in verse 63 of Surah Nur,

لَا تَجْعَلُوا دُعَاءَ الرَّسُولِ بَيْنَكُمْ كَدُعَاءِ بَعْضِكُمْ بَعْضًا ۚ قَدْ يَعْلَمُ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ يَتَسَلَّلُونَ مِنْكُمْ لِوَاذًا ۚ فَلْيَحْذَرِ الَّذِينَ يُخَالِفُونَ عَنْ أَمْرِهِ أَنْ تُصِيبَهُمْ فِتْنَةٌ أَوْ يُصِيبَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

(1) This was the way of the Bedouins and as Jibrīl (AS) was speaking as a human, he was addressing Rasulullah ﷺ in that manner as well.

(2) Some narrations do have ‘Ya Rasulullah’ instead. So it is said that there is a possibility that Jibrīl (AS) used both terms.

(3) The name Muhammad is a proper noun (معنى العلمي) but is also an adjective (معني وصفي) which means ‘the praised one.’ He may have said it with the intention of adjective meaning.

Question: Why did  Jibrīl (AS) not give salām first?

Answer: he wanted to conceal his identity, and adequately portray the Bedouin mannerism.

Also, he did not do salām to show the masalāh that it is not wājib to do so.

Some merely say that he did say salām, it is just not mentioned here. This is because حتي سلم is stated in other narrations such as Nasai, Abu Dawud et al. (upon the authority of Abdullah bin Mas’ud) and the Musnad of Ahmad bin Hanbal (upon the authority of Abdullah bin ‘Umar).

اخبرني عن الاسلام – tell me about Islam

Some narrations state, ما الإسلام instead.

For this Ḥadith, you will find different sequences in the questioning of Jibrīl (AS); this is considered to be changes made by the narrators themselves.

For instance, in Bukhari and Muslim, one of the order is as follows: Imān then Islam, and Ihsan. While another narration of Muslim also has: Islam then Imān and Ihsan (as it is in Mishkāt). There are also narrations with the order: Islam, Ihsan and Imān as mentioned in Fathul Bari.

Those that kept it to Imān, Islam and then Ihsan, can be understood to have done so to place the asl (core) first, the presentation of Islam second and the combination of both (Ihsan) last.

The order of Mishkāt is perfectly fine which is Islam, then Imān and Ihsan. Allāmah Tībī mentions that Islam is connected to the zāhir (outer) while Imān is with the bātin (inner). The bātin is more important, but we have to give a detailed account of the zāhir.

الاسلام ان تشهد ان لا اله الا الله الخ

Trans: Islam is to testify that there is none worthy of worship but Allah.

In Bukhari the wordings are different but to a similar effect:

ان تعبد الله و لا تشرك به

Here, the belief in Rasulullah ﷺ, establishing salāh, giving zakah, fasting in Ramaḍan, and performing Hajj (if one can) is also mentioned.4

Islam is to obey the dictates of Allah and follow Rasulullah ﷺ in your overt action - to submit to whatever is the hukm of Allah.

Imam Tahawi (R) said:  ولا تثبت قدم الإسلام إلا على ظهر التسليم والاستسلام

Islam requires iqrar bil lisan (إقرار بالسان) which is verbally admitting one’s faith for the validity of ahkām dunyawiyyah (any actions which is done in this world).

Shah Waliullah (R) says in Hujjatullah al-Bāligha, ‘All actions come under six actions: salāh, zakāt, fasting, hajj, jihād and qurbani.’

Man is created from the four elements; fire, water, earth and air. Fire demands elevation resulting in qualities such as pride. To combat that Allah gave us salah. Hence, Iblis said, ‘I am better than Adam’. Water lacks contentment – to combat that Allah Almighty gave us Hajj. Earth is miserly and whatever goes into it destroyed. To combat that Allah has given us zakat to destroy stinginess. Air wants fame; it wants to be heard. To combat that Allah has given us sawm.

Salāh and zakāt are always mentioned together as they are mentioned together in the Quran after salāh and zakāh after which comes sawm, and then Hajj.

(1) Salāh is a physical (بدني) form of worship. Here salāh refers to the farāidh of salāh. Hence, one remains Muslim if they refuse nawāfil.

Nevertheless, one should endeavour to pray salāh properly:

  • (a) Allah says, ‘Establish salāh’; nowhere in the Quran does it say ‘صلوا’. Hence, the reward is contingent on one’s consistency and true establishment of salāh.
  • (b) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas (RA) said, salāh is the completion of ruku’, sajdah, tilawah, concentration etcetera.
  • (c) Imam Qatadah (a student of Anas bin Malik) added that it is [also] to preserve it’s time (meaning to pray salāh in its time).

(2) Zakāt is a financial (مالي) form of worship. It compulsory on those who meet the criteria which would have already studied in the books of fiqh.

(3) Sawm in Ramadan is a passive (تركى ) form of worship. Some narrations mention sawm first, but the order in Mishkāt go by the order of the acts which became fardh first historically.

Some narrations also mention salāh, zakāt and hajj first, then sawm as the former three are active actions (فعلي) actions whereas Sawm is passive (تركى).

The order in Mishkāt, however, is more so in the order of forming relationships. Salāh helps one form a relationship with our creator, zakāt is with the creation and sawm is with the poor of the creation.

The story of Bishr al-Hāfi (RA): One day he was shivering severely with cold, while there laid a coat beside him. Instead of wearing the coat, he said, ‘I do not have enough money to buy coats for all those who are feeling the cold like me, so the least I can do is feel the pain with them’.

(4) Hajj is mentioned last as it had become compulsory at the end.

In the narration of Bukhari via Abu Huraira (RA), he does not say Hajj. This is an omission by one of the narrator. It seems improbable that Hajj was not compulsory as the event is said to have occurred after Hajjatul Wadā. If one assumes it to have occurred before the journey, then was slightly before the Hajj by which time the command had already come. Furthermore, other narrations include Hajj in the narration.

قال صدقت فعجبنا له يساله و يصدقه

Trans: He said, ‘You said the truth’. So we were surprised that he asks and affirms.

The people were shocked that the ‘man’ asked a question (which suggests that he does not know) and then confirms the answer.

This was essential because Jibrīl (AS) came as a teacher.

Mawlana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (R) says that the affirmation is no big deal, but it is the way in which Jibrīl (AS) was affirming that confused and amazed the sahabah.

Mullā ‘Ali Qāri (R) defines ta’ajjub (تعجب) as: حالة للقلب تعرض عند الجهل بسبب الشئ

فاخبرني عن الايمان – Inform me about Imān

The levels of Imān are of three types:

  1. Imān of the general masses.5
  2. Imān of the people who are close to Allah – their hearts are always attached to their Lord (those who are distant from the dunya)
  3. Imān of the elite – their outer and inner are engrossed in the obedience of Allah, (a person who is engrossed in the zāt (ذات) of Allah)

In this question about Imān, Jibrīl (AS) is not asking for the literal definition of Imān. Rather he is asking about that which is associated to Imān (متعلقات الإيمان) – what a person must do once he has accepted Islam. The narration goes on to explain this and states that Imān is to believe in:

(1) الله that He is our creator and sustainer. Evidence of tawhīd can be found in Ilm al-Kalām by Allāmah Idris Kandhalwi.

(2) ملائكته – plural of Malak

هم اجسام علوية لطيفة تتشكل بأشكال مختلفة. Angels are:

  • created from light
  • They never disobey Allah (they fulfil all tasks)
  • We must believe they exist
  • We do not know how many angels exist
  • Those angels that we have been told of in detail, we believe in them in all their details and likewise for those whom we know of without details

There are several types of angels with separate roles; the ones we know of are:

  1. Those angels who carry the throne of Allah: Jibrīl, Israīl, Israfīl and Mikaīl. However, on the Day of Judgement, there will be eight angels carrying Allah’s throne.
  2. Those who stay around the throne of Allah
  3. The greatest of the angels, they are the same as the ones who carry the Throne of Allah
  4. The angels that oversee Jannah
  5. Those angels that oversee Jahannam
  6. Those angels that protect humans and always stay with humans. There are approximately 10. Shah Abdul Aziz in Tafsir Fathul Aziz mentions 160.
  7. Kirāman Kātibīn (the respected writers, the one on the right has authority over the left; when one does a sin, the one on the left asks the one on the right if he may write the sin)
  8. Those angels that question in the grave – Munkar and Nakīr

(3) كتبه – the Books that Allah has sent.

A big book is called kitāb, and a small one is known as a sahīfa.

We know of four with certainty (ثبوت القطعي) are four: Tawrah, Injīl, Zabūr and the Quran. They are all abrogated except for the Quran.

It is said that the Torah was revealed on the 6th of Ramadan, Zabūr on the 12thof Ramadan, Injīl on the 18th of Ramadan and the Quran was revealed in 24 AH. There was no known date in Ramadan when the Quran was revealed, though it is said to have been on Laylatul Qadr. Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud adds that Laylatul Qadr falls in the last ten days of Ramadan.

In Hilyatul Awliya, Ibn Hibbān mentioned that Rasulullah ﷺ was asked how many kutub there were, and he answered 104. 50 to Shīth6 (AS), 30 to Idris (AS), 10 to Ibrahīm (AS), 10 to Musa (AS) before the Tawrah and the four main mentioned Books. However, a narrator in this narration, Ibrahīm ibn Hishām, is weak.

(4) رسله – His messengers. This is to believe in Allah’s messengers – the known and unknown ones.

Hāfiz Ibn Kathīr mentions that there are 124000 prophets and 315 from them are Rasūls. Another narration mentions that it is 313.

Allāmah Nasafi (R) says that it is better to not restrict the number to a specific number as Allah says there are some ‘we’ mentioned and some we did not. For instance, only 25 are mentioned in the Quran.

To believe in the Ambiya (AS) means:

  • To acknowledge that all are sent by Allah
  • Believe that they are all infallible (معصوم)
  • Believe that they all conveyed the message and fulfilled all of their responsibilities.
  • To follow the prophet sent to them

(5) اليوم الاخر – the last day – The wordings of Bukhari say that it is to believe in the meeting with Allah and the day of Resurrection.

One is to believe in all that will happen on the Day of Judgement (hereafter). This includes the life in Barzakh, the peace and punishment of the grave, resurrection, giving account (hisāb), Jannah and Jahannam.

(6) تؤمن بالقدر خيره و شره – To believe that good and bad comes from Allah.

The repetition of ‘belief’ emphasises the importance of belief in Qadr (fate). One should not try to understand taqdīr based on intellect alone. Just believe there is Qadr irrespective if you understand it or not – We are only required to have Imān.

Instead of khayrihi wa sharrihi, some narrations have huluwwihi wa murrihi (حلوه و مره).

Literally, Taqdīr means to measure. There are two aspects of taqdīr which are used together: qadr (قدر) and qaḍā’ (قضاء) – Qadr is like the blueprint and Qaḍā’ is the manifestation of the blueprint).

Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Mas’ud used to say: ‘understand that you will never reach the reality of Imān until you understand that whatever is to reach you will never miss you and whatever is to miss you will never reach you.’

Qari Muhammad Tayyib (R) has written a whole book on qadr, and at the end, he wrote: ‘Never has anyone understood this and they will not until the Day of Judgement.’

At the end of the Sahabah era, a group that rejected qadr arose. They were known as the Qadariyya. The three most prominent promoters of this group were Ma’bad al-Juhani (Leader of Qadariyyas in Basra), Ghaylān (in Damascus) and Ja’ad bin Dirham.

This group believed that they were the creators of their own actions, and so Allah only becomes aware of these actions as they are doing them. Na’udhubillah.

The Sahabah that challenged them include Abdullah bin Umar, Jabir ibn Abdullah, Anas bin Malik, Uqbah bin ‘Āmir, and Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with them all). The Sahabah even stated that this group should not be given salām, not be visited when sick nor should their janazah be performed or attended.

The Qadariyya, if they only believed that humans created their own actions, then these individuals will be classified as Fāsiq and Mubtadi. However, if they also deny Allah’s knowledge, they will be classified as a Kāfir.

Hasan al-Bisri who was a tabi’ī (21 AH – 110 AH aged 89 years) said, ‘I asked Sayyidina Ali ibn Abi Tālib regarding qadr.’ He replied in writing, ‘A person who rejects qaḍā’ and qadr in that good and bad being from Allah has done kufr. A person who puts his sin on Allah, that person is a transgressor. Allah is not obeyed out of force nor is He disobeyed by empowerment.’

Belief in qadr is an amazing thing, because when you believe in qadr, it will never leave you in depression or pain. You will remember that this is what my Lord wanted for me.

Also, such a person will never have arrogance, because all the good that they do is all from the qadr of Allah.

فأخبرني عن الإحسان الخ – Tell me about ihsān

It is to worship Allah as if you see him, and if you feel like you cannot see him, [remember,] He sees you.

The author of Mishkāt mentioned ihsān right at the end because ihsān is connected to both Islam and Imān.

Ihsān (means to have Ikhlas). It is used in two ways:

  1. If used without harf jarr (متعدي بنفسه), it means to beautify or solidify
  2. If used with harf jarr, it means to reach the benefit of something

Ihsān in worship is of two types:

(1) Ihsān Zāhiri (احسان الظاهري) is when you do worship by fulfilling either farḍ and wajib or sunnah and mustahab.

(2) Ihsān Ma’nawī (احسان المعنوي) is when you do worship with full concentration.

The narration is used in the latter type (Ihsān Ma’nawī); either you worship as if you can see Him (Allah)7 or if you cannot see him, [remember] He sees you.

Allāmah Anwar Shah Kashmiri (R) says that between Islam and Imān the connection comes and goes. Imān starts from the heart and ends on the physical body, whereas Islam starts on the physical body and ends up in the heart.

Worshipping Allah

Imam Ahmed saw Allah multiple times in his dreams, so one day he asked Allah, ‘O Allah! What is the best of deeds?’ Allah replied, ‘To read the Quran, whether you understand it or not.’

In the narration when it says ‘To worship Allah…’, it refers to acknowledging the oneness of Allah.

Mullā ‘Ali Qari (R) said that to worship Allah also means to obey Allah in his orders and to stop what He has prevented us from doing.

Definition of Ibādah:

  • Qāri Muhammad Tayyib said: it is obeying the hukm.
  • Imam Rāghib al-Asfahani (R) said: it is an action with your choice (even if it) goes against your desires and bodily wants.

There are three stages of ibādah

  1. a person only worships Allah for the reward – this is the lowest stage of ibādah.
  2. One worships Allah as he wants the nobility of becoming connected with Allah.
  3. To worship Allah because he thinks I am a slave and Allah is my Lord, and the connection between slave and master is ibādah. He prays to gain the pleasure of Allah.

Imam Fakhruddin Razi (R) said: Grammatically this sentence should have been na’budu iyyaka, but the word iyyaka is first to show that the objective is to reach Allah.

Hāfiz bin Hajar Asqalani (R) says there are two parts to Ihsān: Mushāhadah (مشاهدة) and Murāqabah (مراقبة).

Question: Mushāhadah (مشاهدة) we have previously mentioned, so the question arises how do we attain the latter?

Answer: This is through excessive remembering Allah on the tongue which will lead to Allah’s remembrance in our hearts. This will also lead to Mushāhadah (مشاهدة) which is the peak of Imān.

In Ma’ariful Ḥadith, Allāmah Nu’mani (R) says the Ihsan is needed in our entire life, not just in salāh.


The entire madrasah who have been called by the King of the time to his court. But there happens to be one student who has lost her sight. Will that blind student play around by herself while she is in the court yard of the king or will she maintain her adab? She will maintain it. She cannot see the king but the king can see her, and this is why she maintains her adab.

It is also said that in the phrase in the hadith, fa-in lam takun, the kāna (كان) here is the kāna of completion. So, to see Allah, you have to completely become nothing (because we are nothing compared to Him).

Question: Why did Jibrīl (AS) not say sadaqta (صَدَقْتَ) after the third answer.

Answer: Some hadith do have this wording (sadaqta), so the narrator may have omitted it.

Mullā ‘Ali Qari (R) says that the reason why it’s been omitted here is because status of Ihsān is between the servant and his Lord, so no one will know of this – it is a secret.

الإخلاص سر من أسراري أستودعه قلب من أحب من عبادي

Like in this Hadith, you will find in the Quran that it mentions Islam, Imān and Ihsān together.

فاخبرني عن الساعة الخ

Trans: Then he said tell me about the hour. [The Prophet] replied the answerer does not know more than the questioner.

In Bukhari, it states matas sa’a (متي الساعة) – ‘When is the last hour?’

The first three previous questions fully peaked when it reached Ihsān so after ascending to the highest note; the only way is down. This is similar to how the world is completely built and peaked, so now the only thing left is its destruction, to go down – The Hour.

Example: The is a story in a Ḥadith in Bukhari. Rasulullah ﷺ had a horse which had never been beaten in a race. One day a Bedouin came with a very nice horse, and he wanted to race the horse of Rasulullah ﷺ. The Bedouin’s horse ended up winning. The Sahabah were very upset at the turn of events, but Rasulullah ﷺ explained to them that when something reaches its peak, the only means left is to come down.

The hour (الساعة) or the moment, when the end will come is not known to the people. Qiyāmah will happen in a sudden. Allah says in Surah A’rāf (ayah 187) the people do not know when Qiyamah will take place, but it will take place suddenly.

سْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ السَّاعَةِ أَيَّانَ مُرْسَاهَا ۖ قُلْ إِنَّمَا عِلْمُهَا عِنْدَ رَبِّي ۖ لَا يُجَلِّيهَا لِوَقْتِهَا إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ ثَقُلَتْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ لَا تَأْتِيكُمْ إِلَّا بَغْتَةً ۗ يَسْأَلُونَكَ كَأَنَّكَ حَفِيٌّ عَنْهَا ۖ قُلْ إِنَّمَا عِلْمُهَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

This is an indication of it happening very fast. It’s called ‘the hour’ as for Allah and the believers, the time will go by like a moment and with ease.

According to Allāmah Qurtubi (R), there are three types of Qiyamah:

  1. الساعة الصغرى – when one person passes away their personal Qiyāmah has started
  2. الساعة الوسطى – when a whole generation has passed away
  3. الساعة الكبرى – reference to the perishing of all

Question: Like it has been mentioned, when you reach maqam ihsān, you have reached the peak. The peak of Imān and Ihsan has already been reached with Rasulullah ﷺ, and now it is only decreasing. So why hasn’t Allah caused Qiyāmah to come?

Answer: Ibādah is of two types:

(1) كم  – Quantity: in the sight of Allah, a greater number remains

(2) كيف – Quality: this reached has its peak at the time of Rasulullah ﷺ

Question: Why did Rasulullah ﷺ not say لا ادري or لا اعلم(I do not know)?

Answer: if Rasulullah ﷺ had said this, it would have left the door open for people to say that modern technology can now find a cure to death, which can also tell them about Life after death and so on. Hence, he closed this door so no one else can say they know about the last day either.

Instead, he said that the answerer does not know more than the questioner.

Here the use of the ب in باعلم is for  تأكيد النفي

From a narration in Bukhari, we simply know that it may take place on a Friday.

Imam Humaydi (R) mentions the same narration in Kitāb al-Nawadir; However, this dialogue takes place between Jibrīl (AS) and Isa (AS).

فاخبرني عن اماراتها الخ

Trans: Then tell me about its signs…

In different narrations, the wordings vary in this part also. This is fine as they are to the same effect in meaning.

Signs of Qiyāmah are two types:

  1. Minor: the slave girl will give birth to her master and that you will see the barefooted, naked, poor men and shepherds competing in building tall buildings).
  2. Major: the Sun rising from the East to the West, the coming of Ya’jūj, Ma’jūj and Isa (AS) and so on so forth.

This narration only mentions the minor signs and not the major ones.

Every single minor sign has occurred expect for one: that the river Euphrates (between Iraq and Syria) will vomit out heaps of gold; in trying to attain that gold, every 100 that will go after it, 99 of them will die. Some say this has already happened, as by ‘gold’ it meant black gold (oil).

ربتها أن تَلِدَ الأَمَةُ – Muhaddithīn have explained

(1) It indicates to a change in time when Qiyāmah becomes so close that the slave will become the master and the master will become the slave. (unworthy people will take leadership).

Hāfiz bin Hajar al Asqalani says that if we take it to mean a change of states, then the Rabb will become a Murabba from the Murabbi. [Mullā ‘Ali Qari (R) gives preference to this meaning].

(2) Allāmah Khattābi (R) says: this is an indication that the Muslims will gain victory after several victories (in different countries); so the Muslim slave girls who were Umm Walad – their children will then become owners of them. [Imam Nawawi gives preference to this explanation].

(3) Hāfiz bin Hajar Asqalani (R) says this is an reference to a child being disobedient to their parents – mothers treated like slaves.

(4) This may also be an indication towards transactions of slave girls. That there will come a time that a person will buy a slave girl and he will not realise that it is his mother.

Imam Sha’bi used to say, Qiyāmah will not come until knowledge will become ignorance and ignorance will become knowledge.

Question: No one is supposed to call their master Rabb so why is this word used in the narration? A hadith on the authority of Abu Huraira (RA) states, ‘None of you should call your slaves abdi nor your masters rabb (call them sayyid).

Answer: It is based on adab and makrūh tanzihi as in although it is disliked, it is can be used sometimes.

وأن ترى الحفاة العراة العالة رعاء الشّاء يتطاولون في البنيان

Trans: You will see the barefooted, naked, poor men and shepherds competing in building tall buildings.

الحفاة – plural of حافي; someone who walks barefoot. Rasulullah ﷺ is indicating to how they have forgotten their past, and how now they have nothing left to even cover their feet.

العراة – plural of عاري; someone who had no clothes (left naked or barely clothed).

العالة from عائل; someone who has a family and due to increased expenses they are poor.

رعاء – plural of رَاعِي; Shepherd. Those people who were once a Bedouin and they used to herd sheep (الشاء). Shā’ (الشاء) is a plural of shāt (شاة) which means sheep and goat. They had nothing, and as soon as they got wealth, they became boastful and competitive with buildings.

Additionally, this last sign refers to their change of state – instead of living in villages, they will live in the city.

يَتَطاولون – They will build tall buildings

This also shows that their love for the Dunyā will increase, as people will be so engrossed in their tall buildings there.

There is nothing wrong with building yourself a mansion, but you should not be boastful or prideful.

In the adhān, Allahu Akbar (اللهُ اكبَر) outlines that only Allah is worthy of having pride.

Also, this links to the creation which are made from the four elements: fire, water, air and soil. It illustrates that Allah is more powerful than all. No matter how strong the fire is or the water, wind or soil, Allah is greater than them. He is greater than the fire and whatever is created from fire (jinnāt); water and whatever is created from water (ocean creatures), and air and what is created from air and soil (humans).

What is the connection between this set of signs and the previous sign (about slave girls)?

There will come a time a lady will give birth to her master. This narration is unclear (خفي) regarding the meaning, and as birth is a concealed, it is not observable.

In contrast, this set of signs are very clear (جَلي). It says that you will be able to see (ان تري)  only in the people and buildings.

ثم انطلق فلبثت مليا

Trans: Then he Jibrīl (AS) went away, but I stayed for some time.

مَلِيَّا comes from ملاوة: stayed for a long time. It can also mean, being rich, but this meaning is not taken here

The narration in Abu Dawud, Nasai and Tirmidhi say that: I (Umar) stayed for three days. So he found out as to who the speaker was: on the third day.

Ibn Hibbān (R) states, he found out after the third day

In Sahih Muslim, it that after the ‘man’ had left, Rasulullah ﷺ said to the sahabah, bring that man back to me. So they left trying to call him back. But they came back and said, ‘Oh Rasulullah, we could not find him’. So Rasulullah ﷺ went on to mention that this was Jibrīl (AS) in that Majlis.

Reconciling between all the above narrations, in Mirqāt, Mullā ‘Ali Qari (R) states that at the time that Rasulullah ﷺ announced who the man was, Umar (RA) was not there. He was preoccupied with other work, and so he found out after three days.

ثم قال لي: يا عمر اتدري من السائل؟ قلت: الله و رسوله اعلم

Trans: Then he ﷺ said: ‘O Umar, do you know who the questioner was?’ I said: ‘Allah and His Rasūl know best.’

This does not mean that Allah and His Messenger know the same amount; they do not have equal knowledge. It means that Allah and His Messenger know the best, Allah knows everything, and Rasulullah ﷺ knows best from the whole creation.

قال: فانه جبرئيل اتاكم يعلمكم دينكم

Trans: He said: it is Jibrīl who came to you to teach you your religion.

There are four ways you can say the angel’s name: Jibrīl, Gabrīl, Jibrīl, Jibrāīl.

Question: Rasulullah ﷺ was the teacher at that time so why is the attributes of the educator going to Jibrīl (AS)?

Answer: This is because questioning is the half of knowledge (السؤال نصف العلم) and this becomes the means of attaining it.


[1] The author of Kitāb al-Shifa

[2] عبادة الظاهرية و الباطنية

[3] It is never too late to learn. However, one should especially learn when they are young and strong. Also people should send their brightest and strongest to learn the din.

[4] Shaykh Saleem Nawab mentioned an interesting mnemonic to illustrate what the din demands of us. (1) ISLAM = I Submit to the Laws of Allah and Muhammad. (2) MUSLIM = My Ultimate Success Lies In following Muhammad

[5] It is formed of the essential component; Tasdiq bil Qalb, Iqrar bil Lisan and A’mal Salihah

[6] The son of Adam (AS)

[7] this would be with نور بصيرة (visualizing with the inner self); when this is so strong, you can feel a presence this becomes:  مقام مشاهدة.

Zad #4: المجالس بالأمانة

Gatherings are enjoined with trust

By Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami – 5 Jumada II 1438 | 4 March 2017

المجالس بالأمانة

Trans: Gatherings are enjoined with trust

Vocabulary –

Majlis pl. Majalis (ض). Lit: a place of sitting. It is an ism zarf from julusan. Majlis here refers to the gathering or meeting of people.

Bi is a harf. Lit: with. Its primary function is to join one thing to another. Read Sharh Miat Amil, to find out more about its secondary meanings.

Amanat pl. Amanāt (ض، س). Lit: to rely, protect and trust. Trust in a gathering will be termed confidentiality.

Tarkib –

Majalis is Mubtada. Ba is jarr and Amanat is majrur; jarr and majrur combined form muta’alliq of thabitun which is a shibh fi’l. The shibh fi’l with its muta’alliq becomes jumlah fi’liyyaah which then is a khabr. Mubtada and khabr combined form jumlah ismiyyah khabriyyah

Explanation –

Gatherings are enjoined with trust and so it must be upheld even if it not explicitly requested. If you are in a private gathering or meeting, confidentiality and trust are automatically implied. There is no need to say, ‘Do not spread what we have discussed’ as that should be assumed by default. Unless there is actual harm to someone in keeping the secret, one should not leak or spread the content of a meeting or gathering without permission. A gathering need not necessarily be physical rather private messages between individuals or within groups will also be considered a trust and should be kept confidential.

Zad #3: الدعاء مخ العبادة

Dua is the essence of worship

By Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami – 7 Jumada II 1438 | 6 March 2017

الدعاء مخ العبادة

Trans: Dua is the essence of worship

Vocabulary –

Dua (ن) Lit. To ask, supplicate, call.

Mukhkh pl. Mikhakh (ن). Lit. marrow, brain, core, essence.

Ibadah (ن) Lit. To worship.

Tarkib –

Dua is mubtada. Mukhkh is mudhaf and Ibadah is mudhaf ilayhi. Mudhaf and mudhaf ilayhi combined becomes khabr. Mubtada and khabr combined becomes jumlah ismiyyah khabriyyah.

Explanation – 

Dua is an ibadah1. Dua is a great ibadah2. Dua is the essence of ibadah3. Do not assume that dua is wasted if is unanswered rather Allah Almighty rewards on the mere act of asking for it is ibadah. He Almighty does not waste any dua; He grant the dua or give recompense in the hereafter. In doing dua we humble our self to Allah, forsake others and seek His grace; this is the essence of ibadah. The example of person who does not dua is like a person who has done hard labour, then was paid but refuses to benefit from that pay. Allah Almighty says, ‘Ask and I will answer’4. So do dua, it in essence is worship.


1. روي الامام أبو داود في سننه أن رسول الله صلي الله عليه و سلم قال الدعاء هو العبادة و سنده صحيح
2. روي الحاكم في مستدركه عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما أنه قال الدعاء افضل العبادة. صححه الحاكم و وافق عليه الامام الذهبي و قيل هو موقوف علي قول ابن عباس
3. روي الامام الترمذي الدعاء مخ العبادة و تكلم علي سنده لان فيه ابن لهيعة و هو سيء الحفظ
4. و في سورة الغافر (60) و قال ربكم ادعني استجب لكم

Zad #2: الدين النصيحة

The din is fully wanting good for others.

By Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami – 5 Jumada II 1438 | 4 March 2017

الدين النصيحة

Trans: The din is fully wanting good for others


Din (دين) pl. adyan means religion. This should not be confused with dayn (دين) pl. duyun which means debt.

Nasihat (نصيحة) pl. nasa’ih means to want good for others or calling to good in advice. It can also mean sincerity

Tarkib –

Din is mubtada and nasihah is khabr. Mubtada and khabr combined forms jumlah ismiyyah khabriyyah.

Note! Although khabr is usually nakirah, in this case it is ma’rifah . The benefit of khabr being ma’rifah is that it creates emphasis. Hence, the translation would be ‘the din is fully wanting good’ rather than simply ‘the din is wanting good’

Explanation – 

Being muslim demands one focuses on the rights of others. So one should be pure in their faith to Allah Almighty and in fulfilling His commandment one should be free of ulterior worldly gains. The same should be with the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him). Furthermore, one should be sincere in their approach to fellow Muslims and the general populace. When any deed is done for another or advice given, it should be in earnest. In short, love for them what you would love for yourself.

This hadith is very comprehensive (jawami’ kalim) and has so many facets. It covers a wide array of subjects from sincerity, love, loyalty, kindness, honesty to jealousy, backbiting, cursing and much, much more.

See Sahih Muslim (ch kitab al-Iman) with Imam Nawawi’s commentary for further details.

Nukhbah #1: Links

Hafid Ibn Hajar Asqalani (may Allah Almighty have mercy upon him) writes in Nukhbat al-Fikr:

الْخَبَرُ إِمَّا أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُ: طُرُقٌ بِلَا عَدَدٍ مُعَيَّنٍ ، أَوْ مَعَ حَصْرِ بِمَا فَوْقَ الِاثْنَيْنِ، أَوْ بِهِمَا، أَوْ بِوَاحِدٍ. فَالْأَوَّلُ: الْمُتَوَاتِرُ: الْمُفِيدُ لِلْعِلْمِ الْيَقِينِيِّ بِشُرُوطِهِ. وَالثَّانِي: الْمَشْهُورُ، وَهُوَ الْمُسْتَفِيضُ عَلَى رَأْيٍ. وَالثَّالِثُ: الْعَزِيزُ ، وَلَيْسَ شَرْطًا لِلصَّحِيحِ خِلَافًا لِمَنْ زَعَمَهُ. وَالرَّابِعُ: الْغَرِيبُ.

وَكُلُّهَا – سِوَى الْأَوَّلِ – آحَادٌ. وَفِيهَا الْمَقْبُولُ وَالْمَرْدُودُ؛ لِتَوَقُّفِ الِاسْتِدْلَالِ بِهَا عَلَى الْبَحْثِ عَنْ أَحْوَالِ رُوَاتِهَا دُونَ الْأَوَّلِ. وَقَدْ يَقَعُ فِيهَا مَا يُفِيدُ الْعِلْمَ النَّظَرِيَّ بِالْقَرَائِنِ عَلَى الْمُخْتَارِ.

ثُمَّ الْغَرَابَةُ: إِمَّا أَنْ تَكُونَ فِي أَصْلِ السَّنَدِ ، أَوْ لَا. فَالْأَوَّلُ: الْفَرْدُ الْمُطْلَقُ. وَالثَّانِي: الْفَرْدُ النِّسْبِيُّ، وَيَقِلُّ إِطْلَاقُ الْفَرْدِيَّةِ عَلَيْهِ.

So I say: a khabr either it will have an (1) unlimited number of sources or (2) a limited which is (a) more than two, (b) two or (c) one. The first is mutawatir with its criteria1 which results in necessary knowledge. The second is Mashhur2 and it is also known as mustafidh according to an opinion. The third is Aziz and this is not a requisite for sahih as opposed what some have assumed. The fourth is gharib. All of them other than the first3 is ahad.

[Ahad] may be maqbul or mardud. [This is] due to [the ahad being] evidence which is dependent upon the analyses of the state of the narrators as opposed to the first.

Thereafter, the gharabat will either be in the origin of the sanad or not; the first is fard mutlaq and the second is fard nisabi which is rarely refered to simply as fard.


1. See ‘The introduction to Mutawatir‘ for the criteria. Also, read The types of mutawatir and Where does tawatur start? for more details.
2. This the definition according to the Shawafi. The Ahnaf consider Mashhur to be sanad which starts of ahad but reaches the level of tawatur by no later than the third generation.
3. Mutawatir



  • Necessary knowledge (ilm daruri or ilm yaqini) is knowledge which is self evident (requires no evidence) and understandable to any average person who hears. This is in contrast to evidentiary or convincing knowledge (ilm iktisabi or ilm nazari) which requires evidence to know and a level of expertise to understand (cf Nuzhat al-Nazar lil Asqalani).

Islamic economic system

Economic (prosperity) is a means rather than an end. The shariah allows ownership and protects the autonomy of an individual but not at the expense of the autonomy of society. Hence, the shariah has set limits, ethical guidelines and permits intervention when the natural course of the market is impeded.


By Shaykh al-Islam Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani
Takmilah Fath al-Mulhim, vol. 1, pp. 293-305 – 1404 AH / 1983 CE
Translated by Ml. Zameelur Rahman in Deoband – 16 January 2013

[In this] short study in which we explain some of the economic principles based on which the Shari‘ah operates, and which have become the foundations of Islamic economics, because ignorance of them often leads to terrible ideological errors, especially in this time of ours which has made livelihood and economics its greatest concern and the limit of its knowledge and the peak of its ambition, such that the topics of economics have become a stimulus for inquiries and a battleground between the modern theories of capitalism and communism.

Preamble 1: Wealth is a mean, not an end

Before discussing the forms of livelihood and economics, a point distinguishing Islamic economics from other economic theories must be kept in mind, and that is that although Islam opposes monasticism in terms of its abstention from worldly amenities and its abhorrence of indulging in the acquisition of sustenance, and it [i.e. Islam] deems human activity in the field of economics permissible, rather it often regards it as favourable or obligatory; nonetheless, despite all of this, Islam does not regard economics as a fundamental concern for humanity, just as it does not deem economic advancement as the objective of human life.

And by this, the great and fundamental divide between Islamic economics and materialistic economics becomes evident, which is that materialistic economics regards livelihood as a foundation for humanity, and it opines that wealth and pleasure are the desired objective and the foundational goal for all of what a human being does in this worldly life, and he has no other goal besides bringing pleasure to himself or pleasure to other children of Adam.

As for Islamic economics, it recognises on the one hand, that seeking a livelihood and acquiring sustenance is from that which humanity cannot do without; but on the other hand, it does not allow him to make seeking a livelihood his greatest concern or the limit of his knowledge or the peak of his ambition. This is why we see that the Qur’an, on the one hand, condemns monasticism and enjoins seeking the bounty of Allah, and refers to trade as “seeking the bounty of Allah” and wealth as “goodness” and nutrition as “the pure things of sustenance” and dress as “the adornment of Allah” and shelter as “tranquillity,” but on the other hand we see that it refers to the worldly life as “the tool of deception” and it condemns the material world in many of its verses.

This is not a contradiction or inconsistency at all. Rather, the secret behind this is that the Qur’an regards all means of livelihood as stages through which humanity passes in his path towards the objective which he aims towards, which is the virtuous traits which pave the way towards the pleasure of Allah and eternal happiness in the afterlife. There is no doubt that the real concern for humanity and his desired objective boils down to the acquisition of this happiness; and since it is not possible without passing through the thorny paths of the material world, it is necessary to acquire everything that we are in need of from the worldly life.

Thus, as long as the means of livelihood occupy the place of a bridge in a person’s life which he adopts as a crossing-point to his true destination, they represent the properties of “the bounty of Allah” and “goodness” and “adornment of Allah” and “tranquillity.” But, when a human being loses his way and the glitter of this life attracts him and he falls prey to dreams and fantasies, and he adopts the means as an end and he forgets his fundamental objective, these [very] means transform into a “tool of deception” and “temptation” and “enemy” just as the Noble Qur’an states.

Allah (Glorified is He) expressed this meaning in His (Great and Exalted is He) statement: “And seek with what Allah has given you the Latter Abode, and do not forget your share of the material world.” (Qur’an 28:77)

Preamble 2: All wealth is given by Allah

The second fundamental issue which carries great importance in the topic of Islamic economics is that whatever form wealth takes, it is but the creation of Allah and His property, and that which human beings own is an endowment from Allah to him. Allah (Glorified is He) says: “And give to them from the wealth of Allah which He has given you.” (24:33)

And indeed the Noble Qur’an has alluded to the reason for this in another place, and that is that humanity is not able to obtain anything more than expending his efforts in eliminating obstructions. As for his efforts bearing fruits and bringing about results, it is not possible but with the command of Allah, since it is not in the capacity of humanity but to sow the seeds in the earth and to remove from it stones and other hurdles. As for making the seeds sprout and transforming them into a plant and then a tree, it is not possible but with the power of Allah (Glorious is He). Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He) says: “Have you seen what you sow? Is it you that causes it to grow or are the Ones Who cause it to grow?” (56:63-4) And He says: “Do they not see that We have created for them, of what Our hands have created, cattle, and then they becomes their owners?” (36:71)

These verses shed brilliant light on the fundamental axiom regarding the reality of wealth and its ownership, which is that whatever form wealth takes, it is owned exclusively by Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He) and it is His provision to humanity, and since wealth is the property of Allah, humanity do not have autonomy in this ownership but through the specific path He has instituted in the Islamic Shari ‘ah, and since Allah (Glorified is He) is the One Who bestows humanity the right of disposition therein, humanity must submit in his dealings to the laws of Allah. This is why humanity owns things and disposes therein, but he does not have complete freedom in his disposition of it and his usage thereof, but it is necessary for him to submit to the law of Allah and His command and stop at His boundaries and follow His laws. Thus, he may not spend this wealth but in accordance with what Allah has commanded, and he must withhold from what He has forbidden. Allah (Glorified is He) has clarified this in His statement: “And seek with what Allah has given you the Latter Abode, and do not forget your share of the material world. And do good as Allah did good to you, and do not seek corruption in the earth.” (Qur’an 28:77).

This verse explains the philosophy of ownership in Islam. The following principles can be derived from it:

  1. All that humanity possesses of wealth is purely Allah’s bestowal to him.
  2. Man must not forget his destination, which is the afterlife, when dealing with it.
  3. And since wealth is from that which Allah has given him, he must dispose of it in accordance with the commands of Allah, and that is in two ways:
    1. firstly, that Allah has commanded him to give his wealth to others, and this is a command which must be obeyed, because Allah (Glorified is He) has done good to him in His bestowal of ownership over His wealth, thus it is His prerogative to order him to do good to others;
    2. and secondly, that He forbids him from any dealings with this wealth, and that is because He does not permit him to spend the wealth in a matter which leads to societal corruptions or corruption in the earth.

This is the manifest particularity of ownership in Islam, which distinguishes it from capitalism and communism in terms of ownership. It is known that the foundation of capitalism is based on materialism, in reality and in practice, and it believes that humanity has monopoly over his wealth and his fortune without another power sharing with him in its disposition and usage, and he has every right to do with it whatever he pleases. The Noble Qur’an has condemned this idea where it points to what the people of Shu‘ayb would say to him: “Does your prayer command you that we should leave what our forefathers worshipped, or that we should cease doing what we like with our property?” (11:87)

Since they believed that wealth is their property in actuality without there being one who provided it to them, they unqualifiedly used the word “our property,” and they asserted therein their disposition and ownership in their statement “doing what we like with our property” and this is a necessary consequence of this ideology.

This ideology announced by the people of our master, Shu‘ayb (upon him be peace), is the basic spirit of capitalism, and indeed the Qur’an demolished this ideology of capitalism by changing the thinking which ascribes wealth to man to an understanding which announces that wealth is the property of Allah.

And that is followed by His statement: “which He has given you” (24:33) to strike at the foundations of communism which rejects individual ownership and does not concede it in any situation.

It will now be possible for us to distinguish between Islam and capitalism and communism and to designate each of these three by that which distinguishes it from the other; thus we say:

Capitalism creates individual ownership which is free from all restrictions and limitations.

Communism rejects individual ownership (at least in the means of production) and it does not concede it in any situation.

Islam recognises individual ownership but it does not free it of all restrictions and limitations, and it does not loosen its rein such that it causes corruption on the earth.

Comparison of Modern Economic Systems

After laying down these two introductory principles, we wish to explain the foundational difference between Islam and modern economic theories, and comment on the foundations of these systems and the extent of their error in the viewpoint of Islam.

General principles of Economics

Know that the primary questions of economics for every economic system are four, which every system must solve. In the convention of the economists, they are:

  • the question of selecting [what to produce]
  • the question of [which] resources to use
  • the question of distributing the wealth
  • the question of growth

As for the question of selection, they mean thereby organising the desired products according to the needs of the society and the extent of their requirements, because every country owns lands for cultivating which are suitable for a variety of different types of yields and a range of natural resources which are capable of being used for a variety of products. Thus, every country must select some products over others in accordance with their needs and the requirement of those products, so that it uses its land for the required yields and its factories for the required products. One country, for example, can produce wheat and rice and it can also produce coffee and tobacco, thus it must prioritise these things and give preference to some of them over others in accordance with their needs, which will be more beneficial for the society.

As for the question of [which] resources to use, they mean the distribution of resources to produce the required things to a suitable extent, as it is necessary for every country – when it desires success in economics – to employ these resources according to what it has decided in the [process of] selection, and to divide its resources according to the various products in a manner that will be most beneficial and produce the most profit for the society, so it must specify how much land should be occupied in producing wheat? And how much should be used in cultivating rice? And how much in cultivating sugarcane? And how many factories should be erected to manufacture clothes? And how many to manufacture sugar and how many to produce pharmaceuticals? And other such [questions]. And that must be in accordance with the requirements of the society and in accordance with the priorities which it specified in the first question, so that it does not waste resources in producing something that is not required.

As for the question of [how to] distribute the wealth, they intend thereby, how should we distribute the range of material wealth that we acquire after employing the natural recourses to the citizens [of the country]? And what is the measure of distribution amongst them?

As for the question of growth, they intend thereby the need of every society to not stop at a limit in the work of production; instead, it must increase in this work such that it becomes possible for it to invent new things and devise beneficial techniques in every aspect of material crafts; thus, there should be a system which intrinsically encourages growth and stimulates novelty in the country.

These are the four elements of every economic system, and the contemporary theories differ in the method of solving these questions, and we will refer to these four questions as “economic organisation” in our following discussion.

The Theory of Capitalism

As for capitalism, it states that there is no route to economic organisation unless we give each individual from the individuals of society complete autonomy in acquiring a livelihood, in order that he struggles to acquire the most that he can in terms of profit and wealth, and when we do that these four problems will naturally be resolved, and economic organisation will be achieved automatically.

The explanation of this, according to what the capitalists describe, is that there are two natural forces on which economic organisation rests, and they are supply and demand. As for supply, it is the trader taking his goods to the market to sell them, and demand is the buyer coming to the market to purchase them. And from the well-known laws of economics is that every time supply is more than demand, prices decrease, and every time supply is less than demand, prices increase. Hence, when there are a thousand garments of one type in the market, for example, and there are only seven hundred who wish to buy it, the price of the garment will certainly decrease because the supply is high and the demand is low. But when the buyers are more than a thousand, the price of the garment will naturally increase because the demand is more than the supply.

Therefore, whenever man has complete autonomy in acquiring his livelihood, he will not bring to the market except what has high demand, so that he can acquire as much profit [as possible], because if he brings to the market goods that have little need, he will not be able to sell it for a high price and his profit will be low. This is why every man in society is forced to produce what the society needs and refrain from what the society does not need, and that is by the very nature of the forces of supply and demand.

Thus, the capitalists say that these two forces arrange all the economic activities, and the questions of selection, and the questions of employing resources, are solved thereby; for whenever the question of selection arises, for example, the man who enjoys complete autonomy in acquiring as much as possible in terms of profit will not select for production except what has highest demand and the most need, and when the question of employing resources arises, the man will not employ his resources except in the production of what has most profit, and something will not have more profit unless its demand is high and its demand will not be high unless the society is in need of it.

So, for example, when he manufactures more shoes with respect to the demand, their prices will decrease, and they may drop below the cost of production, and when the situation is such, some of the producers may stop production, and because of that the supply will drop and the prices will begin to rise; and when a large number of producers stop producing, the prices may increase to high levels such that it drives some producers outside the industry to enter into the industry again, and this process will continue until it reaches an equilibrium, where the supply of shoes in the market will be at the same level as its demand; and this is the objective.

As for the question of the distribution of wealth, the forces of supply and demand also organise distribution in the view of the capitalists. That is because only the elements of production – which are land, money, work and investment – are entitled to wealth. Thus, the land is entitled to hire, and money is entitled to interest, and work is entitled to wages and investment is entitled to profit. The quantity of hire or interest or wages or profit is not determined except by the forces of supply and demand, since when the demand of land is more than its supply it will be leased more, and when its demand is less it will be leased less; similarly, if the demand of wealth is more than its supply, the value of interest will increase and when it is the reverse, its value will decrease, and work is similar to this also, so if the demand of work – meaning, the demand of wages – is more than the number of available workers, wages will increase, and if its demand is less, it will decrease.

In similar fashion, the forces of supply and demand organise the distribution of wealth.

As for the question of growth, it is resolved in a similar way, and that is because since every person is free to acquire the most that is possible in terms of profit and fortune, he will strive to innovate new things, and invent novel instruments, in order that interest in them increases and their prices rise. Hence, the objective, which is growth, is acquired.

This is the basic philosophy of capitalism, and if you wish to summarise the principles of this philosophy, it is clear that it stands on the following foundations:

  1. Autonomy of ownership, whereby the individuals own all commodities, whether produced or consumed, with a full and complete autonomy, without responsibilities and obligations.
  2. Economic autonomy: Individuals have the right to establish their own projects and invest their own wealth without intervention of the state. Hence, the market is the operator, organiser and controller, and competition between the force of production and its elements on the one hand, and competition between the consumers in the path of acquiring commodities which they desire on the other hand, is manifestly what distinguishes a free economy, and it is at the same time what guarantees the organisation of the market and realisation of the interests of all.
  3. The autonomy of profit: Profit in capitalism is recompense for a person of work and for an organiser, with respect to their work and their planning. Thus, it is not possible for the state to restrict this autonomy, because capitalism considers the instrument of prices and the forces of supply and demand as though they were operators that control [the market] which direct economic activity automatically, so there is no need for government intervention.
The Theory of Communism

As for communism, it opposed capitalism and says, we should not entrust the matter of economic organisation to the forces of supply and demand which have no mind and no understanding, as they are blind forces, and we will not achieve by means of them an equilibrium but after economic crises and great harm; while these two forces do not have in their hand an electronic switch by which the work of production will stop by switching it off or will restart by switching it on. Rather, altering the conditions of production is an effect that takes a long time, and during this long period of time resources will be lost in needless [ventures]. So when we wish for economic organisation according to the needs of society, we must not allow anyone to own the means of production with a personal ownership. Rather, the means of production should all be in the ownership of the state, and the state will put economic planning into action and it will decide the needs of the society and the extents of that need, and then it will organise the means of production to employ them in fulfilling those needs. Hence, every stage in the stages of production will be in accordance with this plan. Thus, the state is what determines the priorities, and it is what organises the resources, and it is what specifies the wages of the workers, because once all the resources are in the hands of the government, nothing remains for the people besides work. In lieu of it, they will be given wages in accordance with their work, so there is no need for profit, or interest, or leasing. Rather, wealth will be distributed between the populace in the form of wages, and profit, interest and leasing are all prohibited in the philosophy of communism because the price of goods according to them is only the price of work. As for what the seller or the leaser demands in a capitalist market above the value of the work in the form of profit, interest or rent, it is called “surplus value” according to them which is absolute injustice in their view.

Critique of Communism

As for communism, it has erred in the first step of its thought, and that is because such societal issues are not resolved by a plan from the government, and indeed entrusting them to a government plan is against human nature, as man’s volition in the economic sphere is something related to his natural aptness and his innate affinity, and if it was made to be compelled by governments, it would become something forced, against his nature and his disposition.

And this is, just as we see in every country, marriage occurs between a number of young men and women according to their personal suitability and the affinity of some of them to others, and often we see that this sporadic system of marriage leads to disagreements between them. However, a sane person will never think of blocking these disagreements by means of a government plan, so the government specifies that so-and-so boy will only marry so-and-so girl, and that so-and-so girl will not marry but so-and-so boy, and if the government were to do that, it would be something opposed to human nature; and this system only operates on the basis of suitability and affinity in which the government has no say, and there is no plan from the outside.

Similarly, economic organisation should operate in this way, and must not follow an external plan, because in that are the following corrupt consequences:

Firstly, it requires that all means of production are in the hands of the government, and the government is not made up of angels nor of infallible human beings, but is comprised of a small group of people who have the same emotions, desires and ambitions we find in the hearts of other people, so if this group wanted to employ these many resources to follow their desires and they pay no attention to the welfare of the populace, great corruption will appear on earth.

Secondly, this plan – however precise are its methods and innovative are its styles – can never guarantee the real needs of the society, as the needs change from day to day, and a plan is only made once or twice in a year, so how can this plan guarantee to fulfill the needs which arise during the year? And indeed knowledge of these changing needs and acting according to them requires a long time also, so the same objection which communism produced against capitalism falls back on them.

Thirdly, this planned system will not operate and cannot operate ultimately except by force from the government, for often it entails burdening the individual with what he does not approve, and forcing him into a service that he does not agree with; so as a result, conflict will arise between the interests of the individual and the interests of the plan.

Critique of Capitalism

As for capitalism, although it is correct in its foundational principle, nonetheless, it has erred in the application of this principle. As for its foundational principle, it is that economic stability is not achieved by planning, but is achieved only by the two natural forces of supply and demand. This is a natural law which we do not deny. However, it applies this principle by granting the individual complete autonomy in acquiring the most that is possible in terms of profit or fortune, and it does not place limits on this autonomy with any stipulation or restriction, and it is ignorant that this complete autonomy will lead to restricting the forces of supply and demand and will corrupt thereby the natural order which is determined by its foundational principle.

The explanation of this is that whenever an individual is completely free in acquiring the most that is possible in terms of profit and fortune, interest, gambling, hoarding (ihtikar), speculative transactions, and every path leading to acquiring more profit is open to him, so it is possible for the rich to take control of the market and control the prices therein, so there is no price in the market except what these affluent people approve, and there is no wages for the workers except what they stipulate, because they are the owners of the market and control it, due to their fortune, and they cause the forces of supply and demand to become paralysed, because these two forces only operate in the free market where the traders compete therein with full autonomy, and the buyer has a choice therein between buying an item from this [seller] and that [seller]. But when a single individual or a single company has monopoly over the market, there is no path for the buyer to this [freedom], as it determines the price, such that it makes the forces of supply and demand redundant in determining the prices.

This only arises due to complete autonomy, the flag of which capitalism raises with full pride, because man in this freedom acquires riches by whatever means he wishes, of interest, gambling, hoarding, or speculation, and by these riches, he establishes great industries and huge factories by which he takes control of the market, and he does not allow any of the small businessmen to reach his position, and even if another besides him reaches this level he will make a trade agreement with him so that the traders of a single commodity have consensus, and the buyers and consumers will no longer have a choice in using the force of their demand in determining the prices. So where is the free market in the capitalist system? And where is supply and demand? And where is the force of competition? These words in capitalism have only become ideas placed in the insides of pages, no trace of them is seen in practical life and no report of them is heard.

So it is clear that capitalism has applied it foundational principle with an application which ultimately puts an end to this very principle, and makes the forces of supply and demand redundant and weak, inoperative except in a very short area, as a result of which many corruptions arise:

Firstly, a small number of people begin to dominate the circulating wealth, and these small numbers of people do not remain restricted in their place. Rather, they transform and become a global force, and they begin to contribute to the external banks and the international companies, and by means of these companies and what they posses of the force of wealth, these small numbers begin to intervene in international politics, just as this small number begins to control the various media, until its financial transgression is employed in the path of influencing ideological currents and in directing them towards the interests of capitalism.

Secondly, individual autonomy in this system is a right only for the owners of wealth, and as far as the poor are concerned, they have nothing in this system but to submit to the laws of the owners of wealth.

Thirdly, production in this system is not directed towards what is for the good of society, and it is only directed towards what is best for most profit, so if there is more profit in erecting theatres and places of dance it will have most priority in terms of employing the resources for them, even if at the same time some necessary needs are neglected.

Islamic Economic System

As for Islam, it follows a balanced methodology in economics that is free from this excess and that neglect; and since the expressions of “economic organisation” and the “forces of supply and demand” and “the role of the market” are modern expressions, we do not find any of these phrases in the Noble Qur’an or the Prophetic Sunnah. However, that which is derived from a study of the Qur’an, Sunnah and jurisprudence is that Islam is far removed from planning in economic organisation, and it posits that economic organisation has been entrusted by Allah (Glorified is He) to some natural forces. Thus, Allah (Glorified is He) says: “We have allocated among them their livelihood in the worldly life, and have raised some of them over others in ranks, so that some of them may put some others to work.” (43:32) Thus, Allah (Glorified is He) ascribed differences in livelihood to Himself (Great and Exalted is He). And this is something that proves that economic organisation is in the hand of Allah (Glorified is He), and there are some natural forces which organise the livelihoods of people, and we may refer to these natural forces as the forces of supply and demand, as Allah (Glorified is He) is the One Who connects the needs of some people with the needs of others. Thus, the seller is in need of the buyer and the buyer is in need of the seller, and each of them cannot do without the other. And Allah (Glorified is He) alluded to this by His statement: “so that some of them may put some others to work”

Likewise, we find in the hadiths of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) what strengthens this, as Anas (Allah be pleased with him) narrated, he said: “The people said: ‘O Messenger of Allah! The price is high so fix the price for us.’ The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said: ‘Verily, Allah is the One Who constricts, the One Who expands, the One Who provides. Verily I hope that I meet Allah while none of you will demand from me [the recompense of] an oppression [I committed] in [his] blood or wealth.’” Abu Dawud, al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and al-Darimi transmitted it, all of them in Buyu‘, and al-Tirimidhi declared it sahih. Ahmad also transmitted it in his Musnad (3:156, 286), and al-Hafiz said in al-Takhlis (no 1158, 14:3): “Its chain is on the condition of Muslim.”

In a narration of Abu Hurayrah according to Abu Dawud in Bab al-Tas‘ir – and the wording is his – and Ahmad in his Musnad (2:337, 373), a man came and he said: “O Messenger of Allah! Fix the prices.” He said: “Rather, I will supplicate,” and then another man came and he said: “O Messenger of Allah! Fix the prices.” He said: “Rather, Allah lowers and raises [the prices], and verily I hope that I meet Allah while no oppression issued from me.” Its chain is hasan as mentioned in al-Talkhis of al-Hafiz (3:14).

In a narration from Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri (Allah be pleased with him), he said: “The price was high in the time of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace), and they said to him: ‘If you were to fix for us our prices.’ He said: ‘Verily, Allah is the One Who fixes the price. Indeed I hope that I part from you while none of you demands from me [the recompense of] oppression [I committed] in [his] wealth or life.” Ahmad transmitted it in his Musnad (3:85) and its chain is hasan, as al-Hafiz stated in al-Talkhis(3:14, no. 1158).

And in the narration of al-Asbagh ibn Nabatah from ‘Ali, he said: “It was said: ‘O Messenger of Allah! Fix the price for us.’ He said: ‘Verily, the highness and lowness of prices are in the hands of Allah. I wish that I meet my Lord while no one demands of me recompense for an injustice I did to him.’” Al-Bazzar transmitted it in his Musnad as in Kashf al-Astar from Zawa’id al-Bazzar (2:85 no. 1263) and al-Asbagh was declared trustworthy by al-‘Ijli although the imams declared him weak as mentioned in Majma‘ al-Zawa’id (4:99), and this hadith of his is strengthened by what has passed of corroborants.

The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) attributed pricing in these hadiths to Allah (Glorified is He). So this proves that the organisation of prices does not happen by a government plan, rather it is a matter governed by none besides Allah. And it is apparent that the intent of Allah (Glorified is He) fixing the prices is that He is the One Who created this natural system which specifies the prices automatically. Thus the hadith proves Islam accepts the market which is regulated by the forces of supply and demand, and that intervention in the market is against the natural course of the laws which Allah has put in place in this life, and that every intervention of this category is regarded as injustice by Islam, whether the intervention is from the government or from the traders working in the market.

This is also proven by another hadith, which is what Jabir (Allah be pleased with him) narrated, he said: The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said: “A townsman should not sell on behalf of a villager. Leave people, Allah will sustain some of them by means of others.” Muslim, al-Tirmidhi and others transmitted it. The master of the eloquent ones (Allah bless him and grant him peace) clarified in this hadith that Allah (Exalted is He) sustained some people by others, meaning that He sustains the seller by means of the buyer and He sustains the buyer by means of the seller. Thus it is not permissible for anyone to intervene in this divine system and have monopoly over the prices therein. Thus, the hadith alludes to the system of the market being a natural system which must not be altered.

Hence, the first hadith – the hadith of fixing the price – prevents the intervention of the government in the market and the second hadith – the hadith of Jabir – prevents the intervention of some traders in the market in a way that will alter its natural course. Thus both of them are forbidden.

Thus it is apparent that Islam is the only system which makes it possible for the market to run its natural course, with nothing appearing therein that will block this course.

However, this natural course is not possible by allowing all possessors of wealth to be free to do whatever they wish, because such absolute autonomy will create monopolies that will corrupt the system of the market as we have stated previously. Rather, it will only be possible when their dealings are conditioned by limits and stipulations. Islam has placed these limits and conditions so that the autonomy of individuals does not have preference over the value of the free market and the freedom of the society, as is the reality of capitalism. Rather the individuals are considered secondary to the laws that guarantee the freedom of the market and the freedom of the society.

From these laws is the prohibition of interest, gambling and speculation, because all of these means lead to the accumulation of wealth in the hands of the rich alone. History has proven that the transgression of capitalism only arose out of these causes, because they hoard heaps of wealth by these means, and take control of the market in a way that makes its natural forces paralysed.

And from these laws is the prohibition of hoarding and multiplying middle-men and a townsman being an agent for a villager and all corrupt or invalid sales, because they tend towards an alteration in the condition of the market and a negation of the forces of supply and demand, and a specific group having monopoly over the prices.

Al-Bazzar, Ahmad, Abu Ya‘la and al-Tabrani transmitted from Ibn ‘Umar from the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace), he said: “Whoever hoards food, he has freed himself of Allah and Allah is free from him.” And he said: “If a man from the Muslims becomes hungry amongst the people of a land, the protection of Allah is released from them.” See: Kashf al-Astar ‘an Zawa’id al-Bazzar (2:106, no 1311) and Majma‘ al-Zawa’id(4:100).

And from these laws is the prohibition of an economic agreement from the traders, as this agreement also puts the specification of prices in the hands of a few traders and contravenes its natural system, so the jurists have clarified that the traders are not to be left to conspire amongst themselves to control the prices. See Kitab al-Qismah from al-Hidayah. Whenever they take control of the prices it is allowed for the Islamic government to intervene in the market by fixing the price so that it returns to its original condition, as the jurists have determined in their books.

And from these laws are the laws of Zakah, charity, sacrifice, compensation, maintenance and inheritance, because they divert the flow of wealth from the owners of wealth to the poor from society. In this way, the doors of monopolisation are closed in Islam and the doors of spending are opened. And the wisdom behind this is what the Noble Qur’an alludes to where it says: “so that it may not circulate only between the rich among you” (59:7)

In sum, Islam observes the autonomy of the individual to a limit, but prefers the autonomy of society over him, and it wishes to employ the natural forces of supply and demand, and allow the free market to take its natural course and it puts a barrier to monopolies which place the rein of the market in the hands of a specific group and nullifies the actions of supply and demand, and it legislated for this laws prohibiting a variety of types of dealings, and it allowed the Islamic government to intervene in the market whenever it sees monopolies occurring.

We can summarise the school of Islamic economics in this respect, that it does not regard the freedom of acquisition as an absolute freedom in the way we find in capitalism.

Rather, it institutes three types of interventions in these economic activities:

  1. The intervention of religion: thus, it is not permissible for any trader to acquire wealth by a means that is illegal like interest, gambling, speculation and all corrupt or invalid sales and dealings.
  2. Intervention of government: Islam does not allow for the government to intervene in the market when it follows its natural course, as has preceded in the discussion on pricing, but when an individual wishes to take control of the market or have monopoly over it, it is permissible for the government to intervene in that case, as is established in jurisprudence. That is because of what Ma‘qil ibn Yasar narrated from the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace), he said: “Whoever interferes in any of the prices of the Muslims in order to increase its price for them, it is a duty on Allah to throw him into the greater portion of the Fire while his head is at its bottom.” Al-Hakim, al-Bayhaqi, al-Tabrani, Ahmad and others transmitted it as in Kanz al-‘Ummal(4:56) Bab al-Ihtikar. And ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with him) ordered Hatib ibn Abi Balta‘ah to increase his price and he said to him: “Either you increase the price, or you leave our market.” Malik, ‘Abd ibn Humayd and al-Bayhaqi transmitted it as in al-Kanz(4:104, no. hadith 882). This proves the permissibility of government intervention when it sees what will corrupt the system of the market.
  3. Intervention of ethics: furthermore, the ethical rules are not separated in Islam from economics, because acquiring the most that is possible in terms of profit and fortune is not from the foundational goals of man as we have stated earlier. And this is why Islam nurtures in the souls of the Muslims that they interact well with others, and they give them preference over themselves even if they have a need, and they compete in spending and do not compete in acquiring profits and fortunes. Such rules are plenty in the Qur’an and Sunnah, and this is not the place to exhaust them. Thus, whenever Islam is established with all of its rules and its teachings, there will not remain any trace of the evil effects of capitalism, and there will then be no need for a communist or populist system, and economics will begin to take a moderate path free from oppression, cruelty and selfishness. And Allah (Glorified is He) grants accordance.

The minimum mahr

Allah Almighty has ordained that when a man marries a woman, he must give her something. Is there a minimum? The Ahnaf state ten dirhams, the Malikiyyah state 1/4 of a dinar and the others state no minimum so long as it is of some value.

By Mulla Ali Qari al-Harawi
Fathu Bab al-Inayah v.2 pp. 51-52
Translated by F. Miah & Z. Mahmud – 3 Rabi I 1438 | 3 December 2016

The minimum mahr, according to [the Ahnaf], is ten dirhams; it should weigh [ten dirhams] in silver coins, nuggets or be equal in value to 10 dirhams in price or property.

Imam Muhammad [b. Hasan Shaybani] (may Allah Almighty have mercy upon him) states in Asl, ‘We learnt that the minimum of mahr is ten dirhams from Ali, Abdullah b. Umar, Amir and Ibrahim (may Allah Almighty be pleased with them all)’.

Imam Malik (may Allah Almighty have mercy upon him) mentions in Muwatta, ‘I do not consider that a woman be married with less than a quarter of a dinar.’ This is the threshold for theft according to him.

Imams Shafi’i and Ahmad (may Allah Almighty have mercy upon them) state that everything that has a price can be mahr’.

Imams Daraqutni and Bayhaqi in Sunan Kubra narrate via multiple sources, albeit da’if, from Jabir (may Allah Almighty have mercy upon him) that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, ‘There is no mahr less than ten dirhams’. Daraqutni and then Bayhaqi narrate in their Sunans from Dawud al-Awdi [who narrates] from Sha’bi [who in turn narrates] from Ali (may Allah Almighty be pleased with him) who says, ‘Do not cut the hand for [theft on] less than ten dirhams. The mahr should not be less than ten dirhams’. Imam Ibn Hibban (may Allah Almighty have mercy upon him) declared al-Awdi to be da’if. Imam Daraqutni narrates from Juwaybir, who narrates from Dhahhak, who narrated from Bazzal b. Sabrah, who narrates from Ali who mentions [the same]. Juwaybir is weak. He narrates through another source via Dhahhak but in the sanad there is Muhammad b. Marwan Abu Ja’far. Imam Zahabi (may Allah Almighty have mercy upon him) says, ‘He is not closely to being known’1.

It is accepted that multiple sources raises [a narration] to the rank of hasan. This is sufficient for evidence.

As for what is mentioned in the Sahihayn2 from the statement of the Prophet (peace be upon him), ‘Request! Even if it is a ring made of iron’. What is in Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah from Abdullah b. Amir b. Rabi’a from his father that the Prophet (peace be upon him) permitted marriage to a woman [in exchange] for a pair of shoes [as mahr]. What is in Sunan Abu Dawud from Jabir that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, ‘He who gave in mahr for the wife a handful of stalk or dates, then it is halal for him (to consummate)’. However, in this sanad there is Ishaq b. Jabir b. Jibril. Abdul Haq says, ‘That which is linked through him cannot be trusted’. Imam Zahabi states, ‘He is not known and Azdi has declared him da’if.’

All [of these ahadith] refer to [the portion of the mahr] that which is immediately due. It was common practice amongst them that part of the mahr was given immediately before consummation. So much so that it reported that Ibn Abbas, Ibn Umar, Zuhri and Qatada (may Allah Almighty be pleased with them) [held] that the man should not consummate until she has been given something [of the mahr]. [This is] based on the Prophet (peace be upon him) stopping Ali from consummating [his marriage] to Fatimah (may Allah Almighty be pleased with them both) until he has given her something. He said, ‘O Prophet of Allah! I have nothing.’ [The Prophet] responded, ‘Give her your armour’. So, he gave her his armour and then consummated the marriage. It is known that the mahr was four hundred dirhams of silver.

Nevertheless, the preferred view is that it is allowed [for a woman to go to her husband] before [he gives her] anything. This is due to what is in Sunan Abi Dawud from Aisha (may Allah Almighty be pleased with her) who says, ‘The Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) commanded me that I allow a woman to consummate her marriage with her husband before he gave her anything.’ So the stoppage mentioned [before] will be deemed mustahab. It is mustahab to give something before consummating to make her happy and create amity.

As this is the established custom, it is necessary to base that which oppose what we have narrated to it to combine between the ahadith. as it is the custom and it is Waajib to place it in contrast to that which was reported against us. Similarly, the command of the prophet (peace be upon him) to request for an iron ring will be taken to mean advancing something to create amity. Do you not see that he commanded the man to give what was in his hand; it is possible the mahr remained in debt. So, we understand, the meaning was to pay immediately what was in his possession. When he was unable, [the Prophet] said, ‘Stand and teach her twenty ayats and she is your wife. This is narrated by Imam Abu Dawud. This is the meaning of the narration, ‘I marry you to her in exchange of that which you have of the Quran.’ This is not contradictory and combines the narration.

The is how some muhaqqin have answer and Allah Almighty knows best.



[1] Nothing much is known about him.

[2] Bukhari and Muslim

The different meanings of Amr

Amr can possibly refer to one of sixteen possible meanings. The default meaning of amr is for wujub.

By S. Zaman  – 23 Safar 1438 | 22 November 2016

Amr is a statement of a speaker to another from an authoritative position saying ‘إفعل’ (to do something).

By default amr is for wujub meaning the command in the statement must be followed. Other meanings may be inferred but only if you can provide justification.

In total, Amr can possibly refer to one of the following sixteen possible meanings.

Use Description Example
الوجوب To compel أَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ (2:43)
الاباحة To show the allowance of something وَإِذَا حَلَلْتُمْ فَاصْطَادُوا (5:2)
الندب To give preference فَكَاتِبُوهُمْ إِنْ عَلِمْتُمْ فِيهِمْ خَيْرًا (24:33)
التهديد To address one in anger اعْمَلُوا مَا شِئْتُمْ (41:41)
التعجيز To make another helpless فَأْتُوا بِسُورَةٍ مِنْ مِثْلِهِ (2:23)
الارشاد To give a suggestion (i.e: try it) وَأَشْهِدُوا ذَوَيْ عَدْلٍ مِنْكُمْ (65:2)
الارشاد To mock كُونُوا قِرَدَةً خَاسِئِينَ (2: 65)
الامتنان To show your favour upon another كُلُوا مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ اللَّهُ (6:142)
الاكرام To show respect ادْخُلُوهَا بِسَلَامٍ آمِنِينَ (15:46)
الاهانة To insult …ذُقْ
التسوية To show indifference اصْلَوْهَا فَاصْبِرُوا أَوْ لَا تَصْبِرُوا سَوَاءٌ (52:16)
الدعاء To make a request اللهم اغفرلي
التمني To make a wish وَنَادَوْا يَا مَالِكُ لِيَقْضِ عَلَيْنَا رَبُّكَ (43:77)
الاحتقار To show disrespect and a low regard أَلْقُوا مَا أَنْتُمْ مُلْقُونَ (26:43)
التكوين To make something happen كُنْ فَيَكُونُ (2:117)
التاديب To educate كل مما يليك

Abjad numerals

The abjad numerals is a decimal system which is used in Arabic to number lists

The Abjad numerals was a method of writing numbers before the introduction of the Arabic numerals. Although not used in calculations anymore it continues to be used in numbering lists.

The Abjad numeral uses a decimal system. Each unit (1-9), ten (10, 20, 30 to 90) and hundred (100, 200, 300 to 900) is assigned a separate letter. The thousand is assigned a letter.

The units:

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
ي ط ح ز و ه د ج ب ا

The tens:

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20
ض ف ع س ن م ل ك

The hundreds:

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
ق ر ش ت ث خ ذ ض ظ غ

Here is a mnemonic to easily remember the values:

أِبْجَدْ هَوَّزْ حُطِّي كَلِمَنْ سَعْفَص قَرْشَتْ ثَخَذْ ضَظِغْ

The system works similar to the Roman numerals. For instance, when smaller values follow larger values, the two are added together to attain the total, for example, the number 11 is written as يا.

See the conversion table for the standard numbering order:

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
ط ح ز و ه د ج ب ا
يط يح يز يو يه يد يج يب يا ي 10
كط كح كز كو كه كد كج كب كا ك 20
لط لح لز لو له لد لج لب لا ل 30
مط مح مز مو مه مد مج مب ما م 40
نط نح نز نو نه ند نج نب نا ن 50
سط سح سز سو سه سد سج سب سا س 60
عط عح عز عو عه عد عج عب عا ع 70
فط فح فز فو فه فد فج فب فا ف 80
صط صح صز صو ص صد صج صب صا ص 90

To write a number in the hundreds, simply put the relevant notation in front of the letters above. For example:

700 701 786
ذ ذا ذفو

An alternative method has also been used whereby all the values of the words are added to produce a number. The field is known as gematria or isopsephy. This follows from the notion of some cultures that the numeric value of a word has some relation with the word or subject.

An example of this is equating 786 to بسم الله الرحمن الحيم.

م ي ح ر ل ا ن م ح ر ل ا ه ل ل ا م س ب
40 10 8 200 30 1 50 40 8 200 30 1 5 30 30 1 40 60 2

2+60+40+1+30+30+5+1+30+200+8+40+50+1+30+200+8+10+40 = 786

Note: the mushaddad letter counts as one.

Some have opted to write 786 instead of بسم الله الرحمن الحيم on the assumption that the reward is the same. There is no basis of this in the shariah rather one is advised to write the full basmalah.

Arabic language is important to all Muslim. However, to us the function of the abjad numerals is not a spiritual one rather it aptly fulfills an organisational need which allows us to categorise and present information which is readily accessible. Whilst there may be patterns from which some may draw aesthetic value, it has no bearing on the application of the shariah.


Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
22 Safar 1438
21 November 2016

Credit: This note is adapted from the submissions of S. Zaman and F. Khan

السيف بالساعد لا الساعد بالسيف

السَيْفُ بالسَّاعِدِ لا السَّاعِد بالسَّيْفِ

قال العُتْبِي: بَعَثَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الخَطَّابِ إِلي عَمْرِو بْنِ مَعْدِيْكَرِبَ أَنْ يَبْعَثَ إِلَيْه بِسَيْفِهِ المَعْرُوْفِ بالصَّمْصَامَةِ. فَبَعَثَ بِهِ إِلَيْهِ. فَلَمَّا ضَرَبَ بِهِ وَجَدَهُ دُوْنَ مَا كَانَ يَبْلُغُهُ عَنْهُ فَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِ فِي ذَلِكَ. فَرَدَّ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّمَا بَعَثْتُ إِلي أَمِيْرِ المُؤْمِنِيْنَ بِالسَّيْفِ. وَ لَمْ أَبْعَثْ بالسَّاعِدِ الَّذِي يُضْرَبُ بِهِ

Utbi reports - Umar b. al-Khattab (may Allah Almighty be pleased with him) sent for 'Amr b. Ma'dikarib that he send to him his sword known as Samsamah. So he sent it to him. When he struck with it, he found it less than what had reached him regarding it. He wrote to him regarding this. He retorted back to him, 'I have sent Amir al-Mu'minin the sword. I have not sent the arm with which it is struck'.

Summary: The value of a sword (or any tool) is determined by one who wields it.

اليانع الجني – إسناد كتاب السنن للإمام أبو داود السجستاني

قال الشيخ عبد الغني المجددي في اليانع الجني:

يرويه شيخُنا العلاّمةُ بإسناده الّذي سَبَقَ في ((الموطّأ)) إلى الإمام أبي عبد العزيز رضي الله عنه عن شيخه المُفَضَّل الجليل الشّادح الغرّةِ، الواضحِ التَّحجِيل، أبي طاهرٍ محمّد بن إبراهيم الكُرديّ المدنيّ، عن الشيخ الأجل حسنِ بن عليٍّ العُجَيميّ، عن الشيخ عيسى المغربيّ، عن الشيخ شهاب الدّين أحمد بن محمّدِ الخفاجيّ، عن الشيخ المُسْنِدِ بَدْرِ الدّيْن حسنٍ الكرخيَ، عن الحافظِ الإمام المُجْتَهدِ أبي الفضل جلالُ الدّين السُّيُوطِيّ، عن الشّيخ مُحَمَّدِ بن مُقْبِلٍ الحلبيّ، عن الصّلاحِ بن أبي عمر المقدسيّ، عن أبي الْحَسَنِ علِيٍّ بِن محمّد بن أحمد البُخَاريّ، عن مُسْنِدِ عصْرِهِ أبِيْ حَفْصٍ عُمَرَ بنْ طَبَرزَد البَغْدادِيّ، عن أبي الوليد إبْرَاهِيْم بِنْ محمّد بِنْ مَنْصُورٍ الكَرْخيّ، وأبي الفتحِ مُصلحِ بِنْ أحْمَد بِنْ مُحَمَّدٍ الدَّوميّ، كِلاَهُمَا عَنِ الحَافِظِ أبِيْ بَكْرٍ أحْمَدَ بِنْ عَلِيٍّ بِنْ ثَابِتٍ الخَطِيبِ البَغْدَادِيّ، قَال: أَخبَرَنا الإِمامُ القاضي أبو عمرٍو القاسِمُ بنُ جعفَرِ بنِ عبدِ الواجدِ الهاشِمي، قَال: أخْبَرَنَا الإمامُ القَاضيّ أَبُو عَمْرٍو اللُّؤْلُؤيّ، قَال: حَدَّثّنَا أَبُو دَاوُد سُلَيْمَانُ بِنُ الأَشعَثِ السِّجِسْتَانِيّ رَضِيَ الله عنْهُ و عَنْهُمْ.

قُلْت: لَم أقِف فِي ((عُجَالةِ الشَّيْخِ عَبْدُ العَزيز)) على صيغ الأداءِ الَّتي ذكَرَها رِجَالُ هَذَا السَّنَدِ لِأَنَّه لم يحكِهَا فِيها، و أمّا الخَطِيْبُ و الّذينَ بَعْدَهُ فَإِنّيّ وقَفتُ على ألفاظهم في مَوْضعٍ آخَر، و أسانيدُ الشَّيْخِ أبي عَبْد العَزيز العُمَرِيّ يرحمُهُ الله تعالى مستَوفاةٌ فيْ كِتَابِه {الإرشاد إلى مُهِمّاتِ الإسنَاد}، و هو رضي الله عنهُ يَتحَرَّى سَوْقَ الأسانيد كما هي، فَمنْ وَقَفَ على كِتَابه فليُحَقِّق منه أمرَ هَذا السَّنّد، و كذا ما أذكرُهُ بَعْد ذلك مِن إسنادي النّسائيّ و ابن ماجه مِن طَرِيْقِهِ إنْ شَاء اللهُ تعالى.

وأمّا رجالُ السَّنَد:

فالخفاجيّ نِسْبَةٌ إلى خَفَاجةَ- بالفتحِ والتّخْفيفِ – حيٌّ مِنْ بَنِيْ عَامِرٍ تُوفِّي سَنَة تِسْعٍ و تِسعينَ و ألفٍ.

والسّيُوطيَ: اسمُهُ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمنِ بِنْ أبِي بَكْرٍ، مَنْسُوْبٌ إلى أسيُوطٍ بَلَدٍ مَعْرُوْفٍ و بصَعِيْدِ مِصر، ولدَ بِالْقَاهِرَة، و كان يُلَقَّبُ بابنِ الكُتُب، لأنّ أباهُ أمَرَ أُمَّهُ وكانت أُمَّ وَلَدٍ لهُ أن تأتيهُ بِكِتَابٍ مِن بَيْنِ كُتُبِه فذَهَبَت وأَخَذَهَا المَخَاضُ و هِيَ بَيْن الكُتُبِ فَولَدَتْهُ بَيْنَها، حَافِظٌ جَلِيْلٌ مُجْتَهِدٌ، لَهُ مُصَنَّفاتٌ فِي العُلُوْم، تُوفّي سَنَةَ إحْدى عَشَرَةَ و تِسْعِ مِئَة.

وتُوفّي ابنُ طَبَرَزَدَ سَنَةَ سَبْعٍ و سِتَّ مئة.

والدَّومّي – بِالفتحِ والميم بعد الواوِ – مَنْسُوْبٌ إلى دَوْمَةِ الجَنْدَل، مَوضِعٌ فَاصِلٌ بَيْن حدَّي الشَّامِ وَالْعِرَاق، كان فيه قِصَّةُ التَّحْكِيْم.

والخَطِيْب: هُوَ الحَافِظُ المَشْهُوْرُ، ذُو التَّصَانِيْفِ المُفِيْدةِ فِيْ عُلُومِ الحَدِيْث، تُوفّي سَنَة ثَلاَثٍ وسِتِّيْن و أَرْبَعِ مِئَة.

واللُّؤْلُؤيّ تُوفّي سَنَةَ تِسْعٍ و عِشْرِيْنَ، و قِيْل: ثلاثٍ و ثَلاَثِينَ و ثلاثِ مِئَة.

و ابن منصورٍ الكرْخيّ مَنْسُوبٌ إلى الكَرْخِ بإسْكَانِ الرّاء المُهْمَلة، هكذا رأيتُهُ في غَيْرِ مَوْضِعٍ، و قال الفاسيّ: الكُرُّخي بِضَمِّ الكَافِ و تشديدِ الرّاء، و لعلَّ الصَّوابَ هُوَ الأوَّلُ، واللهُ سُبْحانَهُ و تَعَالى أَعْلَمُ.

طَرِيْقٌ آخَر

ويرويه شَيْخُنا العلاّمَةُ مِنْ طَرِيْق الشَّيخِ الحَافظِ الأنْصاريّ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ بِأسانِيْدِه، مِنْها إسْنَادُهُ مِنْ طَرِيْق الحَافِظِ ابنِ الدَّيْبَع، و قّدْ فَرَّقَهُ في كِتَابه، فأجْمَعُ لك شملَ ما شتَّتَهُ، وأختَصِرُ بِحذْفِ بَعْضِ ما طَوله؛ مخافةَ السّآمةِ على النّاس.

فالشَّيخُ عَابِدٌ الأنصاريّ الحافظُ يرويه عنِ الشريفِ عبدِ الرَّحمنِ بنِ سُلَيْمَان، عن أبيه سُليمانَ بنِ يحيى بنِ عُمَرَ مَقْبُولٍ الأهدَل، عن الشَّرِيفِ أحمدَ بِنِ محمَّدٍ شريف مَقبولٍ الأهدَل، عنِ الشَّريف أبي سُلَيْمَان يحيى بن عُمَرَ مَقْبُولٍ الأهدل، عن الشَّريف أبي بَكرِ بنِ عَلِيٍّ بطّاحٍ الأهدَل، عن عمِّه الشريف يُوسُوفَ بنِ مُحمَّدٍ بطّاحٍ الأهدل، عن الشَّريف طَاهرِ بنِ حُسَينٍ الأهدل، عن الحافظ عبد الرَّحمن ابنِ عَلِيِّ الدَّيبَعِ الشَّيباني، عن الزَّينِ الشَّرحيّ، عن نَفيسِ الدِّينِ سُلَيْمانَ بنِ إِبراهيمَ بنِ عُمَرَ العَلويّ، عن مُوفَّقِ الدِّينِ عَلِيِّ بنِ أبي بَكْرِ بنِ شَدّادٍ، قال: أخبَرَنا أبو العبّاسِ أحمدُ بنُ أبي الخَيرِ بنِ مَنْصُورٍ الشِّماخيّ، عن أبيه قال: أخبَرَنَا بها أبو عبد الله محمّد بن إسماعيلَ الخَضْرميّ، وأبو بكر بن أحمد الشّراحيّ، و سُلَيْمانُ ابن عقيلٍ العسقلانيّ، وبطّال بن أحمد الرُّكبيّ، ومُحمّد بن عبد الله العُجَينيّ، و سُفيان بن عبد الله الخَضُوريّ، وآخرون، قالوا: أخبرنا بها نصرُ بنُ أَبِي الفَرَج المِصريّ، أخبرنا بها النَّقيبُ أبو طالبِ بنِ أبي زَيْدٍ العلويّ، عن أبي عليٍّ التُّسْتَرِيّ، أخْبَرَنا بها القاضي أبو عُمَر القاسم بن جعْفَرٍ الهاشميّ، عن أبي عليٍّ اللُّؤْلُؤيّ، عن مُؤَلِفِها الحافظِ المتِقِنِ أبي دَاوُدَ سُلَيمَان بنِ الأشعثِ السِّجسْتَانيّ رضِي الله عَنْهُ و عَنْهُم أجْمَعِين.

قلت: مِن لَطَائفِ هذا السَّنَدِ أنَّه انْتَظَمَ رهطاً مِن اليمانيين، و أهل الشرَف مِنْهُم، مِن الّذِيْنَ هُمُ الغُرّةُ فِيْ جَبْهةِ الزَّمَان، والتَّحجيلُ فِيْ قَوَائِمِه، فَإِنَّ بَنِي الأهدَل فَرغٌ فارغٌ مِن الدُّوحةِ الثَّابتةِ النَّبُوية، مَوصوفُونَ بِالعِلْمِ، والصَّلاح، والخَير، مُنْذُ الدّهر:

إليهم كلّ منقبةٍ تؤُولُ                         إذا ما قيل: جُدُّهُمُ الرَّسُولُ

والشّيخُ عَابِدٌ رَحِمَه اللهٌ مِن بَنِي الخَزْرَجِ، ويُقَال: إنَّ أصلَ الأنْصارِ مِنَ اليَمَن، و قد أقامَ الشّيْخُ بِه دَهَرًا مِن عُمُرِهِ حَتَّى عدَّهُ ابنُ ساباط في ((فهرسته)) الّذي مُلحَقٌ بِكِتَابِهِ ((البَرَاهينُ السّابِطيةُ)) مِن عُلَمَاء زَبِيد، فهو يُمْنيّ أيضاً.

وعَبدُ الرَّحمنِ بنُ عَلِيٍّ الدَّيْبَعُ اليَمَانيّ تُوُفّي سنةَ إحدَى عشرةَ و تِسعِ مئة، و الدَّيبَع – بالدّال المُهْمَلةِ و فتحِها وإسكانِ التَّحتيةِ بَعْدَها مُوحَّدةٌ مَفْتوحةٌ وآخِرُهُ مُهمَلَةٌ – معنَاهُ الأبيضُ بلُغةِ النُّوبة، ويُلَقَّبُ به أيْضاً النُّورُ علِيُّ بِن مُحَمَّدٍ الدَّيبَعُ شَيْخٌ لأبي الأسرارِ العُجَيميّ.

والشّرحيّ: في ((ثَبَتِه)) بالحاء المُهمَلة، وبَنُو شرح بَطنُ العَرَب، وشرحةُ بنُ عُدَّةَ بَطنٌ مِن بَنِي سَامةَ بنِ لُؤَيٍّ، فإن كان بالجيمِ فَيَحْتَمِلُ أن يَكُونَ مَنْسُوْبًا إلى شرجةٍ، بَلَدٌ بساحِل اليمن أو إلى الشرج.

والشَّماخيّ: بالمُعجَمَةِ و تشديدِ الميمِ آخِرُهُ مُعْجَمَةٌ.

والخضْرَميّ: نِسْبَةٌ إلى حضْرَمَوتَ مِخْلافٌ مَعْرُوفٌ بِاليَمَن.

وابنُ أحمدَ الشرَّاحيّ: كذلك في ((ثبته)) مُعْجَمَةٌ فَمهْمَلَةٌ قَبْلَه الألفُ و كذا بَعْدَها.

والرُّكَبِّيّ: بالمَهْمَلَةِ في أوله والموحَّدةِ في آخِرِهِ، والرُّكَبُ كصُرَدٍ: بَلَدٌ باليمن، والعَجينُ بالمُهْمَلَةِ والجيمِ والمُثَنّاةِ مِن تحتُ بَعْدَها نُونٌ.

والخَضُوريّ: بِمَهْملةٍ فَمُعجَمَةٍ، و الخَضُورُ بِالرَّأءِ المُهْمَلَةِ كصَبُورٍ بَلَدٌ بِاليمن.

والتُّسْتُرِي: مَنْسُوْبٌ إلى تُستُر بِمُثَنّاتَيْنِ مِن فَوْقُ بِينهُما سينٌ مُهْمَلَةٌ وآخِرُهُ رَأءٌ مُهْمَلَةٌ كَجُنْدُبٍ، بَلَدٌ بالأهواز، والله أعلم.

و يَرْوِيها الشَّيْخُ عَابِدٌ مِن طريق الفلاَّنيّ، روايةَ ابي الحسنِ عَلِيِّ بِن عَبْدِ المَعْرُوْفِ بابن العبدِ، عن أبي داود، و هو أعلى أسانيده في هذا الكتاب، و هذا يدُلُّ أنَّ له رِوايةً خَامِسةً سِوى الأربعِ المَشْهُوْرةِ، و لكن لم يُنَبِّه الشَّيخُ على ذلك في ((ثَبَتِه))، و لا شَيْخُهُ الفُلاَّنيّ، واللهُ تعالى أعلم.

اليانع الجني – إسناد كتاب الصحيح للإمام مسلم بن الحجّاج القشيري

قال الشيخ عبد الغني المجددي في اليانع الجني:

يرويه شيخنا العلامة بسنده الّذي مرّ في ((المُوطّأ)) إلى الشيخ أبي عبد العزيز صدر الأئمّة رضي الله عنه، قال: أخبرني به الشيخ أبو طاهر، عن والده الشيخ إبراهيم الكرديّ المدنيّ، عن الشيخ سلطان بن أحمد المزّاحي، قال: أخبرنا الشيخ أحمد السّبكي، عن النّجم الغيطي، عن الزّين زكريّا، عن أبي الفضل الحافظ ابن حجرٍ، عن الصّلاح بن أبي عمر المقدسيّ، عن عليِّ بن أحمد بن البخاريّ، عن المُؤيِّد الطُّوسي، عن أبي عبد الله الفراويّ، عن عبد الغافر الفارسيّ، عن أبي أحمد محمّد بن عيسى الجُلُوديّ، عن أبي إسحاق إبراهيم بن محمّدٍ، عن مؤلفه مسلم ابن الحجّاج رضي الله تعالى عنه.

قلت: الّذي ذكرته من لفظ هذا السّياق هو كما حكاه الإسحاقيّ السّهارنفوريّ، والله أعلم.

والمزّاحيّ: هو الأزهريّ، تُوفيّ سنة خمسٍ و سبعين و ألفٍ.

والنّجم محمّد بن أحمد الغيطيّ تُوفّي سنة إحدى و ثمانين و تسعِ مئة.

والمقدسيّ: لعله هو الصّلاح محمّد بن يّ: لعله هو الصّلاح محمّد بن إبراهيم بن عمر المقدسيّ ثمّ الصّالحيّ، تُوفّي سنة ثمانين و سبعِ مئة.

وابن البخاريّ: هو الفخر أبو الحسن، عُرِف بابن البخاريّ المقدسيّ، ثم الصّالحيّ، تُوفيّ سنة تسعين و ستِّ مئة.

والمؤيِّدُ الطّوسي أصلاً، والنَّيسابوريّ داراً، تُوفّي سنة سبعٍ و عشرينَ و ستِّ مئة، والله أعلم.

طريقٌ آخِر

ويريه شيخنا العلامة عن الحافظ الحجّة الشيخ عابدٍ الأنصاريّ، عن عمّه العلامة الشيخ محمّد حُسَيّنٍ السِّنْدِيّ، عن الشيخ أبي الحسن بن محمّد صادقٍ السّنديّ، عن الشيخ محمّد حياة السِّنْديّ، عن الشيخ الأجلّ العلامة أبى الحسن السّنْدي الكبير، عن الشيخ عبد الله بن سالمٍ البصريّ، عن محمّد بن علاءِ الدّين البابليّ، عن الشّهاب أخمد السّنهوريّ، عن أحمد بن حجرٍ المكّي الهيثَمي، عن القاضي زكريا الأنصاريّ، قال: أخبرنا مسند الدّيار المصرية عزُّ الدّين عبد الرحيم بن محمّدٍ المعروف بابن الفرات القاهريّ الحنقيّ، قال: أخبرنا أبو الثّناء محمودُ بن خليفة المنبجيّ، قال: أخبرنا به الحافظ شرف الدّينِ عبد المؤمن بن خلفٍ الدّمياطيّ، قال: أخبرني به أبو الحسن المؤيّد بن محمّدٍ الطُّوسيّ النّيْسابوريّ، قال : أخبرنا فقيه الحرم أبو عبد الله محمّد بن الفضل بن أحمد الصّاعديّ، الفُراويّ، قال: أخبرنا أبو الحسين عبد الغافر بن محمّدٍ الفارسيّ، قال: أخبرنا أبو أحمد محمّد بن عيسى بن عمرويه الجلوديّ، قال: أخبرنا إبراهيم ابن محمّد بن سفيان، قال: أخبرنا مسلم بن الحجّاج القُشيْريُّ رضي الله تعالى عنه.

قلت: عمّه حسينٌ صنو أبيه، كان عالماً جلِيلاً، جامعاً بين علوم الأديان والأبدان.

وأبو الحسن الّذي روى عنه عمُّهُ لعله غير أبي الحسن الّذي يُعرفُ بالصّغير، فإنّي وجدتُ بخطِّ الشيخ عابدٍ: أبو الحسن الصّغير تلميذ الشيخ محمّد حياةٍ السّنديّ اسمه الشيخ محمّد بن الشيخ جمال الدّين بن الشيخ عبد الواسع، فليُحفَظُ، والله أعلم.

والشيخ حياة السّنديّ تُوفّي بالمدينةِ المنورة، وأظُنُّ أنَّ الشريف آزاج الحُسينيّ البلجراميّ ذكره في كتابه: ((سبحةِ المرحان))، وله رسالةٌ لطيفةٌ في وجوب العمل بالحديث و إن خالف المذهب.

وأبو الحسن الكبير هو ابن عبد الهادي التّتّويّ، نسبةٌ إلى تتَّى-بمثنّاتَيْنِ من فوق، وفتح الأولى، و تشديد الثّانية، و قصر الألفِ – بلدةٌ على شاطئ نهر السّند، كان عالماً، جليلاً، فقيهاً، أُصُوْلِياً، محَدِّثاً، من أسحاب الوُجُوه في المذهب، له مصنَّفاتٌ نافعةٌ جدًّا وهي ((أذيالُهُ على الكُتُبِ السُّتَّةِ))، و ((مسندِ الإمام أحمد))، و ((فتح القدير)) لابن الهمام، تُوفّي بالمدينة المنورة سنة تسعٍ و ثلاثين و مئة و ألفٍ، رحمه الله تعالى.

والسّنهوريّ – بفتح السّين وإسكان النُّون، و ضمِّ الهاء بعدها واوٌ فراءٌ مهملةٌ – نسبةٌ إلى بعض قرى مصر.

والهيثمي – بفتح الهاء و المثلّثَةِ بينهما مثنّاةٌ تحْتانيةٌ ساكنةٌ – هو الفقيهُ المعروفُ، نزيلُ مكّة المشرَّفة، تُوفيّ سنة أربعٍ و سبعين و تسعِ مئة.

وابن الفرات: هو الحافظ مسند وقته، تُوفّي سنةَ سبعين و ثمان مئة.

والمنبجيّ- بتقديم النُّون على الموحَّدة والجيمِ على زنة مجلسٍ.

والدّمياطيّ من أهل تونةَ- بضمِّ المثنّاة من فوقُ و إسكان الواو بعدها نونٌ ثمّ هاءٌ- جزيرةٌ بقُرب دمياطٍ – بكسر الدّال المهملةِ – و قد خربت، تُوفيّ سنة خمسٍ و سبعِ مئة، يُحكى عنه أنّه قال: رأيت النَّبيّ (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) في النَّوم و سألتُهُ عَنْ حَدِيْثِ: (( مَنْ أَكَلَ مَعَ مَغْفُوْرٍ غُفِرَ لَهُ))، فقال لي: لم أقُلهُ، وأرجو أنْ يَكُونَ كَذَلِك، والله أعلم.

قال الشيخُ عابدٌ: وقد فات إبراهيم بن محمّدٍ سماعُ ثلاثةِ مواضِعَ على مسلمٍ، كان إبراهيم يقول فيها: عن مسلمٍ، و لا يقول: أخبرنا مسلمٌ، قال: قال ابن الصّلاح: فلا ندري حَمَلَها عنه إجازةً، أو وِجَادةً .

الفوتُ الأول في كتاب الحجّ: حدثنا ابن نميرٍ، نا أبي، عن عبيدِ الله، عن نافعٍ، عن ابن عمر، حديث المقصّر والمحلقين، إلى حديث: (( لا يخلُونَّ رَجُلٌ بامرأةٍ إلاَّ ومعها ذُوْ مَحَرَمٍ)).

والثّاني في كتاب الوصايا من قول مسلمٍ: حدّثني أبو خيثّمةَ و محمّد بن المُثَنَّى، فذكر حديث ابن عمر: (( ما حقٌّ امرئٍ مُسْلِمٍ ))، إلى حديث القسامة.

والثّالثُ في كتاب الإمارة من قول مسلمٍ: حدَّثَنِي زُهيرُ بن حَرْبٍ، نا شبابةُ، فذكر حديث أبي هريرةَ: (( إنّما الإمام جُنَّةٌ))، إلى قوله في حديث ثعْلَبةَ: (( إذا رمَيْتَ بسهْمِكَ)).

ثُمَّ ذكر عن ابن حجرٍ أنّه حرَّرَ الأفواتَ المذكورة من هوامشِ نُسْخَةِ الحافظِ أبي بَحْرٍ سُفْيَان بن العاص، و هو شيخ القاضي عياضٍ، قال: و كان من المتقنينَ.

قال الحافظُ ابن حجَرٍ: و أخبرنا بهذه الأفوات أبو العبّاس أحمد بن أبي بكرٍ الحنْبَلِيُّ في كتابه من دمشق، قال: أخبرنا الفخر عثمان بن محمّدٍ التٌّوزِرِيّ في كتابه من مصر، قال: أخبرنا أبو بكرٍ محمّد بن يوسف بن مسدي إجازةً، قال: أنبأنا أبو جعفرٍ أحمد بن عبد الرّحْمن بن مضاءٍ، قال: قرأتُ جميع ((صحيح مسلمٍ)) على أبي عمر أحمد بن عبد الله بن جابرِ بن صالحٍ الأزدي بسَماعه له على أبي محمّدٍ عبد الله بن عليٍّ بنْ محمّد الباجيّ، قال: أخبرنا أبو عبد الله محمّد بن أحمد بن عبد الله الباجيّ، قال: أخبرنا أبو العلاء عبد الوهّاب بن عيسى بن ماهان، قال: حدّثنا أبو بكرٍ أحمد بن يحيى بن الأشقر، قال: أخبرنا مسلمٌ بِجميع الصّحيح قراءةً عليه و أنا أسمَعُ، من أوّله إلى حديث الإفك في أواخر الكتاب.

قلت: ابن ماهان البغداديّ المصريّ تُوفّي سنة ثمانٍ و ثمانين و ثلاثِ مئة.

والباجيّ – بالموحّدةِ والجيم – نسبةٌ إلى باجةَ الأندلسٍ.

والقلانسيّ – بفتح القاف و كسر النّون قبل المهملة – أحد رواةِ ((صحيح مسلمٍ))، و روايته عند المغاربةِ من طريق ابن ماهان، {و} من رواة كتابه: مكّيّ ابن عبدان النّيْسابوريّ.

وللشيخ عابدٍ من طريقه إسنادٌ أعلى ما يكونُ من الأسانيد إلى مسلمٍ، والله أعلم.

ذكر الإمام مسلم بن الحجّاج القشيري رضي الله تعالى عنه، و ثناءُ النّاس على كتابه الصحيح

هو الإمام الحافظ الحجّة أبو الحسين مسلم بن الحجّاج القشيري من أنفسهم، عربيّ صليبة من بني قشيرِ بن كعبِ بن ربيعة، قبيلةٌ من هوازن معروفةٌ، النّيْسابوريّ نسبةٌ إلى نيسابور، مدينةٌ مشهورةٌ بخُر اسان، إمام أصحاب الحديث، أجمعوا على جلالته و إمامته، و علوِّ مرتبته.

وُلِد على المعروفِ عامَ وفاةِ الشّافعي سنة أربعٍ و مئتين، و تُوفّيّ عشية يومِ الأحدِ بنيسابور، و دُفِنَ يَوْمَ الإثنين لخمسٍ بقِيْنَ من رجبٍ سنةَ إحدى و ستّين و مئتين.

رُوِي عنه أنّه قال: صنَّفتُ الصّحيحَ من ثلاث مئة ألفِ حديثٍ مَسْمٌوْعةٍ، و هو أربعةُ آلافٍ بإسقاطِ المُكَرَّرة، لا يَخْتَلِفُوْن في ذلك، و أمّا معها فيزيد على كتاب البخاريّ لكثرةِ الطُّرُقِ عند مسلمٍ.

قال العراقيّ: و قد رأيتُ عن أبي ابفضل أحمد بن سلمة أنّه اثنا عشر ألف حديثٍ، و قيل غير ذلك، والله أعلم.

وأعلى أسانيده ما يكونُ بينه و بين النبي (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) أربعُ و سائط، و له بضعٌ و ثمانونُ حديثاً بهذا الطّريق، و لم يتعرّض في ((صحيحه)) للموقوفات و المقاطيع إلاّ قي موضعين فيما أظُنُّ، والله أعلم.

وذكر الحافظ أبو عليٍّ الغسّان الجيّانيّ- بشدّة المثناة التحتية، ثمّ بالنّون -: إنَّ الانقطاع وقع في كتابه في أربعة عشر موضعاً، فأوهمَ ذل

Muqaddimah Muslim: The men criticised

Imam Muslim in the introduction to his Sahih, outlines the need to critically analyse narrators in order to determine the reliability of the source of a narration attributed to the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him). In this context, he lists some 50 plus narrators who have been criticised in a variety of ways. Below is a background to these individuals.


Imam Muslim in the introduction to his Sahih, outlines the need to critically analyse narrators in order to determine the reliability of the source of a narration attributed to the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him).  In this context, he lists some 50 plus narrators who have been criticised in a variety of ways. Below is a background to these individuals.

[1] Shahr b. Hawshab (شهر بن حوشب)

Shahr b. Hawshab al-Asha’ari al-Shami (d. 112). An ordinary narrator. The great Muhaddith Abu ‘Awn b. Abd Allah b. Awn b. Artaban Basri has criticised him. His narrations have a lot of doubts (أوهام) and irsal (ارسال). The author of the four sunans have narrated from him in their book.

[2] ‘Abbad b. Kathir

Abbad b. Kathir Shami1 (d. ?). He is Da’if and Matruk. Imams Sufyan Thawri and Shu’bah have criticised him. Imams Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah narrate from him in their respective sunan.

[3] Muhammad b. Sa’id Maslub

Muhammad b. Sa’id b. Hassan Asadi Shami . He is a notorious liar and would fabricate hadith. Ahmad b. Salih states, ‘He has fabricated four thousand hadith’. Imam Nasa’i also warned against him and called him ‘an infamous liar and fabricator in Syria’. According Abu Zar’a, ‘He himself is of the opinion that there is nothing wrong in fabricating hadith for good things’. Imam Thawri declared him to be a liar (كذاب). Imams Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah narrate from him in their respective sunan.

[4] The Hadith of the Sufi.

Read Shaykh Yunus Jawnpuri’s article on the issue.

[5] Ghalib b. Ubayd Allah

Ghalib b. Ubayd Allah Jazari ‘Uqayli (d. 135). He is extremely weak. Imam Bukhari declares him to be ‘Munkar al-Hadith

[6] Abu Miqdam Hisham Basri

Abu Miqdam Hisham b. Ziyad Basri. He is a Matruk narrator.

[7] Sulayman b. Hajjaj Ta’ifi

Sulayman b. Hajjaj Ta’ifi. He is a Majhul al-Hal narrator. Darawardi, Abd Allah b. Muhammad have narrated from him. Abdullah b. Mubarak has also narrated from him, however, upon further consideration stopped.

[8] Rawh b. Ghutayf

Rawh b. Ghutayf Thaqafi Jazari. He is munkar al-Hadith and used to fabricate hadith.

[9] Baqiyyah b. al-Walid

Abu Yuhmid Baqiyyah b. al-Walid b. Sayid Kali’I Himsi (110-197). He is a good narrator but ‘Uqayli, Abu Mushiz, Abd Allah Mubarak et al. warn that he narrates from all sorts. Hafidh Ibn Hajar ‘Asqalani state that he is truthful but does tadlis. Imam Ahmad and Abu Ishaq Fazari state that, ‘do not accept his narrations if he narrates from an narrators who are not Ma’ruf, however, if he narrates from Ma’ruf narrator it may be accepted’. Imam narrates from him in his sahih as supporting evidence (ta’liqan). The remaining five books also narrate from him.

[10] Harith A’war Kufi

Abu Zuhayr Harith b. Abd Allah Hamdani al-A’war al-Kufi (d. 65). The authorities are split in their judgment on him. Ibn Ma’in, Nasa’i, Ahmad, Ibn Salih, Ibn Abu Dawud  et al. have commended him (توثيق). On the other hand, Thawri, Ibn Mada’ini, Abu Zar’a Razi, Ibn Adi, Daraqutni, Ibn Sa’d, Abu Hatim, Sha’bi, Ibrahim Nakh’i et al. have criticised him. Ibn Hibban declares him to be a Ghali Shi’a. Allama Zahabi. The four sunans narrate from him although he occurs in Sunan Nasa’i only twice.

[11] Mughyarah b. Sa’id

Abu Abd Allah Mughayrah b. Sa’id Bajali Kufi. What a liar (كذاب) and a staunch Rafidhi. He used to believe that Ali (رضي الله عنه) had the ability to revive the dead. He was the first to speak badly about Abubakr and Umar (رضي الله عنهما). At the end he claimed himself to be a prophet and as a result was burnt.

[12] Abu Abd al-Rahim

Abu Abd al-Rahim Shaqiq Dabbi (ضبي) Kufi. He became also became known by the name ‘Qass’ because he used to give speeches in Kufa. He was the leader of the deviant sect Khawarij.  He is a liar and a weak narrator.

[13] Hadith narrated by orators.
[14] Jabir b.Yazid Ju’fi

Abu ‘Abd Allah Jabir b.Yazid Ju’fi Kufi (d. 167). He is a well known weak narrator. He was okay at first but later became a Saba’i Shia. Those who commended him did so prior to him deviating and those criticised him based it upon his later condition. Imam Abu Hanifa severely criticises him. He is narrated from in Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah.

[15] Harith b. Hasirah

Abu al-Nu’man Harith b. Hasirah Azdi Kufi. He is a weak narrator. He is the student of Jabir b. Yazid Ju’fi (see no. 14) and is a ghali Shi’ah. He was alright at first but turned later to Shi’ism as such some have commended (توثيق) him based on his previous condition. Imam Bukhari narrates from him in Adab al-Mufrad and Imam Nasa’i in his sunan [2].

[16] Two unknown people
[17] Abu Umayya Abd al-Karim Basri

Abu Umayyah Abd al-Karim b. al-Makhariq al-Mu’allim al-Basri (d. 126). Many authorities have criticised including Imams Ibn ‘Uyaynah, Ibn Mahdi, Yahya b. Qattan, Ahmad b. Hanbal, Ibn Adi and Ayyub Sakhtiyani. Imam Bukhari narrates from him once in his Sahih. Imam Nasa’i narrates from him a few times and Imams Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah of often in their respective sunans.

[18] Abu Dawud A’ma

Abu Dawud Nafi’ b. Haris, “Alqas al-A’ma” Kufi. He is a Matruk narrator. He has been narrated from by Timidhi and Ibn Majah.

[19] Abu Ja’far Hashimi Madani

Abu Ja’far Abd Allah b. Miswar Mada’ini (also Madani) Hashimi. He is a liar (كذاب) and fabricator of hadith (واضع الحديث).

[20] Amr b. ‘Ubayd

Abu Uthman Amr b. ‘Ubayd b. Bab Basri (d. 143). He is a well known Mu’tazili and is a weak narrator. He is devout and practising man but calls other towards his Mu’tazili belief.

[21] Abu Shaybah Qadhi Wasit

Ibrahim b.Uthman Abu Shaybah ‘Abasi Kufi[3]; also referred to as ‘Qadhi Wasit’ (d. 169). He is Matruk al-Hadith and is very weak. Imams Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah narrate from him in their respective sunans.

[22] Salih Murri

Abu Bishr Salih b. Bashir b. Wadi’ Murri Basri (d. 173). He is a pious person but when giving sermons he would narrate weak hadith. Imam Abu Dawud and Tirmidhi narrate from him in their respective sunan.

[23] Hasan b. ‘Umara

Abu Muhammad Hasan b. ‘Umara Bajali Kufi (d. 153). He was judge in Baghdad. He is extremely weak and has been declared Matruk. Imam Bukhari includes him in his Sahih as supporting evidence (Ta’liqan). Imam Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah narrate from him in his sunan.

[24] Ziyad b. Maymun

Abu Ammar Ziyad b. Maymun Thaqafi Fakihani Basri. He was big liar and fabricator of Hadith. He would fabricate and attribute hadith to the Sahabiyah ‘Attarah and the Sahabi Anas b. Malik (رضي الله عنهما) even though he never met the latter.

[25] Khalid b. Mahduj

Abu Rawh Khalid b. Mahduj Wasiti. He was a very and Matruk narrator. He would attribute narrations to Anas b. Malik despite never meeting him.

[26] Abd al-Quddus Shami

Abu Sa’id Abd al-Quddus b. Habib Kala’I Dimashqi Shami. All muhaddith are unanimous that he is Matruk. Not only was he weak he was also negligent (مغفل). Abd Allah b. Mubarak says, ‘In my opinion it is better do dacoity than to accept hadith from Abd Quddud Shami ’. Imam states, ‘His [Abd al-Quddus] hadith are all over the place’

[27] Mahdi b. Hilal

Abu Abd Allah Mahdi b. Hilal Basri. He is a Matruk narrator and associated with the Qadriyya. According to Ibn Ma’in, ‘he was a deviant and would fabricate narration’.

[28] Aban b. Abu Ayash

Abu Isma’il Aban b. Abu ‘Ayash Fayruz Abdi Zahid Basri (d. 140 circa). He was a minor Tabi’i  and a Matruk narrator. Imam Abu Dawud narrates from him in his sunan.

[29] Ismail b. ‘Ayash

Abu Utbah Ismail b. Ayash b. Sulaym ‘Anasi Himsi (106-182). He was a great man. His narration pertaining to his Syrian teacher are universally accepted, however, his narration originating from the Hijaz or Iraq have been criticised.

[30] Mu’alla b. Urfan

Mu’alla b. Urfan. He is considered Munkar and is a Ghali Shia. He had little knowledge of history. He usually narrates from his uncle Abu Wa’il Shaqiq b. Salamah

[31] Unknown narrator
[32] Muhammad b. Abd al-Rahman

Abu Jabir Muhammad b. Abd al-Rahman Bayadi (بياضي) Madani. All scholars are unanimous on him being weak. Imam Ahmad says, ‘He is extremely weak’. He usually narrates Sa’id b. al-Musayyab.

[33] Abu Huwayrith

Abu Huwayrith Abd al-Rahman b. Mu’awiyah b. Huwayrith Ansari Zuraqi Madani. He is an ordinary narrator. He had a poor memory and is accused of being associated with the Murjiyah sect. Imam Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah narrate from him in their sunan.

[34] Shu’bah Qurashi Hashimi

Abu Abd Allah Shu’bah b. Yahya (Dinar) Qurashi Hashimi Madani. He is the Mawla of Abd Allah b. Abbas (رضي الله عنه) and is an ordinary narrator. Imam Abu Dawud narrates from him in his Sunan.

[35] Salih, Mawla al-Tiwama

Salih b. Nahban, Mawla al-Tiwama, Madani (d. 125). He is an ordinary narrator. He is a honest person (صدوق) but his memory became in his later age. As such only his narrations from students of his early narrations are accepted. Imam Malik classification of him as unreliable (غير ثقة) was in reference to his last years.

[36] Haram b. Uthman

Haram b. Uthman Ansari Salami. He was a very weak narrator and a Ghali Shia. Imams Shafi and Ibn Mu’in say, “الرواية عن حرامٍ حرامٌ”.

[37] Unknown
[38] Shurahbil b. Sa’d

Abu Sa’d Shurahbil b. Sa’d Madani (d. 123). He was a honest person. Imam Bukhari narrates from him al-Adab al-Mufrad, Imams Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah in their respective Sunans. During his later years his memory became weak; he lived up to a hundred. As such some have criticised him.

[39] Abd Allah b. Muharrar

Abd Allah b. Muharrar Jazri; also known as Qadhi Raqqa. He is Matruk and unreliable. He is narrated from in Ibn Majah.

[40] Yahya b. Abu Unaysah

Yahya b. Abu Unaysah Jazri Ruhawi. He is a Matruk narrator. Fallas states that, ‘All scholars are unanimous in rejecting him’

[41] Farqad b. Ya’qub Sabakhi

Abu Ya’qub Farqad b. Ya’qub Sabakhi (d. 131). He was a pious man, however, was weak in hadith as he would make a lot of errors. Imams Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah have narrated from him.

[42] Muhammad b. Abdullah Laythi

Muhammad b. Abdullah b. Ubayd b. Umayr Laythi Makki. He is a very weak narrator. Imam Bukhari classifies him as Munkar. Imam Nasa’i calls him matruk. He usually narrates from ‘Ata b. Abu Rabah.

[43] Ya’qub b. Ata’

Ya’qub b. Ata’ b. Abu Rabah Makki (d. 155). He is a weak narrator. He narrates from his father. Imam Nasa’i has narrated from him.

[44] Hakim b. Jubayr

Hakim b. Jubayr Asadi Kufi. A famous controversial narrator of the four sunans. He is weak and is accused of being a Shia.

[45] Abd al-A’la b. Amir Tha’labi

Abd al-A’la b. Amir Tha’labi Kufi (d. 129). He is an honest narrator; however, there are doubts (وهم) in his narrations. He is narrated from in the four sunans.

[46] Musa b. Dinar

Musa b. Dinar Makki. He is a weak narrator. Saji declares him to be a liar (كذاب) and Matruk. He narrates from Sa’id b. Jubayr (رضي الله عنه).

[47] Musa b. Dihqan

Musa b. Dihqan Kufi Madani (d. before 150). He is a weak narrator. His memory became weak in his later years. Narrate from Abu Sa’id Khudri (رضي الله عنه).

[48] Isa b. Abu Isa Madani

Isa b. Abu Isa Maysarah Kufi Madani Khayyat (d. 151). He is a Matruk narrator. He is narrated by Imam Ibn Majah in his Sunan.

[49] Ubaydah b. Mu’attib

Abu Abd al-Rahim Ubaydah b. Mu’attib Dabbi (ضبي) Kufi. He is considered weak. His memory became poor in his last years. He is quoted in Bukhari (ch. Adahi) as supporting evidence. Imams Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah have taken from him, however, Imams Muslim and Nasa’i have not quoted in their sahih or sunan.

[50] al-Sariyy b. Isma’il

al-Sariyy b. Isma’il Hamdani Kufi. He was a judge and the Uncle of Sha’bi. He is a Matruk narrator. Imam Ibn Majah has taken hadith from him.

[51] Muhammad b. Salim

Muhammad b. Salim Hamdani Kufi. He is a weak narrator. Imam Tirmidhi has taken hadith from him.


[1] In another place he is referred to as Basri

[2] In Kitab al-Khasa’is

[3] The paternal grandfather of the great muhaddith Abu Bakr b. Abu Shaybah, the author of Musannif Abu Shaybah

Muqaddimah Muslim #1: Salutation

This is the exposition on the Muqaddimah of Imam Muslim which in effect is a preface to his famous Sahih. Here, if Allah almighty gives ability, I will clarify the text and summarise the issues rather than delve deep or prolong discussion for which I will merely point towards relevant article. Imam Muslim starts his Muqaddimah with the following declaration:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ وَالْعَاقِبَةُ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ وَصَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ خَاتَمِ النَّبِيِّينَ وَعَلَى جَمِيعِ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ وَالْمُرْسَلِينَ أَمَّا بَعْدُ

"In the name of Allah, the very merciful and very kind. All praise is to Allah, the lord of the worlds. Salutation (salat) be upon Muhammad, the last of the prophets. [Salutations] be upon all the prophets and messengers.

Imam Muslim start with bimillah, hamd of Allah almighty and salat upon the prophet (peace be upon him). There are three topics discussed here; (1) the sequence of uttering bismillah, hamd and salat, (2) the detailed analysis of these three, (3) the validity of omitting salam when sending salat.

Firstly, in regards to the sequence of uttering bismillah, hamd and salat in the beginning. Although it is better to read or write all three, it is sufficient that the remembrance of Allah occurs in some way. This is the best solution for reconciling the narrations as the pronouncement must be sequential. The prophet (peace be upon him) declared in separate narrations that any matter of significance starting without bismillah, hamd or salah will be decrepit1. The arguments of relative beginnings is posited but is largely rejected.

Secondly, in regards to the detailed analysis of Bismillah, Hamd and the Salat. This is a long topic and one discussed in length in most tafasir. See the article bismillah, hamd and salat2.

Thirdly, in regards to omitting salam and relying upon salat as done by Imam Muslim. It is better to declare both3 as indicated in the Quran4, however, it is tolerable to rely upon only the salat or salam as was seen in numerous ahadith.


Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
9 Sha’ban 1437
16 May 2016


1 Lacking barakah

2 Note unpublished

3 Shami p.10 v.1

4 Surah Ahzab: 56. صلوا عليه و سلموا تسليما

Amr is a statement

By default without added context, can any mere action prove compulsion and be construed as an amr (imperative)? The answer according to the Ahnaf is ‘No’ as an amr is a statement and not an action.

By Alm. S A Rahman

فال العلامة أبو البركات في كتابه المنار: منه (اي من الخاص) الأمر و هو قول القائل لغيره علي سبيل الإستعلاء إفعل. و يختص مراده بصيغة لازمة حتي لا يكون الفعل موجبا خلافا لبعض أصحاب الشافعي رحمه الله تعالي للمنع عن الوصال و خلع النعال. و الوجوب أستفيد بقوله عليه السلام صلو كما رأيتموني أصلي لا بالفعل و سمي الفعل به لأنه سببه اهـ

Amr is a statement said to someone other than themselves from an authoritative position using imperative words. Amr is a type of khas and it is specific with a statement or word. Hence, an action by it mere act will not be considered an amr (imperative) nor wajib.

The Ahnaf maintain that amr (imperative) are words; actions by default do not infer an imperative or compulsion.

The prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) used to fast a number of days without breaking the fast in between. Upon seeing this, the sahabah also began fasting without a break. The Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) told the sahabah to stop fasting in this manner as they did not have the same strength Allah Almighty had given him.

In another instance, the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) was praying and whilst in salah, he took off his shoes. The sahabah also took off their shoes in turn. Upon finishing, the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) asked the sahabah why they had taken their shoes off during salah. They replied, ‘We saw you take it off so we took it off’. The Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) replied, ‘Jibra’il (peace be upon him) informed me that on it there was impurity’.

If actions were imperative, in both instances it would have been compulsory for the sahabah to do as the Prophet (peace be upon him) did. However, this was not the case as the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) did not expect the sahabah to do these actions as a matter of compulsion without his express direction.

In contrast, some argue that an imperative can be inferred through an actions as well as words. They use the occasion of the battle of Khandaq. The Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) missed his Zuhr, Asr and Maghrib salah due to the battle and so he prayed the missed salahs together at Isha consecutively. The sahabah also did the same thing. Some say that this is evidence that amr can be through action as the sahabah had to pray the same way after seeing the prayer of the Prophet (peace be upon him). However, this proof is incomplete. The prophet (peace be upon him) did pray the missed salahs as mentioned but he then turned and said ‘Pray as you see me pray’. So the sahabah were not compelled to pray by the mere fact that they saw the prophet (peace be upon him) pray rather it was because he commanded them to pray.

قال الله سبحانه و تعالي و ما امر فرعون برشيد

Alternatively, some argue the case that an amr (imperative) can be inferred through action by using the ayat (11:97), ‘The amr of the Pharaoh was not rashid (prudent)’. The word ‘rashid’ is used in Arabic to describe an action whilst ‘sadid’ is used to describe a statement. Hence, here the amr refers to the action of the Pharaoh and not his statement. Allm. Nasafi declares this argument to have moved beyond the matter being discussed. Here, Amr refers to action as a metaphor due to it being the cause for action. Whilst, the key discussion here is whether amr can be inferred through action literally and by default without the aid of further contextual evidences.


The Difference between Illat and Hikmat

On discussing the prohibition of interest, the difference between illat and hikmat is outlined. The principle is that the application of a law depends on the Illat and not on the Hikmat.


By Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani
The Historic Judgement on Interest para 119 – 131

119. The first assumption which takes zulm as the basic illat of the prohibition of riba is in fact based on confusing the Illat with the Hikmat of a prohibition. It is a well settled principle of Islamic jurisprudence that there is a big difference between the Illat and the Hikmat of a particular law. The Illat is the basic feature of a transaction without which the relevant law cannot be applied to it, whereas the Hikmat is the wisdom and the philosophy taken into account by the legislator while framing the law or the benefit intended to be drawn by its enforcement. The principle is that the application of a law depends on the Illat and not on the Hikmat. In other words, if the Illat (the basic feature of the transaction) is present in a particular situation while the Hikmat (the wisdom) is not visualized, the law will still be applicable. This principle is recognized in the secular laws also. Let us take a simple example. The law has made it compulsory for the vehicles running on the roads to stop when the red street light is on. The Illat of this law is the red light, while the Hikmat is to avoid the chances of accidents. Now, the law will be applicable whenever the red light is on; its application will not depend on whether or not there is an apprehension of an accident. Therefore, if the red light is on, every vehicle must stop, even though the roads of both sides have no other traffic at all. In this particular case, the basic wisdom (hikmat) of the law is not discernable, because there is no apprehension of any accident in any way. Still the law will be applicable in its full force, because the red light which was the real Illat of the law is present. To cite another example, the Holy Qur’an has prohibited liquor. The Illat of its prohibition is intoxication but the Hikmat of this prohibition has been mentioned by the Holy Qur’an in the following words:

إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَنْ يُوقِعَ بَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةَ وَالْبَغْضَاءَ فِي الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ وَيَصُدَّكُمْ عَنْ ذِكْرِ الله وَعَنِ الصَّلَاةِ ۖ فَهَلْ أَنْتُمْ مُنْتَهُونَ

The Satan definitely intends to inculcate enmity and hatred between you by means of liquor and gambling, and wants to prevent you from remembering Allah. So would you not desist? (5:91)

120. The philosophy of the prohibition of liquor and gambling given by the Holy Qur’an in this verse is that liquor inculcates enmity and hatred between people and it prevents them from remembering Allah. Can one say that he has been using liquor for a long time but it never resulted in having enmity with anyone, and therefore, the basic Illat of the prohibition being not present, he should be allowed to use liquor? Or can one reasonably argue that drinking wine has never prevented him from offering prayers at their due times, and therefore, the basic cause of prohibition mentioned by the Holy Qur’an being absent, the drinking should be held as permissible. Obviously, no one can accept these arguments because the enmity and hatred referred to by the Holy Qur’an in the above verse is not intended to be the Illat of the prohibition. It simply spells out some bad results which the liquor and gambling often produce. They have been mentioned as a Hikmat and the philosophy of the prohibition, but the prohibition itself does not depend on these results. It is in the same way that after prohibiting the transaction of riba, the Holy Qur’an has mentioned the Zulm as a Hikmat or a philosophy of the prohibition, but it does not mean that prohibition will not be applicable if the element of Zulm appears to be missing in a particular case. The Illat (the basic feature) on which the prohibition is based is the excess claimed over and above the principal in a transaction of loan, and as soon as this Illat is present, the prohibition will follow regardless of whether the philosophy of the law is or is not visible in a particular transaction.

121. Another point worth mentioning here is that the Illat of a law is always something determinable by hard and fast definition which leaves no room for a dispute as to whether the Illat is or is not available. Any relative term which is ambiguous in nature cannot be held to be the Illat of a particular law because its existence being susceptible to doubts and disputes, it would defeat the very purpose of the law. The Zulm (Injustice) is a relative and rather ambiguous term the exact definition of which is very difficult to ascertain. Every person may have his own view about what is or what is not Zulm. All the disputing political and economic systems of the world, in fact, claimed to abolish Zulm, but what was regarded as Zulm in one system has been held as justified in another. The communist theory of economy is of the firm view that the private property in itself is a Zulm, while the capitalist theory asserts that abolishing private property is the zulm. Such an ambiguous term is not competent to be the Illat of a particular law.

122. Mr. Khalid M. Ishaque, advocate, who appeared as a juris-consult in this case, adopted another approach. According to him, non-availability of a hard and fast definition of ‘zulm‘ or riba should be taken as a blessing from Allah, for it provides elasticity to the Muslims of every age to determine what is zulm in the given situations of their time. In his written statement the learned juris-consult has expressed himself in the following words:

a) Misdirected efforts towards definition-making ought to be discontinued. Absence of definition of riba in the Qur’an should be accepted as such and rather be looked upon as a mercy for mankind. The deliberate omission of a rigid definition would propel Muslims to come up with their own guiding and evolving principles of identifying zulm in space-time situations. Economic conditions are not static and nor are human situations.

b) A sound economic policy ought to include “all purposeful governmental action whose actual and professed primary objective is the improvement of the economic welfare of the whole population for which government is responsible, not of some segment of that population.” The Islamic concept of economy is not inimical or dissimilar to the above. As such, an Islamic approach should neither be insulated and detached from an economistic approach/program nor should it be in ignorance of the same as they need not be mutually exclusive.

Jurists should not close their mind to the possibility that both can be synergized to arrive at the most beneficial and fair outcome. Very typically, whenever Muslim jurists have not kept themselves abreast with or informed of contemporary disciplines (economics is a case in point), they have a tendency to become averse to it, treat it with suspicion, regard it as a hazard and simply label it as un-Islamic to avoid study of the same.

123. We paid due consideration to this approach, but with due respect to the learned juris-consult, this argument seems to overlook some fundamental points:

124. Firstly, the learned juris-consult has taken the deliberate omission of a rigid definition of riba (by the Holy Qur’an) as a mercy for mankind. This argument appears to presume that the Holy Qur’an normally gives definitions of the acts prohibited by it, but in the case of riba the Holy Qur’an deliberately omitted to give a rigid definition. The fact, however, is that the Holy Qur’an has hardly given a legal definition to any one of its prohibitions. No definition is given for khamr (liquor), nor forqimar (gambling) nor for zina (adultery or fornication) nor for theft, nor for robbery, nor for kufr. Similarly the Holy Qur’an did not define its imperatives like Salat, Sawm (fasting), Zakah, Hajj or Jihad. Should we, then, say that none of these concepts has a specific meaning and all these injunctions are therefore subject to ever-changing whims based on “space-time situations”? The Holy Qur’an, in fact, did not give legal definitions to these concepts because their meanings were too obvious to need an express definition. Some ancillary details of these concepts might have not been so clear and might have given rise to differences of opinion, but it does not mean that the basic concept of all these injunctions has been floated in void or vacuum, having no specific sense at all.

125. Secondly, the learned juris-consult has succinctly outlined the basic features of a sound economic policy in the italicized portion of the above extract. One can hardly question its soundness. Almost all the economic systems claim to strive for the same objectives, but the question is how to achieve them? It is the answer to this very question that has divided different economic systems into conflicting rivals. The learned juris-consult suggests that “Islamic approach should not be insulated and detached from an economistic approach/program.” The suggestion seems to be substantially reasonable, but when this suggestion is given in the context of leaving the definition of riba unsettled and “evolving principles of identifying zulm in space-time situations” it apparently means that it is the pure economic approach which will play a decisive role in identifying zulm in a particular situation and in turn determining what is halal or haram in Shar’iah. Once it is taken for granted, the question is “which economic approach”? There are numerous theories, conflicting with each other, but each one of them pretending to race towards the sound economic policy of “improving the economic welfare of the whole population.” The basic economic goals of a welfare economy are recognized by almost everyone thinking on economic subjects. However, it is the strategy for translating these objectives into reality that makes a big difference. The Islamic strategy to achieve these goals is neither too narrow to accommodate the ever-changing needs of the humanity or too biased to interact with the modern thought, nor is it too dependent on the modern theories to make its own way towards these goals. Islam has no problem in welcoming any constructive suggestion from whatever quarter it may have come, but at the same time it has its own principles on which no compromise is possible, because they are based on divine guidance, the most distinct feature of the Islamic economy that draws the line of difference between the Islamic and secular economies – and the prohibition of riba is one of those basic principles. To leave this principle at the mercy of the secular economic policies is, therefore, like placing the cart before the horse.

126. Thirdly, abolishing zulm (injustice) is not the hikmat or purpose of the prohibition of riba alone. It is the reson’ detre of most of the Islamic injunctions relating to business and trade. But whenever the Holy Qur’an and Sunnah gave a specific command or prohibition in these areas, they did not rely on the rational assessment of the people, nor did they leave these transactions at the mercy of human reason to decide whether or not they have an element of Zulm. If the Holy Qur’an and the Sunnah intended to entrust such a decision to the human intellect alone, they would have not revealed such a long list of commands and prohibitions; they would have rather issued one single command that all people must avoid zulm in all their transactions. But the Holy Qur’an and Sunnah were cognizant of the fact that human reason, despite its wide capabilities, cannot claim to have unlimited power to reach the truth. After all, it has some limits beyond which it either cannot properly work or may fall prey to errors. There are many areas of human life where “reason” is often confused with “desires” and where unhealthy instincts, under the garb of rational arguments, misguide the humanity and demonstrate the unjust attitudes in the disguised form of justice. It is these areas where human reason needs the guidance of divine revelation, and it is the divine revelation which finally decides as to which human attitude actually falls within the limits of “zulm” or injustice, even though it appears to be just in the eyes of some secular rationalists, and it is in such issues that the divine revelations come with a specific command that prevails upon the rational arguments advanced by differing opinions. That is exactly what happened in the case of riba. The secular rationalists were fully content with their belief that riba transactions practiced by them were quite justified, because the income they earn through interest is very similar to the profit they earn through sales. That is why they confronted the prohibition of riba by their rational argument quoted by the Holy Qur’an in the following words:

إِنَّمَا الْبَيْعُ مِثْلُ الرِّبَا

Sale is nothing but similar to riba. (2:275)

127. They intended that if a profit claimed in a transaction of sale is just and lawful, there is no reason why an interest claimed in a transaction of loan is held to be unjust and unlawful. In answer to this argument of theirs, the Holy Qur’an could have mentioned the difference between interest and profit in pure logical manner, and could have explained how the profit in a sale is justified while the interest is not. The Holy Qur’an could have also spelled out the evil consequences of riba on the economy. But this line of argument was intentionally avoided, and the brief and simple answer given by the Holy Qur’an was:

وَأَحَلَّ الله الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا

Allah has allowed the sale and has prohibited interest. (2:275)

128. The hint given in this verse is that the question whether these transactions have an element of injustice is not left to be decided by human reason alone, because the reason of different individuals may come up with different answers and no absolute conclusion of universal application may be arrived at on the basis of pure rational arguments. The correct principle, therefore, is that once a particular transaction is held by Allah to be haram, there is no room for disputing it on the basis of pure rational argumentation because Allah’s knowledge and wisdom encompasses all those points which are not accessible to ordinary reason. If the human reason was fully competent to reach the correct decision unanimously in each and every issue, no divine revelation would be called for. There is a wide area of human conduct in which the Creator did not give a specific command. It is this area where human reason can well play its role, but it should not be burdened to play the role of a rival to the express divine injunctions.

129. The Qur’anic verse referring to zulm (Injustice) in the context of riba should be studied in this perspective. The exact words of the verse are:

وَإِن تُبْتُمْ فَلَكُمْ رُءُوسُ أَمْوَالِكُمْ لَا تَظْلِمُونَ وَلَا تُظْلَمُونَ

And if you repent (from claiming riba), then you are entitled to get your principal back. Neither you wrong nor be wronged. (2:279)

130. Before referring to zulm, the Qur’anic verse has laid down the precise principle that no one can be deemed to have repented from the practice of riba unless he has withdrawn from claiming any additional amount over and above the principal, but on the other hand he is fully entitled to get back his principal, and his debtor is bound to pay him the full amount of loan. If the debtor will not pay the principal, he will be committing injustice against the creditor, and if the creditor will claim something more than the principal, he will be committing injustice to the debtor.

131. Thus the Holy Qur’an did not leave it to the assessment of the parties to decide what is injustice and what is not. Instead, the Holy Book itself has precisely decided what is injustice for each one of the two parties in a transaction of loan. Therefore, the notion that the permissibility of different transactions of interest should be judged on the basis of human assessment is tantamount to defeating the very purpose of the revelation and is not, therefore, acceptable.

Abu Dawud ch. 40: forbearance

حَدَّثَنَا مَخْلَدُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ الشَّعِيرِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا عُمَرُ بْنُ يُونُسَ، حَدَّثَنَا عِكْرِمَةُ يَعْنِي ابْنَ عَمَّارٍ قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي إِسْحَاقُ يَعْنِي ابْنَ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ أَبِي طَلْحَةَ قَالَ قَالَ أَنَسٌ كَانَ رَسُولُ الله صلى الله عليه وسلم مِنْ أَحْسَنِ النَّاسِ خُلُقًا فَأَرْسَلَنِي يَوْمًا لِحَاجَةٍ فَقُلْتُ وَاللهِ لاَ أَذْهَبُ (مزاحا و هو غلام غير مكلف) وَفِي نَفْسِي أَنْ أَذْهَبَ لِمَا أَمَرَنِي بِهِ نَبِيُّ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم‏.‏ قَالَ (أنس) فَخَرَجْتُ حَتَّى أَمُرَّ عَلَى صِبْيَانٍ وَهُمْ يَلْعَبُونَ فِي السُّوقِ (فاشتغلت معهم في اللعب) فَإِذَا رَسُولُ الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قَابِضٌ بِقَفَاىَ () مِنْ وَرَائِي فَنَظَرْتُ إِلَيْهِ وَهُوَ يَضْحَكُ (أي يتبسم رفقا به) فَقَالَ ‏يَا أُنَيْسُ اذْهَبْ حَيْثُ أَمَرْتُكَ‏.‏ قُلْتُ نَعَمْ أَنَا أَذْهَبُ يَا رَسُولَ الله (أي أنا في سبيل إليه)‏.‏ قَالَ أَنَسٌ وَاللهِ لَقَدْ خَدَمْتُهُ سَبْعَ سِنِينَ أَوْ تِسْعَ سِنِينَ (شك الراوي لكن جزم تسع سنين في رواية المسلم) مَا عَلِمْتُ قَالَ لِشَىْءٍ صَنَعْتُ لِمَ فَعَلْتَ كَذَا وَكَذَا ولاَ لِشَىْءٍ تَرَكْتُ هَلاَّ فَعَلْتَ كَذَا وَكَذَا

#4773: Ishaq b. Abdullah b. Abu Talhah1 reports that Hadrat (May Allah be pleased with him) said, The prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) had the best of character. Once He sent me on an errand. I [being a child jokingly] said, ‘By Allah I won’t go’ but in my heart I intended to go to do what the prophet (peace be upon him) commanded me.

He (may Allah Almighty be pleased with him) said, I went out [to fulfil the errand] until I passed upon some boys who were playing in the market. [Distracted from his task, he joined them in play.] Then suddenly, the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) [standing] behind me grabbed the back of my neck. I [turned and] looked towards him and He was smiling. He (peace be upon him) said, ‘O Unays (Little Anas)! Go and do what I told you!’ I said, ‘Yes, I am going, O prophet of Allah’.

Anas (may Allah almighty be pleased with him) said, By Allah, I served [the Prophet] for seven or nine years. [During that time], I never knew Him to say on something I did, ‘Why did you do this or that!’ Nor did He say on something I missed, ‘Why didn’t you do this and that!’

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللهِ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمَانُ يَعْنِي ابْنَ الْمُغِيرَةِ عَنْ ثَابِتٍ (بن اسلم البناني) عَنْ أَنَسٍ قَالَ خَدَمْتُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَشْرَ سِنِينَ بِالْمَدِينَةِ وَأَنَا غُلاَمٌ لَيْسَ كُلُّ أَمْرِي كَمَا يَشْتَهِي صَاحِبِي أَنْ أَكُونَ عَلَيْهِ مَا قَالَ لِي فِيهَا أُفٍّ قَطُّ وَمَا قَالَ لِي لِمَ فَعَلْتَ هَذَا أَوْ أَلاَ فَعَلْتَ هَذَا.‏

#4774: Thabit (b. Aslam al-Bunani)2 reports from Hadrat Anas that he said, I served the Prophet (peace be upon him) for ten years in Madinah. I a was a boy; not everything of mine was as my sire wanted it to be. He never said ‘uff‘ to me and he said to me, ‘why did you do this or why did you not do this?’

See Takmilah Fath al-Mulhim p. 454 v. 4; Bazl al-Majhud p. 29 v. 20

[1] The sanad is Sahih. Imam Muslim narrates with the same sanad except that he reports from Abu Ma’n rather than Makhlad b. Khalid both of whom are thiqah. Some have commented on the sanad due to the presence of Ikramah b. Ammar. The words in Muslim is the same except that the narrator is not conflicted and flatly reports nine years.

[2] —

Avoid some common mistakes in evaluating hadith


The following is a summary of some remedial principles mentioned by Mufti Taqi Usmani. This is in order to avoid the common mistakes in evaluating hadith and making unwarranted objections that one abandons strong evidences.

(1) A hadith is evaluated on the reliability of the sanad and validity of the matn not merely based on the collection it belongs.

(2) The appraisal of the hadith is a tedious task and solely the purview of those who possess the requisite criteria and the rank of ijtihad in the field.

(3) When such experts differ in their appraisal, prioritise the cautious expert over the lenient and the fair over the harsh. If both the experts are fair and cautious one should judge the rationale if they are qualified to do so or else they should choose the one they trust.

(4) Know that the opinion of one expert is not evidence against another expert.

(5) Furthermore, note that the experts judge with the quality of the sources at hand, hence, the loss of information at a later stage does not negate the classification of the earlier experts.

(6) The declaration of sahih or da’if signifies that it fulfils or lacks the set criteria for acceptance; it is highly likely that it reflects the reality but not certainly so. One must act upon the likelihood unless strong evidence indicates to the contrary.

(7) The ahnaf amongst others consider the practice of the sahabah and tabi’in as significant evidence to strengthen a seemingly weak hadith similar to the existence of multiple sanads which in effect reclassifies it to hasan li ghayrihi.

(8) If two reliable ahadith collide, the ahnaf will prioritise the content which conforms to the Quran or the general principles of Shari’ah irrespective if the other sanad is relatively stronger as according to them effect in superior to quantity once reliability is established.

For more details, read Eight Remedial principles in evaluating hadith

الدر المنضود في أسانيد شيخ الهند محمود

كتب الشيخ الفقيه المفسر المفتي الأعظم لباكستان محمد شفيع العثماني رحمه الله تعالي
في الإزدياد السَني علي اليانع الجَني

حصل له، قدس سره القراءة والسماعة والإجازة  من الصدر الأكبر، والبدرلمنير، المسند الرحلة، حجة الإسلام أبي أحمد مونا محمد قاسم الصديقي النانوتوي. و سبق مناشئ من ذكره. قال قذس سره: و حصل لي إجازة من الفقيه  المحدث، صدر الإسلام،والبدر التمام، قطب العالم، حضرة مولانا رشيد أحمد الأنصاري الكنكوهي. قالا (يعني شيخيه النانوتوي والكنكوهي) حصل لنا القراءة والسماع والإجازة عن الصدر الزاهد، والبدر السافر، المحدث العارف بالله، الشيخ عبد الغني المجددي المهاجر، بإسناده المثبت في اليانع الجني من أسانيد الشيخ عبد الغني، عن الصدر الأجل والبدر الأكمل، المشتهر في الأفاق، الحاففظ الحجة، مولانا إسحاق الدهلوي، رحمهم الله.

قال رحمه الله: و حصل الإجازة عن علم العلوم العلماء، حضرة سيدنا العلامة الورع التقي، مولانا أحمد علي المحدث السهارنفوري، صاحب التعليقات المعروضة المقبولة على صحيح البخاري و غيره. وعن الصدر الأكبر، والبدر الأنور، حضرة مولانا الشيخ محمد مظهر، المحدث النانوتوي، مؤسس المدرسة المسماة بمظاهر العلوم بسهارنفور. وعن شمش العلوم، وزين العلماء، حضرة العالم الرباني، مولاناالشيخ عبد الرحمن القارئ الفاني فتي، رحمة الله عليهم أجمعين رحمة واسعة. كلهم (يعني الثلاثة الأخيرة) عن مسند العلم والعلماء، في عصره، مدارالإسناد والتحديث في وقته، حضرة مولانا الشاه محمد إسحاق الدهلوي، الموصوف فيما سبق بإسناده المثبت في اليانع الجني

هذا كله ما ذكره الشيخ، قدس سره، في سند الإجازة الذي كتبه لشيخنا الأبجل، زهري الوقت، حافظ العصر، حضرة مولانا الشاه محمد أنور الكشميري، متعنا الله تعالى بطول بقائه بالخير. ثم رأيت شيخي الهمام، والمولى الهمام، الورع التقي العارف بالله، السيد الأكبر، مولانا السيد أصغر حسين، المحدث الفقيه الديوبندي، متعنا الله تعالى بطول بقائه بالخير، ذكر في تذكرته المسماة بحياة شيخ الهند أن الشيخ رحمه الله لما حضر المدينة المنورة، زادها الله تعالي شرفا و إجلالا، مع شيخه النانوتوي والكنكوهي، رحمة الله تعالي عليهما، و تشرفوا بزيارة شيخ المشائخ مسند أسانيدهم، حضرة مولانا الشاه عبد الغني رحمه الله، (و كان قد هاجر إلى المدينة) فأستدعاه الشيخ النانوتوي، رحمه الله، أن يكتب الإجازة لشيخنا شيخ الهند رحمه الله، فأجازه بأسانيده الثابتة في اليانع الجني.

The conditions for ijazah in hadith

By Mufti Sa’eed Ahmad Palanpuri
Tuhfat al-Qari v.1 p. 116
Translated by Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami  – 13 Jumada I 1436

The ijazah for hadith is given with three conditions. When these three conditions are found, there will be ijazah or else not.

The first condition is that the student should have heard or read the hadith to a teacher. If they have neither heard or read the hadith rather they were absent or sleeping whilst sat, they will not have ijazah.

The second condition is that they must have understood the hadith. Those who did not understand, do not have permission.

The third condition is that the hadith be firmly remembered and relayed forward with caution.

Hence, the students should consistently be present in lessons. No hadith should remain unread or unheard. It should be understood with full focus and when stating the hadith in future it should be done with full caution. Reading in this form is ijazah. The teacher sitting to teach (تصدي للإقراء) is ijazah – there is no need to seek a separate ijazah at the end of the year. The ijazah which is given after cursory reading of the beginning of books is only for the kamil – it is not given to any and all. Hence, in the sanad of the Darul Uloom an ijazah for the hadith is not written. It simply states that this graduate has studied such and such hadith books and that’s it.


Note! The condition are not exhaustive rather the most pertinent for those studying in their final year. The criteria of piety is a given for one who has already studied for six years.

#201602221801 – 13 Jumada I 1436 | 22 February 2016

Abu Ayyub Ansari

By Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
10 Jumada I 1437 | 19 February 2016

Abu Ayyub Ansari was a close companion (sahabi) of the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) and a consummate warrior. He was born Khalid b. Zayd b. Kulayb of the clan Najjar which is a branch of the tribe Kazraj.1 Hence, he was amongst the Ansar who helped the Prophet (peace be upon him) when he emigrated to Madinah Munawwarah.

When the Prophet (peace be upon him) arrived in Madinah, most wanted to host him. The Prophet let loose his camel with the intent that He will stay at the house of the person where the camel stopped. It stopped briefly at the house of Abu Ayyub who in turn rushed and took off the saddle to his house. Thus, he was designated the host of the Prophet who stayed with him many months until the main masjid was built. Even after the prophet moved, Abu Ayyub (may Allah Almighty be pleased with him) used to prepare food for the Prophet (peace be upon him) and host his guests. This was due to the close amity the Prophet felt with Abu Ayyub Ansari.

The Prophet (peace be upon him) coupled him in brotherhood with the great Sahabi and standard bearer Mus’ab b. Umayr (may Allah Almighty be please with him) who was martyred in Uhad. Abu Ayyub himself was a seasoned warrior. He was present at the pledge of Aqabah as well as the battles of Badr, Uhad and all the campaigns of the Prophet (peace be upon him). It is said that the only reason he would not have been in a battle the Muslims fought is because he was engaged in another battle. He fought in the side of Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) during the civil war and thereafter for Mu’awiyah (may Allah Almighty be pleased with him) during his reign. Around 52 years after the Prophet’s arrival to Madinah, now in his old age, Abu Ayyub Ansari accompanied Yazid b. Mu’awiyah to conquer Constantinople. There he fought but then fell ill. Yazid visited him and asked if he had any requests. He replied, ‘My request is that when I die, ride deep into the enemy territory as far as possible and bury me there’. He died in that campaign and his wish was fulfilled. He was buried at the border of Constantinople. May Allah Almighty be pleased with him and elevate his status.

The notable sahabah such as Ibn Abbas, Ibn Umar, Bara’ b. Azib, Abu Umamah, Zayd b. Khalid, Miqdam b. Ma’dikarib, Anas b. Malik, Jabir b. Samurah, and Abdullah b. Yazid narrate from Abu Ayyub Ansari (May Allah Almighty be pleased with them all). Amongst the tabi’un, Sa’id b. Musayyab, ‘Urwah, Salim b. Abdillah, Abu Salamah, Ata b. Yasar, Ata b. Yazid etcetera narrate from him (may Allah almighty have mercy upon them).

For more details, read al-Isabah fi Tamyiz al-Sahabah #1361


[1] His full lineage is Khalid b. Zayd b. Kulayb b. Tha’labah b. Abd b. ‘Awf b. Ghanam b. Malik b. Najjar (Taym Allah) b. Tha’labah b. Amr b. Khazraj (Akbar). His mother’s name is Hind bt. Sa’id b. Amr b Imra’ al-Qays b. Malik b. Tha’labah b. Ka’b b. Khazraj b. Harith b. Khazraj.

The teachers of Hadith at Mazahirul Uloom Saharanpur

By Ml. Ashiq Ilahi Meerati
al-ʿAnāqīd al-Ghāliyah min al-Asānīd al-ʿĀliyah
Translated by Shoaib A. Rashid in The Silent Admirer – 21 September 2014

At the college of Mazāhir al-ʿUlūm in Saharanpur, the first among those that took up the task of teaching Hadith, especially the teaching of Sahīh Bukhāri, was Shaykh al-Mashāyikh Maulana Muhammad Mazhar al-Nānautawi (May Allah sanctify his secret) after whom the school is named. He began at this college in 1867 three months after the school was established. He remained there until he returned to Allah on 24 Dhu ‘l-Ḥijjah 1302/3 October 1885. During this long time period, he taught books of Quranic exegesis, Hadith, and other subjects from the various sciences. He would teach “the Two Sahīhs” with intense fervour and complete thoroughness. Outstanding scholars graduated at his hands. Among them was the author of Badhl al-Majhūd fī Ḥall Sunan Abī Dāwūd, Shaykhu Mashāyikhinā Maulana Khalīl Aḥmad al-Sahāranpūri th. al-Muhājir al-Madani. Joining the college of Maẓāhir al-ʿUlūm in 1874 was the famous Hadith scholar and researcher of Sahīh Bukhāri and Jāmiʿ Tirmidhi, Maulana Ahmad ʿAlī al-Sahāranpūri. He remained there until he passed away in 1881. In these years he taught the six books of Tafsīr and Hadith, especially “the Two Sahīhs.” He would demonstrate total mastery in Hadith and its sciences (May Allah have mercy on him).

After the passing away of the college’s senior Hadith scholar, Maulana Muhammad Mazhar al-Nānautawi, his position of teaching Hadith was inherited by Maulana ʿAbd al-ʿUlā until he resigned in 1889. After him, Hadith was taught by Shaykh Ahmad ʿAlī al-Murādābādi and Shaykh Habīb al-Rahmān, son of the muhaddith Maulana Ahmad ʿAlī al-Sahāranpūri (May Allah Most High have mercy on all of them). Shaykh Aḥmad ʿAlī resigned in 1893.

As for Shaykh Habīb al-Rahmān, he taught Hadith from 1889 until he left to Hyderabad and resigned from his services to the college in 1897. At this time, the honourable Hadith scholar Maulana Khalīl Aḥmad al-Sahāranpūri had been teaching the books of Hadith and other sciences at the college of Dār al-ʿUlūm Deoband with his friend, Shaykh al-Zaman Maulana Mahmūd al-Ḥasan, famously known as Shaykh al-Hind, as mentioned above. So when Maulana Ḥabīb al-Rahmān resigned from the service of teaching at the college as we discussed prior, and the college now required a skilful teacher and outstanding Hadith scholar, the great imam Quṭub al-ʿĀrifīn Maulana Rashīd Aḥmad al-Gangōhi (May Allah Most High sanctify his secret) commanded the most honourable muhaddith Maulana al-Shāh Khalīl Aḥmad al-Sahāranpūri to transfer from Dār al-ʿUlūm Deoband to Mazāhir al-ʿUlūm Saharanpur. And so [Shaykh Khalīl Ahmad] obeyed the command and took up the directorship of education there. He arrived at the college of Mazāhir al-ʿUlūm on 8 Jamād al-Ākhar 1314/1896. He, being a graduate of that college, was most worthy and suited to take this position. He assumed the directorship of education and the teaching of Hadith and other sciences for thirty years, until he migrated to Madinah Munawwarah. During this time period, he taught “the Two Sahīhs” and others from among the Six Books numerous times over.

In Rabīʿ al-Awwal of 1335/1917, he began working on Badhl al-Majhūd, a commentary on Sunan Abī Dāwūd, with the help of his most special pupil Shaykh al-Ḥadīth Maulana Muḥammad Zakariyyā al-Kāndhlawi (May Allah sanctify their secrets). They completed it in Madinah Munawwarah in Riyad al-Jannah on 21 Shaʿbān 1345/1927, as we will soon mention in detail if Allah wills.

We cannot forget to mention the honourable Shaykh Maulana Muḥammad Yahyā al-Kāndhlawi (May Allah Most High have mercy on him), for he taught Hadith at the college of Maẓāhir al-ʿUlūm from 1326/1908 until Allah caused him to pass away in 1334/1916.

When the most honourable Shaykh Khalīl Ahmad al-Sahāranpūri migrated to Madinah Munawwarah in 1926, the lessons of Hadith were entrusted to his honourable students. Among them was Ustādh al-Asātidhah Maulana al-Sayyid ʿAbd al-Latīf who became the principal of the school after his migration, so he would teach Sahīh Bukhāri as well as tend to the affairs of the college. Also among them were the esteemed Shaykh Maulana ʿAbd al-Rahmān al-Kāmalpūri, the courageous Shaykh Maulana Muḥammad Asʿadullāh al-Rāmpūri, and the outstanding Shaykh Maulana Manẓūr Ahmad Khān al-Sahāranpūri (May Allah Most High grant them all abode in the prosperity of His Paradise).

Maulana ʿAbd al-Rahmān al-Kāmalpūri taught the Jāmiʿ of Imam al-Tirmidhi and Sharh Maʿānī al-Āthārof Imam Abu Jaʿfar al-Ṭahāwi, and some years he would teach Sahīh Muslim as well. Maulana Manẓūr Ahmad Khān taught Sahīh Muslim numerous times over. Sometimes Maulana Muhammad Asʿadullāh taught it as well, and I was among those that read Sahīh Muslim under him in 1944. As for the Sunan of Imam Abu Dāwūd, it was taught by our Shaykh Muḥammad Zakariyyā al-Kāndhlawi (May Allah sanctify his secret) from 1929 to 1954. Then Maulana Muhammad Asʿadullāh taught it from 1954 to 1965. After Maulana ʿAbd al-Rahmān al-Kāmalpūri left to Pakistan, the Sunan of Imam al-Tirmidhi was taught by the honourable jurist Maulana al-Qārī Saʿīd Ahmad al-Ujrārawi, the senior muftī of the college, as well as the honourable Shaykh Maulana Amīr Ahmad al-Kāndhlawi.

As for Sharh Maʿānī al-Āthār of Imam al-Ṭahāwi, after Maulana ʿAbd al-Rahmān al-Kāmalpūri it was taught by Maulana Manzūr Ahmad al-Sahāranpūri, Maulana Muḥammad Asʿadullāh al-Rāmpūri, and Maulana Amīr Aḥmad al-Kāndhlawi (May Allah Most High have mercy on all of them). As for the books of Imam al-Nasā’ī and Imam Ibn Mājah, and the Mu’attā according to both narrations, they were all taught by Maulana Manẓūr Ahmad al-Sahāranpūri. I read them all under him in the year 1944 (May Allah Most High have mercy on all of them).

In the year 1926, our Shaykh Maulana Muḥammad Zakariyyā al-Kāndhlawi (May Allah sanctify his secret) travelled with his shaykh to the Ḥijāz to help him in the preparation of Badhl al-Majhūd. When he returned to Saharanpur in 1929, he took up the teaching of Sahīh Bukhāri and the Sunan of Imam Abī Dāwūd al-Sijistāni (May Allah Most High have mercy on him). He taught the Sunan until 1954, and he did not stop teaching Sahīh Bukhāri until difficulties and illnesses caught up with him and forced him to give up teaching.

At this point, the teaching of Sahīh Bukhāri was entrusted to his astute and intelligent pupil Maulwī Muhammad Yūnus al-Jaunpūri (May Allah Most High preserve him). The honourable master [i.e. Shaykh Muḥammad Zakariyyā] himself bequeathed this post to Maulwī Muhammad Yūnus during his own lifetime. He (May Allah Most High preserve him) taught for fourteen years during the life of the Shaykh, and he was quite worthy to perform this honourable service. May Allah Most High deliver amongst us more folk along the likes of him. Afterwards, the teaching of Hadith at this college continued at the hands of the students of these eminent personalities, such as Muftī Muzaffar Ḥusayn al-Ujrārawi, Muftī Muhammad Yahyā, and Maulana Muhammad ʿĀqil al-Sahāranpūri (May Allah Most High preserve them all).

The teachers of Hadith at Darul Uloom Deoband


By Ml. Ashiq Ilahi Meerati
al-ʿAnāqīd al-Ghāliyah min al-Asānīd al-ʿĀliyah
Translated by Shoaib A. Rashid in The Silent Admirer – 21 September 2014

The first person to have the honour of being the director of education at Dār al-ʿUlūm Deoband was the honourable Hadith scholar, Shaykh al-Mashāyikh Muḥammad Yaʿqūb, son of Fakhr al-ʿUlamā wa Zayn al-Fuqahā wa Ustādh al-Asātidhah Maulana Mamlūk ʿAlī al-Nānautawi (May Allah sanctify his secret). Shaykh Muhammad Yaʿqūb acquired knowledge of the various sciences from his father, and he took Hadith from Shāh ʿAbd al-Ghanī al-Mujaddidi (May Allah Most High have mercy on him). He taught and spread benefit in Delhi and Ajmer. Then he took up the position of director of education at the college of Dār al-ʿUlūm Deoband, where he taught until he returned to Allah Most High in the year 1884 in his hometown of Nānautah. His position as the director of education was taken up by the skilful and honourable al-Sayyid Ahmad al-Dehlawi until he left to Bhopal in the year 1887, at which point the directorship was entrusted to Shaykh al-Shuyūkh wa Ustādh al-Asātidhah Hadrat Maulana Mahmūd al-Ḥasan al-Deobandi, better known as “Shaykh al-Hind” (May Allah sanctify his secret). Before being entrusted with this position, he used to teach the books of Hadith, as well various other subjects that were being taught at the Dār al-ʿUlūm. He was appointed as a teacher in the year 1871, and in 1876 he was entrusted to teach Sunan al-Tirmidhi. After taking up the directorship, he would teach both Sahīh Bukhāri and Sunan al-Tirmidhi. He taught Hadith at the college of Deoband for forty years, a task that he shared for some time with the honourable Shaykh Maulana Khalīl Ahmad al-Sahāranpūri al-Muhājir al-Madani (May Allah sanctify his secret) – and this was from the years 1890 to 1896. Shaykh Mahmūd would teach Sahīh Bukhāri and Sunan al-Tirmidhi, and his colleague Shaykh Khalīl would teach Sahīh Muslim and other books. The honourable Shaykh Muhammad Anwar Shāh al-Kashmīri graduated at the hands of both of them in the year 1894 (May Allah Most High have mercy on them all).

When Shaykh al-Hind Mahmūd al-Hasan journeyed to the Hijāz in the year 1914, his most honourable student, al-Sayyid Muhammad Anwar Shāh al-Kashmīri (May Allah Most High have mercy on him) took his place in teaching Hadith. He was entrusted with the teaching of “the Two Jāmiʿs” (i.e. the books of Imam al-Bukhāri and Imam al-Tirmidhi, May Allah Most High have mercy on them). He taught at Deoband until he left the Dār al-ʿUlūm in the year 1928 and moved to the Islamic College (al-Jāmiʿah al-Islāmiyyah) in Dabhel, Surat. He narrated Hadith there and spread benefit until he returned to Allah Most High in the year 1933. From the colleges of both Deoband and Dabhel, senior scholars and luminous personalities graduated at his hands, some of whom are listed as follows: Maulana Muḥammad Idrīs al-Kāndhlawi, Maulana Badr al-ʿĀlam al-Mīruthi, Muftī Muḥammad Ḥasan al-Amritsari, the honorable jurist Grand Muftī Muḥammad Shafīʿ al-Deobandi, Tāj al-Khutabā Maulana al-Qārī Muḥammad Ṭayyib al-Qāsimi, the honorable Hadith scholar and distinguished jurist al-Sayyid Muḥammad Yūsuf al-Binnōri, and Maulana Shams al-Ḥaq al-Afghāni (May Allah Most High have mercy on them all).

After Shaykh al-Kashmīri left Dār al-ʿUlūm Deoband, the board of trustees (majlis al-istishārī) of the college – at the head of which was Mujaddid al-Millah wa Hakīm al-Ummah Maulana al-Shāh Ashraf ʿAlī al-Thānawi (May Allah Most High sanctify his secret) – was compelled to select replacements for the directorship of education and the teaching of the books of Bukhāri and Tirmidhi. The replacement would have to fill the shoes of the muḥaddiths that preceded him. They requested Shaykh al-Islām Maulana al-Sayyid Husayn Ahmad al-Madani (May Allah Most High sanctify his secret) to take up this position. He was the most special student of Shaykh al-Hind and the confidant in his affairs. Before this, he had already taught at Dār al-ʿUlūm Deoband for two years, from 1909 to 1910, and he had taught for more than ten years in the Noble Mosque of the Prophet (May Allah Most High send peace and salutations upon him and his Companions). [Maulana Husayn Ahmad] complied with their wishes and accepted their request on certain conditions which the council accepted. They went ahead and entrusted him with the directorship as well as the honorable position of narrating Hadith in the year 1927. [After taking up his new responsibilities,] he continued to be respected, beloved, heeded, kind, and courageous. He taught Sahīh Bukhāri and Sunan al-Tirmidhi even while being required to travel frequently. He toured the various towns and cities. He delivered speeches against British colonialism. He was the leader of the Jamʿīyyat ʿUlamā al-Hind. He guided spiritual disciples. Furthermore, he was frequent in worship, devotions, serving guests, and tirelessly turning toward Allah Most High. He assumed the directorship and took up the teaching of Hadith from the year 1928 till his demise in 1958. May Allah Most High grant him abode in the prosperity of His Paradise, and may He shower upon him and his mashāyikh a downpour of His Mercy and His Approval.

This long period of Maulana Husayn Ahmad’s directorship was interrupted by a short interval from Jamādī al-Ākhar 1361/June 1942 to Ramaḍān 1363/August 1944 during which the British government imprisoned him. During this interval, his lessons were delegated to Maulana al-Sayyid Fakhr al-Dīn Aḥmad al-Hāpūri th. al-Murādābādi, as well as Maulana Muḥammad Iʿzāz ʿAlī al-Amrōhi, Shaykh al-Fiqh wa ‘l-Adab at Dār al-ʿUlūm Deoband (May Allah Most High have mercy on them all).

After Shaykh al-Islām al-Madani passed away in 1957, his position as the teacher of Sahīh Bukhāri was inherited by Maulana al-Sayyid Fakhr al-Dīn Aḥmad who was mentioned previously. Prior to his appointment, he had taught at the Qāsimi College (al-Jāmiʿah al-Qāsimiyyah) in Moradabad for more than forty years. He took up teaching at Dār al-ʿUlūm Deoband and continued until his death in the year 1972 (May Allah Most High have mercy on him). After his passing until today, Sahīh Bukhāri has been taught at that college by shuyūkh that graduated at the hands of those Elders (May Allah Most High have mercy on them all). Among them are Maulana Sharīf al-Ḥasan al-Deobandi (d. 1977), and Muftī Maḥmūd al-Ḥasan al-Gangōhi (May Allah endow him with honor), Maulana Naṣīr Aḥmad Khān al-Barni, Maulana Saʿīd Aḥmad al-Pālanpūri, and Maulana ʿAbd al-Ḥaq al-Aʿẓami.

As for Sahīh Muslim, it has been taught by Maulana Muḥammad Ibrāhīm al-Balyāwi, Maulana Bashīr Aḥmad Khān al-Barni, and Maulana Sharīf al-Ḥasan al-Deobandi (May Allah Most High have mercy on all of them).

As for Sunan al-Tirmidhi, after Shaykh al-Islām al-Madani it was taught by Maulana Muḥammad Iʿzāz ʿAlī al-Amrōhi, Maulana Muḥammad Ibrāhīm al-Balyāwi, Maulana Sharīf al-Ḥasan al-Deobandi, and Maulana Fakhr al-Ḥasan (May Allah Most High have mercy on them), and Maulana Saʿīd Aḥmad al-Pālanpūri (May Allah Most High preserve him). As for Sunan Abī Dāwūd, it was taught by Maulana Aṣghar Ḥusayn al-Deobandi, Maulana Muḥammad Iʿzāz ʿAlī al-Amrōhi, Maulana Muḥammad Idrīs al-Kāndhlawi, Grand Muftī Maulana Muḥammad Shafīʿ, Maulana Bashīr Aḥmad Khān al-Barni, and Maulana Fakhr al-Ḥasan (May Allah Most High have mercy on them all).

As for the Sunan of Imam al-Nasā’i, the Sunan of Imam Ibn Mājah, the Shamā’il of Imam al-Tirmidhi, Sharh Maʿānī al-Āthār of Imam al-Tahāwi, and the Mu’attā according to both its narrations, the following eminent figures alternated in the teaching of those books: Maulana Muhammad Iʿzāz ʿAlī al-Amrōhi, Maulana Muḥammad Idrīs al-Kāndhlawi, Grand Muftī Maulana Muḥammad Shafīʿ, Maulana Fakhr al-Ḥasan, Maulana Nasīr Ahmad Khān al-Barni, and others. May Allah Most High thank them for their efforts and accept their struggles.

سلسة الزبرجد في أسانيد الشيح حسين أحمد

كتب الشيخ الفقيه المفسر المفتي الأعظم لباكستان محمد شفيع العثماني رحمه الله تعالي
في الإزدياد السَني علي اليانع الجَني

زين المشاهد والمنابر، بقية أولئك ألأكابير، المجاهد في سبيل الله، حضرة الشيخ مولانا حسين أحمد المدني، أدامه الله تعالى، بقي مد ظله من ريعان عمره تحت إشراف حضرة الشيخ شيخ الهند رحمه الله، و كان كبعض عياله، بل من أعز عترته، فقرأ ما قرأ تحت إشرافه، و قرأ عليه كتابا عديدة من الفنون المختلفة، و لا سيما كتب الحديث، فلا أحصي عدد قراءتها عليه مرة بعد مرة، حتّى عاد مرجع الخلائق في العلم والإرشاد فعلم الفنون برمتها، ولا سيما العلوم الحديثية مدة مديدة في المدينة المنورة تجاه من هو مبدأ الأحاديث و منتهاها صلى الله عليه و سلم، فأشهر أسناده مد ظله عن حضرة شيخ الهند رحمه الله بأسانيده التي مرت منا في هذه الرّسالة، و هو اليوم زين صدارة المدرسين بدار العلوم الديوبندية أداماها الله تعالى فنذكر ما ذكره هو بنفسه في ورقة أسانيده اامطبوعة بلفظها و هي هذه: أجازني بها الأئمة الفحول، أجلهم و أمجدهم سراج المحققين، و إمام أهل المعرفة واليقين، والعارف بالله، شيخ الهند مولانا أبو ميمون محمود الحسن العثماني الديوبندي موطنا، والحنفي مسلكا، والجشتي النقشبندي القادري السهروردي مشربا، (قدس الله سره العزيز) عن أئمة أعلام أجلهم مولانا شمس الإسلام والمسلمين، العارف بالله، مولانا أبو أحمد محمد قاسم العلوم والحكم النانوتوي موطنا، الحنفي مسلكا، والجشتي النقشبندي القادري، السهروردي مشربا، رحمهما الله تعالى. و هما قد أخذا سائر الفنون والكتب الدرسية، خلا علم الحديث، عن أئمة أعلام أجاهم مولانا الثبت أبي يعقوب، مملوك علي النانوتوي الحنفي، والمفتي صدر الدين الدهلوي، قدس الله أسرارهما، و غيرهما من أساتذة الفنون بدهلي، المعاصرين لهما عن أئمة أعلام أجلهم مولانا رشيد الدين الدهلوي، عن الإمام الحجة، مولانا العارف بالله، الشاه عبد العزيز الدهلوي، الحنفي، قدس الله سره العزيز رحمه الله، ويروي الشمسان، المؤمى إليهما سابقا، كتب الحديث والتفسير قراءة وإجازة عن أئمة أعلام أجلهم شيخ مشائخ الحديث، (يعني الكنكوهي والنانوتوي رحمهما الله) الإمام الحجة، العارف بالله، الشيخ عبد الغني المجددي الدهلوي ثم المدني، و عن الشيخ أحمد سعيد المجددي الدهلوي، ثم المدني، و مولانا أحمد علي السهارنفوري قدس الله أسرارهم، كلهم عن الشهير في الآفاق مولانا الإمام الحجة محمد إسحاق الدهلوي، ثم المكي، قدس الله سره العزيز، عن جده أبي أمه إمام الأئمة، العارف بالله، مولانا الشاه عبد العزيز الدهلوي، قدس الله سره العزيز، عن إمام الأئمة في المنقول، مركز دوائر الفروع والأصول، مولانا العارف بالله، الشاه ولي الله الدهلوي النقشبندي، وأسانيده إلى المحقق الدواني والسيد الجرجاني، والعلامة التفتازاني، قدس الله أسرارهم، مذكورة في القول الجميل و غيره، وكذلك أسانيده إلى أصحاب السنن ومصنفي كتب الحديث، مذكورة في ثبته، وكذلك في أوائل الصحاح الست.ح. ويروى حضرة مولانا الشاه عبد الغني الدهلوي المرحوم سائر الكتب، سيما الصحاح الست، عن الإمام الحجة محمد عابد الأنصاري السندي ثم المدني، صاحب التصانيف المشهورة، وأسانيده مذكورة في ثبته المسمى بحصر الشارد في أسانيد الشيخ محمد عابد، و كذلك في ثبت الشيخ عبد الغني، المعروف باليانع الجني. ح. ويروى شيخنا العلامة شيخ الهند المرحوم، عن العلامة محمد مظهر النانوتوي، و مولانا القارئ عبد الرحمن الفاني فتي، المرحوم كلاهما عن العارف بالله، الشيخ محمد إسحاق المرحوم، ح، و أروى هذه العلوم و الكتب عن الشيخ الأجل مولانا عبد العلي، قدس الله سره العزيز، أكبر المدرسين في مدرسة  مولانا عبدالرب المرحوم بدهلي و عن الشيخ الأجل مولانا خليل أحمد السهارنفوري ثم المدني كلاهما عن أئمة أعلام، سيما الشمسان المؤمى إليهما. ح. وأروى عن مشيخة أعلام من الحجاز إجازة وقراءة لأوائل بعض الكتب أجلهم شيخ التفسير حسب الله الشافعي المكي، و مولانا عبد الجليل برادة المدني، و مولانا عثمان عبد السلام الداغستاني، مفتي الأحناف بالمدينة المنورة، و مولانا السيد أحمد البرزنجي مفتي الشافعية بالمدنية المنورة، رحمهم الله تعالى وأرضهم


اللعة: الزبرجد – الحجر الكريم الأرزق المخضرّ

المسك الأزفر من أسانيد الشيخ محمد أنور

كتب الشيخ الفقيه المفسر المفتي الأعظم لباكستان محمد شفيع العثماني رحمه الله تعالي
في الإزدياد السَني علي اليانع الجَني

وهو حافظ العصر، ذهبي وقته و عسقلاني دهره، بحر العلوم والفنون، شيخي وشيخ المشائخ، حضرة مولانا الشاه محمد أنور الهاشمي القرشي الكشميري، و هو الذي أقام بصدارة المدرسين بدار العلوم الديوبندية بعد شيخه الأجل حضرة شيخ الهند مولانا محمود حسن، رحمه الله تعالى، المؤمى إليه سابقا، و بقي نحو عشرين سنة مكبا على درس الحديث بفنونه، وكشف معضله و مكنونه، حتى انزوى عن هذا المنصب سنة ١٣٤٦ من الهجرة، فتخرج عليه نحو ألف رجل من العلماء والفقها، والمحدثين. و قد ألف بعض أصحابه قدس سره سيرته و ترجمته مفصلا سماه نفحة العنبر في هدي الشيخ الأنور من شاه فليراجعه. قرأ عليه العبد الضعيف الصحيح للإمام البحاري، والجامع للترمذي، والشمائل له، و دروس البلاغة، والنفيسي في الطب، وشطرا من الفلسفة الطبعية الجديدة. وهو-متعنا الله تعالى بفيوضه- قرأ أكثر كتب الصحاح على شيخ المشائخ حضرة شيخ الهند، رحمه الله، بأسناده المذكور آنفا، وحصل له الإجازة بقراءة الأطراف عن مسند وقته، علامة عصره، شمس العلوم والعلماء، حضرة مولانا حسين الجسر الطرابلسي البغدادي، صاحب الرسالة الحميدية، والحصون الحميدية، المشهورة المفيدة في علم الكلام الجديد، و صاحب تأليفات أخرى، بإسناده إلى العلامة الطحاوي، المذكور مفصلا في ثبته. وذلك حين رحليه إلى الحرمين، زادهما الله تعالى شرفا. فلشيخنا الأنور قدس سره في أسانيد الحديث ثلاثا طرق اهـ من نفحة العنبر ص ٣٨ إلى ص ٨٤

الإسناد الأول لسائر كتب الحديث عن شيخه و شيخ العالم المحدث البارع، مولانا الشيخ محمود حسن الديوبندي، المدعو بشيخ الهند قدس سره، ثم لإسناده طرق:

الأول: عن الحجة العارف، مولانا محمد قاسم النانوتوي الديوبندي رحمه الله، و عن المحدث الحجة مولانا رشيد أحمد الكنكوهي رحمه الله، كلاهما عن الشيخ المحدث الشاه عبد الغني الدهلوي، ننزيل المدينة المنورة.

الثاني: عن الشيخ المحدث مولانا أحمد علي السهارنفوري رحمه الله، محشي صحيح البخاري.

والثالث: عن الشيخ العارف، مولانا محمد مظهر النانوتوي رحمه الله.

والرابع: الشيخ المحدث القاري، مولانا عبد الرحمن الفاني فتي رحمه الله، و هؤلاء، الأعلام، الشاه عبد الغني والمحدث السهارنفوري، والمظهر النانوتوي، والمحدث الفاني فتي، كلهم عن الشيخ الأجل المحدث الشاه محمد إسحاق الدهلوي عن حبر الأمة المحدث العارف الشيخ عبد العزيز الدهلوي، عن والده الشيخ الإمام الحجة قطب الدين أبي الفياض أحمد المدعو بالشاه ولي الله الدهلوي، عن الشيخ أبي طاهر المدني، عن والده الشيخ إبراهيم الكردي، عن الشيخ المزاحي، عن الشهاب أحمد السبكي، عن الشيخ النجم الغيطي، عن الشيخ زين الدين زكريا، عن عزالدين الشيخ عبد الرحيم، عن الشيخ عمر المراغي، عن الفخر بن البخاري، عن عمر بن طبرزد البغدادي، بإسناده إلى الحافظ الحجة أبي عيسى الترمذي، صاحب الجامع. و من شاه االإطلاع على أسانيد الشيخ عبد الغني، وأحوال رجالها، فليرجع إلى اليانع الجني في أسانيد الشيخ عبد الغني، و قد طبع بحيدرآباد مرة، وأخرى بديوبند.

الإسناد الثاني عن شيخه اليخ محمد إسحق الكشميري، عن الشيخ السيد نعمان الآلوسي، عن والده أعلم بغداد الشيخ الحبر مولانا مخمود الآلوسي البغدادي، صاحب روح المعاني، بالإسناد المثبت في ثبته، وهذا هو الإسناد الذي يقول لأجله شيخنا رحمه الله في بعض مؤلفاته قال شيخي بواسطتين محمود الآلوسي في روح المعاني فاغتنمه.

الإسناد الثالث عن الشيخ حسين الطرابلسي الجسر صاحب الحميدية، والحصون الحميدية، الجسر صاحب الحميدية، بإسناده إلى الشيخ السيد أحمد الطحطاوي المصري، صاحب التعليق على الدر المختار، و مراقي الفلاح، استجاز عند الشيخ رحمه الله، بالمدينة المنورة، زادها الله شرفا وتعظيما، كما أشرنا إليه فيما سلف، فهذا ما اطلعت عليه من أسانيد هؤلاء المشائخ الذين كانوا غرر عصرهم، ومسانيد وقتهم، قدس الله أسرارهم وأشاع في العالمين أنوارهم وبركاتهم. و قد أجازني شيخي رحمه الله بأسانيده هذه كلها، فلله الحمد والمنة، ثم له جزيل الشكر و حسن الثناء، وصلى الله تعالى على خير حلقه سيدنا محمد وآله و صحبه أجمعين يوم الجزاء. ولئن أنام الله تعالى طبعه مرة أخرى فسأكر فيه مفصلا إن شاء الله تعالى مع شئ من تفصيل أحوال هؤلاء، الكرام، متعنا الله تعالى بعلومهم، و إلا فكم غادر الأول للآخر، و كم حسرات في بطون المقابر.

Sadr Shariah – The author of Nuqayah, Sharh Wiqayah and Tawdih

By Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
2 Jumada I 1437 | 12 February 2016

He is the great scholar faqih, and master of usul, Sadr al-Shariah (al-asghar) Ubayd Allah b. Mas’ud b. Taj al-Shariah Mahmud b. Sadr al-Shariah al-Akbar al-Mahbubi al-Bukhari (d. 747). When Sadr al-Shariah is said without any prefix it refers to him. Amongst others, he acquired knowledge from his grandfather, the great scholar and the author of the monumental fiqh text Wiqayah,  Taj al-Shariah Mahmud.

His expertise expanded to many fields including Hadith, Fiqh, Usul, Aqa’id, logic, grammar, rhetoric and poetry. He researched assiduously and wrote meticulously. His knowledge was vast and incisive through which he was able to summarise many important and difficult topics succinctly. Allm. Abd al-Hayy Lacknawi writes that all the works of Sadr al-Shariah are accepted by the reliable scholars amongst the fuqaha.

His books Nuqayah, Sharh Wiqayah, and Tanqih wa Tawdhih are considered classics which summarises Hanafi fiqh and usul fiqh.

For further detail, read Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami’s article, ‘Sadr al-Shariah (al-Asghar) – d. 747′. Islamic Studies Bulletin (DIBAJ), Issue 2. Available at

How to study Usul al-Fiqh

By Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
Extracted from Mastering Usul Fiqh in Islamic Studies Bulletin – 9 Shawwal 1434

To master usul for a person with a Hanafi background, one must first have a strong foundation in fiqh. Study Usul al-Shashi to get an in-depth understanding of the central masa’il covered in usul fiqh as well as an introduction to the core principles. Thereafter, read Manar al-Anwar along with Nur al-Anwar to understand the principles in detail along with the evidence which support and justify these rules as well as answers objections posited by the mutakillimin. This will make it easy to decipher the usul of Bazdawi, Sarakhsi, Jassas and make Talwih accessible. Now that a solid foundation in the Hanafi approach is developed, one should consolidate the learning with the reading of Husami with special attention on the Qiyas section; this will cover the topics in Taqwim al-Adillah, Tasis al-Nazar and Usul Karkhi. This should suffice for one to understand the Hanafi evidence and usul.

To advance one should study Tawdih with Talwih. This will summarise the key mutakallimin works such as Ihkam and Muntaha al-Sul along with what was covered in Manar and Husami in addition to gaining the Ash’ari insight via Talwih. This should give one scope to understand most of the books of the other Mazahib. Follow up with the study of Musallam al-Thubut with Fawatih al-Rahmut; this will suffice to understand the works of the later works of the muta’akhkhirin including Jam’ al-Jawami’ and Tahrir.

For further detail, read Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami’s article, ‘Mastering Usul Fiqh’. Islamic Studies Bulletin (DIBAJ), Issue 3. Available at

Mu’in al-Fara’idh #4: Impediment


By Mufti Mahmud Hasan Ajmeri
Translated by Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami – 29 Rabi II 1437 | 10 February 2016

Those eligible to inherit, sometimes due to a certain causes can be impeded (mahrum) from inheriting. These causes are known as ‘Mawani’ al-Irth’. There are four such causes: Riqq (slavery), Qatl (homicide), Tabayun Din (religion), and Tabayun Darayn (nationality). The details are mentioned below.

(1) Riqq refers to full or partial slavery such as a slave, mudabbarmukatab or umm walad. The reason being, these people do not fully own themselves or anything in the possession. Hence, if any relative of theirs dies, they will not be eligible to get anything from the tarkah. Furthermore, they cannot impede others from inheriting either.

(2) Qatl [in this case refers to homicide] which necessitates qisas or kaffarah. The homicide which impedes the killer from inheriting are three types: Qatl ‘Amad,, Qatl Shibh ‘Amad (voluntary manslaughter) and Qatl Khata’ (involuntary manslaughter).

(a) Qatl ‘Amad (murder) is the purposeful killing of an innocent human life with a lethal weapon such as a sword, sharp stone, canon, gun and fire. This results in sin and qisas but not diyyat or kaffarah.

(b) Qatl Shibh Amad (voluntary manslaughter) is the purposeful killing of an innocent human life with a non-lethal item such as ordinary stone or wood piece. This results in diyyat, sin and kaffarah but not qisas.

(c) Qatl Khata’ (involuntary manslaughter) is the accidental killing of an innocent human life such as a hunter who shot at a target but accidentally hit a person due to which he died. This results in diyyat and kaffarah but not qisas and sin.

As there is qisas in ‘amad and kaffarah in shibh ‘amad and khata’, all these forms killing will impede inheritance.

(3) Tabayun Din refers to when from the deceased and the heir, one is a Muslim and the other is a non-Muslim. This difference (tabayun) in their religion impedes the heir from inheriting. Yes! amongst non-Muslims (disbelievers) regardless of how much difference [between them], they will be considered as one religion under the principal of ‘kufr millatun wahidah‘ (kufr is all one religion). Hence, non-Muslims of different religions will not be impeded [from each other].

(4) Tabayun Darayn refers to when non-Muslims live in two different nations. This is a cause of them being impeded. This is irrespective if the difference is real such as one is harbi and the other is zimmi or if the difference is assumed such as one is zimmi and the other is musta’min or both are from two separate dar al-harb. Muslims being of different nations does not impede them [from inheriting].

Mu’in al-Fara’idh #3: Succession

By Mufti Mahmud Hasan Ajmeri
Translated by Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami – 28 Rabi II 1437 | 9 February 2016

The estate which remains after shroud, burial, payment of debts and fulfilment of bequest will be distributed amongst the heirs in accordance to the Quran, sunnah of the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) and ijma.

There are three types of heirs (waratha): Zawil Furudh, ‘Asabat, and Zawil Arham. Their order of priority will be mentioned below.

(4)  Zawil Furudh: They are those who have been fixed a specific share in the Quran, Sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and through ijma. From the inheritors, the zawil furudh are the first to be given their fixed shares. After their share, if any amount remains, it is given to the eligible ‘asabat.

(5) ‘Asabat: They are those who if alone take the entire tarkah and if with a zawi al-furudh take all that remains tarkah after their share. These ‘asabat are of two types:

(a) ‘Asabat Nisabi: They are those who are related to the deceased [by blood] such as father, father’s father, son, son’s son. The details will come in the ‘asabat section.

(b) ‘Asabat Sababi: They are those who freed the deceased or the ‘asabat of those who freed [the deceased]. As in the deceased was a slave who was freed by his owner. If this free person dies and there is no heir from the above category to inherit, the master who freed or if unavailable the master’s ‘asabah nisabi will be inherit. Note! If the master is not alive, only the male relatives may inherit – not the females. The reason being, females can only inherit [as ‘asabah] from their freed slave or the freed-slave of their freed slave – they cannot inherit [as ‘asabah] from the freed-slave of their relatives.

(6) Radd bi Zawil Furudh: Give the fixed share to the zawil furudh and thereafter if any amount remains give it to the ‘asaba nisabi and if they are unavailable give it to the ‘asaba sababi. However, if the deceased has neither of the ‘asabat, redistribute the remaining amount amongst the zawi al-furudh according to their proportions. This is called radd which we will discuss in detail in the radd section. Here, just remember that radd is only done to zawi al-furudh nisabi and not zawi al-furudh sababi (spouse).

(7) Zawil Arham: All relatives other than zawil furudh and ‘asabah are classed zawil arham such as the daughter’s son and daughter, brother’s daughter, sister’s daughter, father’s sister, mother’s sister, mother’s brother, and mother’s father etcetera. If there is no one from the above mentioned categories, the tarkah (estate) of the deceased will be given to the zawil arham. The detail will come in the zawil arham section. If from the zawil furudh there is only the spouse and there are no ‘asabah, give the remaining amount to the zawil arham.

(8) Mawla Muwalat: They are those who the deceased formed a pact of fealty. As in the deceased had no known family and so made a pact,

You are my mawla and after I die, you will receive my money. However, if a crime occurs on my part due to which I must pay diyyat (blood money), you shall fulfil it.

If after forming the pact, this person with no known family dies and leaves no eligible heirs from the above categories, the estate will be given to this mawla muwalat with whom the pact was made whilst alive. Hence, if the spouse is alive but after their share there is no heir from the above groups, the remaining amount will be given to the mawla muwalat with whom the pact was made.

(9) Muqirr lahu bi al-Nasab ala al-Ghayr: They are those regarding whom the deceased admitted to being related. However, the relationship could not be established by admittance alone as it entails including them in the lineage of another. For example, the deceased admitted a stranger to be his brother or uncle. As this entail this stranger being included in his father or grandfather’s lineage, the relationship will be established so long as the father or grandfather do not confirm. The mere admittance will not be sufficient be establish the person as his real brother or uncle. However, If the one remains adamant on their claim till death and after dying there is no one from the above categories or they have a spouse and there is no one from the above categories to receive the remaining amount, the muqir lahu bi al-nasabi ala ghayr will be given the remain estate.

(10) Musa lahu bi Jami’l Mal: They are those to whom the deceased bequeathed their entire estate. However, in accordance to the shariah, they were given a third and two-thirds was held for others who may be eligible. But on further investigation it was discovered there is no one eligible of the two-thirds from the above mentioned categories. Consequently, the remaining amount will be given to this musa lahu bi jami’l mal.

(11) Bayt al-Mal: If no one from the above mentioned categories, the estate will be given to the bayt al-mal (Muslim treasury) which then should be spent on [the needy who are destitute and have no one].

(12) Radd bi Zawjayn: If there no one from the above mentioned categories, the general books of fiqh state that the tarkah of the deceased be given to the bat al-mal. However, when the later scholars have seen that in our time there is no bayt al-mal or [if there is] they do not spend it in an Islamic cause, they deemed that if there is a spouse and for the remain amount there is no one from above mentioned categories, the spouse should be given the remaining amount.

Mu’in al-Fara’idh #2: Payment schedule

By Mufti Mahmud Hasan Ajmeri
Translated by Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami – 28 Rabi II 1437 | 8 February 2016

(1) Shroud and burial: First and foremost, pay the shroud and burial expenses from the deceased’s estate even if it requires that the entire estate be spent. You should be moderate in the funeral expenses. For example, the shroud should be of the standard which the deceased may have worn in jumua, the two Eids or when meeting friends.

(2) Debt payment: [Secondly,] repay [recognised] debts which are owed to people from the estate which remains after the payment of [necessary] funeral expenses even if it requires that the entire estate be spent.

If the estate is insufficient to repay all the debts, give priority to the payment of strong debts over weak debts. For example, debts incurred whilst the deceased was healthy or debts which are proven conclusively will be given priority over debts admitted (without any verifiable proof) whilst the person was dying . If multiple debts of equal standing have accumulated, divide the estate amongst the creditors according to their proportions.

Arrears of zakat and kaffarat are written off as a debt in this world. The reason being, it not associated with the rights of the people rather it is the right of Allah Almighty. Of course, the inheritors or someone else may give it from their own wealth as a form of compensation if they please. If the deceased at the time of their demise bequeathed that it be paid, it would be classified as a bequest.

(3) Bequest: [Thirdly,] fulfil the bequest (wasiyyat) of the deceased from one third of the estate (tarkah) which remains after the payment of [recognised] debts.

Wasiyyat (bequest) refers to the asset which the deceased expressed that it be given to a particular person or cause [upon their death].

In fulfilling the bequest, it is a requisite that (1) it not be more than a third, (2) it not be given to an heir automatically inheriting when the deceased died and (3) it not be a cause which contravenes the shari’ah.

If it is more than a third or the bequest was for an heir, it may not be fulfilled without the consent of the remaining heirs.


Keyword: Mal (estate: all the money and property owned by a person), Tarkah (the net asset of the deceased), Dayn pl. Duyun (debts), Wasiyyah (bequest).

Note: This schedule of payment which occurs before any heir receives their share is known as muqaddamah ‘alal irth.

Mu’in al-Fara’idh #1: Introduction

By Mufti Mahmud Hasan Ajmeri
Translated by Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami – 25 Rabi II 1437 | 5 February 2016

We praise Allah Almighty and send salutations to His noble Prophet.

Before starting any subject the introductory matters are mentioned so that the student may find it easy to learn and understand. Hence, before starting ilmul fara’id, we shall write the definition (ta’rif), subject matter (mawdu’), objective (ghard wa ghayat), some keywords and technical terms so that you may find learning this subject easy.

Definition: This is the knowledge of the rules and cases of fiqh which if known one will be informed of (1) the legal heirs of the deceased and (2) the legal principals of how to determine the shares of their inheritance.

Subject matter: The deceased’s estate (tarkah) and the eligible heirs (waratha).

Aim and objective: The aim of this knowledge is to discover the eligible heirs of the deceased’s estate and their share.

Etymology:  Fara’idh (فرائض) is derived from faridhah (فريضة) which means to fix. This knowledge is called ilmul fara’idh as the shares that are stated for the heirs, their amount are fixed by Allah Almighty himself.

Virtue: The Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) says, ‘Knowledge is of three and all else is a bonus: the clear ayat, established sunnah and the fair share’ (Abu Dawud). The Prophet (peace be upon him) also said, ‘Learn inheritance and teach it’ (Ibn Majah). In another narration, [he says], ‘It is the first thing which will be taken from my ummah‘ (Majma’ al-Anhur).

قال رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم العلم ثلاثة، و ما سوي ذلك فهو فضل: اية محكمة، أو سنة قائمة، أو فريضة عادلة رواه أبو داود و قال صلي الله عليه و سلم أيضا تعلَموا الفرائض و علّموها، فإنها نصف العلم رواه ابن ماجة و في رواية أخري في مجمع الأنهر و هو سنتي و هو أول شئ ينزع من أمتي.

In consideration of these narrations, the importance and virtue of this knowledge over other subjects is apparent. Furthermore, before commencing on this subject, it is important that the student know mathematics in addition to sarfnahw and the masa’il of fiqh.

Tarkah: Any asset or property (be it real or owed) which remains after a person has died minus any asset associated with the rights of another person. For example, the asset of the deceased which the deceased has placed as a security of a loan or an asset which was bought but not paid and the buyer dies before taking possession of the asset. In these cases, as the lender or sellers right is associated with the asset, it will not be included within the tarkah.

Keywords: Mayyit (the deceased person), Tarkah (the net asset of the deceased), Warith pl. Waratha (heirs: a person entitled to inherit the asset of the deceased person), Fara’id (inheritance)

[Mu’in Fara’id is a standard primer for mirath which is taught before or in conjunction with Siraji]

Preferred wordings for Tashahhud

By T. Zaman
24 Rabi II 1437 | 4 February 2016

The wordings of tashahhud in salah differ slightly in the narrations with the reports of Hadrats Umar, Abdullah b. Mas’ud, and Abdullah b. Ibn Abbas (may Allah Almighty be pleased with them) considered the clearest. If one were to read any of these it would be permissible1. However, the schools differ as to which is the most preferred form of tashahhud of the three.

Imam Abu Hanifah2 and Imam Ahmad b. Hanbal3 (may Allah Almighty be pleased with them) give preference to the narration of Hadrat Abdullah b. Mas’ud (may Allah Almighty be pleased with him) as it is considered the most authentic4, consistent5 (asah and athbat) and in line with the practice of majority of the ahlul ilm amongst the sahabah. He relates:

التحيات لله و الصلوات و الطيبات، السلام عليك أيها النبي و رحمة الله و بركاته، السلام علينا و على عباد الله الصالحين أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله، و أشهد أن محمدا عبده و رسوله

Imam Shafi’i6 (may Allah Almighty have mercy upon him) gives preference to the narration of Hadrat Abdullah b. Abbas (may Allah Almighty be pleased with him) as he considered it the most comprehensive. He relates:

التحيات المباركات الصلوات الطيبات لله، سلام عليك أيها النبى و رحمة الله و بركاته، سلام علينا و على عباد الله الصالحين، أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله و أن محمدا رسول الله

Imam Malik Bin Anas7 (may Allah Almighty have mercy upon him) gives preference to the narration of Hadrat Umar b. Khattab (may Allah Almighty be pleased with him) as he mentioned it in the pulpit (minbar) and none in the congregation objected. His relates:

التحيات لله الزاكيات لله الطيبات الصلوات لله السلام عليك أيها النبى و رحمة الله السلام علينا و على عباد الله الصالحين أشهد أن لا اله الا الله و أشهد أن محمدا عبد الله و رسوله

Read Fath al-Mulhim for more detail8.


[1] The great Hanafi scholar Allm. Ibn Nujaym in Bahr suggests that to read any other al-tahiyyat other than the one reported by Hadrat Abdullah b. Mas’ud is Makruh Tahrimi. However, this is not so as Imam Muhammad in Muwatta indicates it is permissible and this is the position of the majority of the Ahnaf (See Fath al-Mulhim v. 2 p. 311).

[2] Imam Quduri. 2008. Mukhtasar Al-Quduri. Maktabah al-Bushra; Pakistan p. 76

[3] Ibn Qudama. al-Mughni.

[4] See Sunan Tirmidhi

[5] Hadrat Abdullah b. Mas’ud did not used to like to add or decrease any words of the tahiyyat, hence, his reported form is consistent throughout.

[6] al-Umm li Imam al-Shafi’i. 2001. Dar Al-Wafa; Egypt

[7] Imam Maalik bin Anas & Sahnun (ed). al- Mudawwanah al-Kubrah. v. 1 p.143

[8] Usmani, Allm. Shabbir Ahmad. 2006. Fath al-Mulhim. Darul Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi; Beirut, Lebanon. v. 3 pp. 310-312

The meaning of Iman

Iman is do tasdīq (assenting) to what is known that the Messenger (Allāh bless him and grant him peace) came with, briefly in that which is known briefly, and in detail in that which is known in detail. Note! Assent here refers to shar’i assent.

By Mufti Rashid Ahmad Ludhyanwi
Ahsan al-Fatawa v. 1 pp. 60-65
Translated by Ml. Zameelur Rahman in Darul Ma’arif – 28 September 2014


In a public gathering, Gandhi stated these words while delivering a speech: “I do not understand why I should not recite the kalimah? Why should I not praise Allāh? Why should I not accept Muhammad as His messenger? I have faith in the saints and the prophets of all religions.” Can Gandhi be called a Muslim for saying the aforementioned words? Please attend to the reply quickly, because I have need for it for a religious publication. Explain with proof, may the Most Merciful reward you.


The definition of īmān is:

التصديق بما علم مجيئ الرسول صلي الله عليه و سلم به إجمالا فيما علم إجمالا و تفصيلا فيما علم تفصيلا

Tasdīq (assenting) to what is known that the Messenger (Allāh bless him and grant him peace) came with, briefly in that which is known briefly, and in detail in that which is known in detail.”

In this definition, the intent of “assent” is neither logical assent – meaning recognition and perception of a connection [between a subject and its predicate]1 – nor linguistic assent – meaning the attribution of truthfulness to a speaker.

Rather, the intent is Shar‘ī assent which is a combination of three things:

  1. Recognition (ma‘rifah)
  2. Linguistic assent (tasdīq lughwī)2
  3. Submission and acceptance (inqiyād wa stislām)

Or it will be said that the reality of īmān is only linguistic assent, while recognition and submission are conditions for the realisation of īmān.

According to the Jahmiyyah, īmān is merely recognition, which is rejected because this is not volitional. Īmān is volitional, due to it being something [human beings are] made accountable for, and accountability occurs only in volitional acts. Moreover, His (Exalted is He) statement, “Gain knowledge that there is none worthy of worship but Allāh” (47:19) proves īmān is acquired, while recognition is not acquired. Moreover, recognition is an [internal] state, while assent is an action, and there is conflict between the two.

The texts of the Glorious Qur’ān refute the Jahmiyyah. Allāh (Exalted is He) said: “They denied them out of sheer injustice and arrogance, though their hearts believed them” (27:14), “Those whom We have given the Book recognise him as they recognise their own sons” (2:146), “Yet when there came to them that which they did recognise, they denied it” (2:89). And Allāh (Exalted is He) said, quoting Mūsā (upon him peace) addressing Fir‘awn: “You know well that these were sent down by none but the Lord of the heavens and the earth as signs. And, I am afraid O Fir‘awn, you are going to be destroyed” (17:102).

Thus, mere recognition is not sufficient for īmān. Rather, assent and submission are also necessary.

Imām al-Haramayn said in al-Irshād:

Upon verification, tasdīq is an internal speech, but it is not established except with knowledge.

Ibn al-Humām said:

The outward [meaning] of the speech of al-Ash‘arī in this context is that tasdīq is an internal speech and it is preconditioned by recognition, the absence of which entails its absence. There is [also] the possibility that īmān is a combination of recognition and internal speech, so each of them is an integral component of īmān.

Thus, for the realisation of īmān in both interpretations, it is necessary to have recognition, that is, cognition that the claim of the Prophet (Allāh bless him and grant him peace) is in accordance with reality and something else, which is internal acceptance and submission, by accepting the commands and prohibitions, which necessitates reverence and not belittling. This internal acceptance is the meaning of internal speech, and this is how the author [al-Ghazālī] expressed it in his discussion on ‘īmān’ and ‘islām.’ We only said that something else is necessary with recognition, and that is internal acceptance, because of what has preceded of the realisation of mere recognition in the presence of disbelief.

‘Allāmah al-Zabīdī said in Sharh al-Ihyā’:

The most apparent [position] is that tasdīq is an internal speech besides recognition, because what is understood from tasdīq linguistically is attribution of truthfulness to a speaker, which is an action, and recognition is not an action but is from the category of an [internal] state, in contrast to the description of an action. Thus, it is entailed that both submission, that is acceptance, and recognition, are excluded from the notion of tasdīq linguistically, while their consideration is established in Sharī‘ah for īmān. Their consideration in this fashion is based on their being two components of its meaning in the Sharī‘ah, or two conditions for its consideration for the operation of its laws in the Sharī‘ah. The second [interpretation] is superior, since the first necessitates taking īmān out of its linguistic meaning to another Shar‘ī meaning, and that is rejected because there is no evidence necessitating it being so, because it is contrary to the default condition. Thus, it will not be resorted to except on the basis of evidence, and there is no evidence.

In fact, it [i.e. īmān] is demanded of the Arabs frequently in the Book and Sunnah, and those who responded to it responded without asking for its meaning, and if a question did occur from them, it was only about what īmān pertains to [and not īmān itself]. The non-realisation of īmān without recognition and acceptance does not entail their being components of its meaning in the Sharī‘ah, because of the possibility that they are conditions of īmān in the Sharī‘ah, while its reality is tasdīq of specific articles [of belief] in the linguistic sense. Once this is established, it is apparent that linguistic tasdīq may appear without them [i.e. acceptance and submission], together with disbelief, which is the very opposite of īmān.

‘Allāmah al-Ālūsī discussed some of this, and said after some comments:

The outcome of this is the non-acquisition of tasdīq for an obstinate person [who refuses to proclaim the truth of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) despite recognising its truth], as it [i.e. tasdīq] is the opposite of rejection; while what is achieved by him is recognition which is [only] the opposite of ignorance. They have agreed that this recognition is external to linguistic tasdīq, and that is what is considered in īmān. (Fath al-Mulhim)

In sum, regardless of whether linguistic tasdīq (assent) can or cannot be separated from recognition and submission, [internal] submission is necessary for the realisation of īmān. Without submission, verbal testimony is not considered.

In declaring the truth, the words of Heraclius bear so much weight, yet because of not having submitted, he cannot be called a believer (mu’min). After explaining the circumstances of the prophets (peace be upon them), Heraclius said: “If all that you say is true, he will soon have sovereignty over the place of these two feet of mine. Indeed I had knowledge that he will emerge, but I did not think he will be from you. If I knew I could reach him, I would endeavour to meet him, and if I were in his presence, I would wash his feet.” Heraclius said: “This is the king of this nation, he has emerged.” A letter came to him from his companion agreeing with the opinion of Heraclius on the emergence of the Prophet (Allāh bless him and grant him peace) and that he is a prophet, whereupon he said: “O Assembly of Romans. If you have [hope] for success, guidance and that your kingdom remains, pledge to this prophet.” (Sahīh al-Bukhārī).

In Fath al-Bārī, [Ibn Hajar says]:

[It is reported] from al-Tabrānī: Caesar said: ‘I know him to be such.’ In a disconnected [report of] Ibn Ishāq: Heraclius said: ‘Woe to you! By Allah, verily I know that he is a prophet that has been sent.’ In Musnad Ahmad [it states] that he wrote from Tabūk to the Prophet (Allāh bless him and grant him peace) that I am a Muslim. The Prophet (Allāh bless him and grant him peace) said: ‘He lied. Rather, he is [still] upon his Christianity.’ In Kitāb al-Amwāl of Abū ‘Ubayd with asahīh chain to the disconnected [report of] Bakr ibn ‘Abd Allāh al-Muzanī the like of this, and its wording is: He said: ‘The enemy of Allāh lied. He is not a Muslim.’ Based on this, the author of al-Istī‘āb said that he believed, meaning expressed faith, but he did not persist on it, and he did not practise on its dictates, but was greedy for his kingdom and favoured this perishing [realm] over the everlasting [life].” (Fath al-Bārī)

Al-Nawawī said:

There is no excuse in what he said: ‘If I knew I could reach him, I would endeavour to meet him,’ because he recognised the integrity of the Prophet (Allāh bless him and grant him peace), yet he was greedy for sovereignty and craved leadership so he favoured them over acceptance of Islām, and that has been reported explicitly in Sahīh al-Bukhārī. – (‘Umdat al-Qārī)

Heraclius confessed with the tongue and even sent in writing that I am a Muslim. Despite this, the Prophet (Allāh bless him and grant him peace) did not regard him as truthful, because there was no submission. Similarly, merely due to his confession and words, it has not be claimed that Waraqah ibn Nawfal was a Muslim. Rather, his faith was established from the dream of the Prophet (Allāh bless him and grant him peace).

Abū Tālib showed so much support for the Prophet (Allāh bless him and grant him peace). He endured such burdensome difficulties in the spread of Islām. He continued to support the Prophet (Allāh bless him and grant him peace) in every way, verbally and practically. He said in addressing the Prophet (Allāh bless him and grant him peace):

You invited me and I knew that you are truthful.
Indeed you spoke the truth and you were, from before, trustworthy.
By Allāh! They will never reach you with their [entire] group,
Until I am laid to rest, buried in the earth!
Proclaim your cause, no harm will come to you.
Bear glad tidings of that and let eyes be cooled by you.
Indeed I knew that the religion of Muhammad
Is from the best of religions of all creatures as dīn.
Were it not for blame or fear of insult,
You would find me open to that plainly.

Despite this, because there was no submission, Abū Tālib cannot be regarded as a mu’min.

In Fath al-Mulhim, the following statement of Hāfiz Ibn Taymiyyah is quoted:

In fact, Abū Tālib and others, despite their love for the Prophet (Allāh bless him and grant him peace) and their love for the elevation of his word due to not having envy for him and their knowledge of his honesty and their acceptance of it, they were driven to not following his upright religion and his straight conduct because of their sympathy towards the religion of their people and their dislike for separating from it and earning the displeasure of Quraysh. Hence, they did not leave īmān due to not knowing, but due to personal whims. So how can it be said in spite of this that every disbeliever only disbelieved due to having no knowledge of Allāh?”

It says in Fath al-Mulhim:

Based on this, disbelief is of types: disbelief of rejection, disbelief of denial, disbelief of obstinacy and disbelief of hypocrisy. That is, if the denial – meaning, the non-acceptance – is with the heart and with the tongue both, it is the first. If it is only with the tongue together with the acquisition of recognition and certainty with the heart, it is the second. And if it is together with the acquisition of recognition and confession of the tongue and merely due to obstinacy, it is the third. (Heraclius, Abū Tālib and Gandhi fall in this category). And if it is only with the heart along with acceptance and loyalty with the tongue, it is the fourth.

It is realised from the above discussion that for the realisation of īmān, surrender is necessary.

Furthermore, the measure of the presence and realisation of surrender is that every person understands that this person has entered into Islām, having left his earlier religion.

The explanation of this measure is written with these words in al-Durr al-Mukhtār:

Disbelievers are of five categories: those that deny the Creator like the materialists, those that deny the oneness [of Allāh] like Zoroastrians, those who affirm it but deny the sending of the messengers like the philosophers, those that deny both [the oneness of Allāh and the prophets] like the idolaters and those who affirm both but deny the inclusiveness of the messengership of the Chosen One (Allāh bless him and grant him peace) like [some] Christians. Thus, in the first two, the statement lā ilāha illAllāh is sufficient [as proof for the acceptance of Islām]. In the third, the statement Muhammadur Rasūlullāh[is sufficient] and in the fourth either of them [is sufficient] and in the fifth both of them [are necessary] along with disassociation from every religion that differs from the religion of Islām…That which fatwa is given upon is its validity with the two testimonies without disassociation [from other religions], because pronouncement of them has become a symbol of Islām. Thus, he will be killed if he turns back and did not repent.

It states in Radd al-Muhtār under his statement, “Thus, in the first two, the statement lā ilāha illAllāh is sufficient”:

Because they refuse the testimony completely, so when they confess it, it is evidence of their īmān.

And under his statement, “In the third”:

If he were to have said lā ilāha illAllāh, it would not be determined that he has accepted Islām because he denies messengership, and he does not refrain from this statement. And if he had said, ‘I bear testimony that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah’, it would be determined that he has accepted Islām because he refrained from this testimony, so confession of it is evidence of īmān.

And under his statement, “In the fourth”:

He explained its reason in al-Durr, that he denies both realities, so whichever of them he bears testimony to, he has entered into Islām…And he added that if he were to say, ‘I am a Muslim,’ he is a Muslim because idol worshippers do not claim this description for themselves but distance [themselves from it] with the purpose of angering Muslims. The same is the case if he were to say, ‘I am on the religion of Muhammad’ or ‘on monotheism’ ‘or on the religion of Islām.’

And under his statement, “In the fifth”:

Apparently if he were to pronounce the two testimonies and state clearly that the messengership extends to the Israelites and all others, or he said, ‘I bear testimony that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allāh to all creation, mankind and jinn,’ that too will suffice for disassociation [from all religions], as the Shāfi‘īs have clearly stated.

Under the title “notice”, he said:

I say: He (upon him blessing and peace) only sufficed with the two testimonies because the people of his time would deny his messengership completely, as will come. Further, know that it is derived from the ruling of [some] Christians [described above] that the one whose disbelief is due to denial of a necessary article [of faith], like the prohibition of wine, for example, it is necessary for him to disassociate himself from what he used to believe, because he would confess the two testimonies along with it, so it is necessary for him to distance [himself] from it, as the Shāfi‘īs clearly stated, and as is obvious.

And under his statement, “In al-Durar, he made the condition of disassociation general for every Jew and Christian”:

[It says in al-Dhakīrah:] As for Jews and Christians, acceptance of Islām in his time (Allāh bless him and grant him peace) was by [declaring] the two testimonies, because they would deny his (Allāh bless him and grant him peace) messengership. As for today in the lands of ‘Irāq, one will not be considered to have accepted Islām for as long as he does not say, ‘I disassociate [myself] from my [earlier] religion and I have entered into the religion of Islām’, because they say that he is a messenger to the Arabs and the non-Arabs but not to the Israelites. [Imām] Muhammad stated this.

It says in Sharh al-Siyar of Sarakhsī: ‘As for the Jews and Christians today in the midst of the Muslims, when one of them pronounces the two testimonies, he will not become a Muslim, because they all say this. There is no Jew or Christian amongst us but he says this sentence. When we inquire from him [about it], he says: The messenger of Allāh to you not to the Israelites.’

Then he said: ‘If he were to say, I am a Muslim, he would not become a Muslim thereby, because every group claims this for itself. The Muslim is [literally] the one that submits to the truth, and every adherent of a religion claims that he submits to the truth. Our teacher, Imām [al-Halwānī], would say, except the Zoroastrians in our lands, because the one amongst them who says, I am a Muslim, he becomes a Muslim, because they reject this description, and they insult their children with it [saying], O Musalmān!’ …

Based on this, the same would be said of the Jews and Christians in our lands, because they refuse to say, ‘I am Muslim,’ such that when one of them wishes to withhold himself from something he says: ‘If I do this, I will become a Muslim.’ Thus, when he says, ‘I am a Muslim’ wilfully [and not in mockery], that is evidence of his acceptance of Islām, even if he has not been heard pronouncing the two testimonies, as stated in Sharh al-Siyar regarding one who offered salāh in jamā‘ah, that he will be determined as having accepted Islām, and that the acceptance of Islām will be determined based merely on the mark of the Muslims with respect to the obligation of performing [Janāzah] Salāh over him when he dies. Moreover, they strongly refuse to pronounce the two testimonies, so when they pronounce them wilfully, it is necessary to consider him as having accepted Islām, because this is greater than a [mere] mark.

There is no doubt that [Imām] Muhammad only made disassociation [from their previous religion] a condition based on [the circumstance] that was [prevalent] in his time, in terms of confessing messengership in contrast to [the circumstance] that was [prevalent] in the time of the Prophet (Allāh bless him and grant him peace) of rejecting it. Hence, since they reject it in our time and they refuse to pronounce the two testimonies, it is necessary that the ruling reverts back to what it was in his (Allāh bless him and grant him peace) time, as there no longer remains any reason to divert from it; while [Imām] Muhammad only gave a ruling based on [the circumstance] that was [prevalent] in the lands of Irāq, not in general as suggested incorrectly by what is in al-Durar.

About this, ‘Allāmah Qāsim [ibn Qutlūbughā] mentioned that he was asked about a Sāmirī that pronounced the two testimonies and then took it back, and he replied with what the outcome of which is, that ‘his beliefs will be examined, since they mentioned that some Jews restricted the messengership of our Prophet (Allāh bless him and grant him peace) to the Arabs, and for such a person, the two testimonies alone are not sufficient, as distinguished from one who denies the messengership completely. Some whose hearts Allāh has blinded considered them one group in all lands, such that they determined that the Christian who denies messengership and articulated the two testimonies as remaining on Christianity because he did not distance [himself from his earlier religion].’

The upshot is that that which must be relied upon is that if his state is unknown, he will be interrogated about it, and if it is known as in our time, the matter is obvious.

And he said under his statement, “pronouncement of them has become a symbol of Islām”:

He demonstrated with the word ‘become’ that [the circumstance] that was [prevalent] in the time of Imām Muhammad has changed, because in his time they would not decline to pronounce it, so it was not a mark of Islām, which is why he made disassociation [of the person’s earlier faith] a condition along with it. However, in the time of Qāri’ al-Hidāyah, it had become a mark of Islām, because no one would pronounce it except a Muslim, like this time of ours…This must be resorted to in the Egyptian lands of Cairo because the two testimonies are not heard there from the people of the book, and this is why [Imām] Muhammad restricted it to Irāq….And this is what is practised upon. Thus, it should be preserved.”

And he said under the title, “Conclusion”:

Know that acceptance of Islām also occurs by action, like salāh in jamā‘ah, or confession of [having performed] it, or Adhān in some masjids, or Hajj, and attending the rites, not salāh by oneself and ihrām alone. The commentator has presented this in verse at the start of Kitāb al-Salāh, and we have presented its commentary earlier in full detail, and we mentioned there that there is no difference in accepting Islām by an action between a Christian or another. The intent is that this is evidence of having accepted Islām, so the one who does that will be assessed accordingly.”

– Radd al-Muhtār, Kitāb al-Jihād, Bāb al-Murtadd

From this detailed passage of al-Durr al-Mukhtār and Radd al-Muhtār, it is clear that the measure for establishing surrender is custom. In the present custom, it is not conceivable that the one who said words like Gandhi is a Muslim. Nor do nonreligious people avoid and refrain from such words. Greater praise than Gandhi’s of Islām and the Messenger of Allāh (Allāh bless him and grant him peace) is found from adherents of different religions in prose and in poetry. After saying these words, the public, the Hindu and the Muslim and the speaker himself understood him to be a Hindu. Even the mistaken impression of him having become Muslim did not cross anyone’s mind. This is why, after the death of Gandhi, the Muslim ‘ulamā’ who were very familiar with Gandhi’s biography, and in fact were his companions in politics, even they did not call for janāzah salāh and a Muslim burial for Gandhi. Nor did the Hindus, having understood him to be a Muslim, express any displeasure at preparing his burial. In short, based on these words of Gandhi, neither Muslims nor Hindus considered him to be a Muslim. Nor did Gandhi himself have the knowledge or notion that he became a Muslim with these words. If he had, he would subsequently have adopted the way of the Muslims, or at least made a bequest for janāzah salāh in his will. Such words, in fact even more [emphatic words] than them, were always said by intelligent people from other religions. Yet, no one considered them Muslims.

In the present custom, one is considered Muslim only when he says clearly, “I am a Muslim,” or without mockery, he recites the two testimonies and subsequently adopts the behaviour of Muslims. Gandhi’s statement, “I have faith in the saints and the prophets of all religions” is a belief contrary to Islām. It is apparent from this that Gandhi considers all present religions, Islām, Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism, Sikhism and so on to be true. Gandhi’s belief and [the fact] that he did not enter Islām is very clear from this last sentence.

The reality is that he only made this declaration to deceive the Muslims, just as a hunter uses a prey’s voice to catch it. If Gandhi really believed Islām to be true, what prevented him from accepting Islām? To consider such a deceiver and categorical disbeliever a Muslim is [itself] disbelief.

And Allāh guides whoever He wills to the straight path.
22 Rabī‘ al-Awwal, 74 Hijrī (November, 1954)


[1] According to the logicians, “assent” (tasdīq) is to understand the connection between two words, the subject and its predicate. For example, in the sentence “Allāh exists”, Allāh is the subject and “exists” its predicate, and the connection between the two words is an affirmation of Allāh’s existence.

[2] That is, to affirm the truthfulness of the speaker – in this case of the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him)

Lightning, thunder and thunderbolt


رعد | برق | صائقة

In the Quran, Allah almighty uses the thunderstorm to exemplify His might. He uses three synonymic (mutaradif) words which translates to thunder (رعد), lightning (برق) and thunderbolt (صائقة).

قال الجوهري في الصحاح: الرعد الصوت الذي يُسْمَع من السَحاب اهـ البرق واحد بروق السحاب ويقال رعدت  السماء وبرقَت برقانا، أي لمعت اهـ الصاعقة نار تسقط من السماء في رعد شديد. يقال صَعَقَتْهُم السماءُ، إذا ألقت عليهم الصاعقَةَ. والصاعِقَةُ أيضا صيحة العذاب

الرعد / Thunder / The noise in the sky

أَوْ كَصَيِّبٍ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ فِيهِ ظُلُمَاتٌ وَرَعْدٌ وَبَرْقٌ – 2:19
وَيُسَبِّحُ الرَّعْدُ بِحَمْدِهِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ مِنْ خِيفَتِهِ – 13:13

البرق / Lightning / The flash in the sky

أَوْ كَصَيِّبٍ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ فِيهِ ظُلُمَاتٌ وَرَعْدٌ وَبَرْقٌ – 2:19
يَكَادُ الْبَرْقُ يَخْطَفُ أَبْصَارَهُمْ كُلَّمَا أَضَاءَ لَهُمْ مَشَوْا فِيهِ – 2:20
هُوَ الَّذِي يُرِيكُمُ الْبَرْقَ خَوْفًا وَطَمَعًا وَيُنْشِئُ السَّحَابَ الثِّقَالَ – 13:12
يَكَادُ سَنَا بَرْقِهِ يَذْهَبُ بِالْأَبْصَارِ – 24:43
وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ يُرِيكُمُ الْبَرْقَ خَوْفًا وَطَمَعًا وَيُنَزِّلُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً – 30:24
فَإِذَا بَرِقَ الْبَصَرُ – 75:7

الصاعقة / Thunderbolt / A bolt of lightning accompanied by thunder

يَجْعَلُونَ أَصَابِعَهُمْ فِي آذَانِهِمْ مِنَ الصَّوَاعِقِ حَذَرَ الْمَوْتِ – 2:19
لَنْ نُؤْمِنَ لَكَ حَتَّىٰ نَرَى الله جَهْرَةً فَأَخَذَتْكُمُ الصَّاعِقَةُ – 2:55
فَقَالُوا أَرِنَا الله جَهْرَةً فَأَخَذَتْهُمُ الصَّاعِقَةُ بِظُلْمِهِمْ – 4:153
وَيُرْسِلُ الصَّوَاعِقَ فَيُصِيبُ بِهَا مَنْ يَشَاءُ – 13:13
فَإِنْ أَعْرَضُوا فَقُلْ أَنْذَرْتُكُمْ صَاعِقَةً – 41:13
مِثْلَ صَاعِقَةِ عَادٍ وَثَمُودَ – 41:13
فَأَخَذَتْهُمْ صَاعِقَةُ الْعَذَابِ الْهُونِ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ – 41:17
فَعَتَوْا عَنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّهِمْ فَأَخَذَتْهُمُ الصَّاعِقَةُ وَهُمْ يَنْظُرُونَ – 51:44


The Battle of Uhad: A rough video guide

By Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami; Bulletin #140530001 – 1 Sh’aban 1435

The battle of Uhad was one of the key battle of Islam which was fought against the Quraysh on the 3 Shawwal 3 AH. The video focuses on the key aspects rather than every minute detail which can be found in the Sirat Books. The pink represents the Quraysh and blue represents the Muslims. Each circle represents 50 people. The semicircle represents cavalry except for the blue on the hill where each semicircle represents 25 archers. The shooting lines signifies arrows. The green cutting board was my rendition of Mount Uhad and the post-it note a hill.

To read how it was made visit Nawhami Bulletin #14053001

The Definitions of Dhubba’, Hantham, Muzaffat and Naqir

These four types of vessels were commonly used for the production and storage of drinks which would become quickly intoxicant. The prophet (peace be upon him) forbade drinking from it regardless. The ruling was later abrogated when people became aware of its danger.


By Sh. R. Kazi
17 Rabi II 1437 | 28 January 2016

It has been reported by Imam Muslim that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said,

I command you with four and I forbid you from four. Worship Allah and do not associate with him any partner, establish prayer, give zakah, fast the month of ramadhan, and give one fifth of what you have gained as booty and I forbid you from four, from Dhubba’, Hantham, Muzaffath and Naqir.

These were four types of vessels in which the Arabs at the time of the prophet (peace be upon him) would immerse dates, raisins etcetera in water until it would sweeten. Thereafter, they would drink it once it had become intoxicant. The reason why these have been forbidden specifically is due to the speed with which the substances in them intoxicate. Thus making the drink impure, forbidden, valueless and a means of destruction of wealth. It was also easy for a person do drink such drinks from these vessels being unaware that it had become intoxicant as opposed to vessels made of leather skin; this was not prohibited due to its thinness; any drink that had become intoxicant will become obvious; when it did, the vessel would tear. This was the initial command.  Later on, the prohibition of producing drinks in these vessels was abrogated with a narration of Buraydah RA,

I forbade you from producing drinks (in vessels) except for some, (now) produce drinks in any vessel, however, do not drink anything intoxicant.

Hereunder are the definitions of each type of vessel mentioned in the narration,

  1. Dhubba: Dried up gourd/pumpkin or a vessel made out of this
  2. Hantham: Singular is “hanthamah”. This is also called “Jirar”; singular is “Jarrah”, an earthenware jar. There are differences of opinion in regards to the type of earthenware jar. Strongest opinion is that it is a green earthenware jar.
  3. Naqir: This is when the inside of the trunk of a palm tree is excavated, hollowed out and made into a vessel.
  4. Muzaffat: Also referred to as “Muqayyar”. This is a vessel that has been coated with asphalt1.


17 Rabi II 1437 AH
28 January 2015 CE

[1] Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product; it is a substance classed as a pitch.

How to study Hidayah


By B. Shu’ayb
16 Rabi II 1437 | 27 January 2016

This is a summary of The path to Hidayah1 which outlines a guide on how to study Hidayah2.


Hidayah is the commentary of:

# Bidayah al-Mubtadi = Quduri + Jami’ al-Saghir

Hidayah shows the way forward for beginners and provides a summary for the experts.

If you can read Hidayah, you can read:

# al-Ikhtiyar (commentary of al-Mukhtar) by Allm. Mawsuli
# al-Wafi (summary of Kanz) by Allm. Nasafi

N.B: these are equivalent to Hidayah but more refined

How to study Hidayah


To learn the core masa’il in advance study:

Mukhtasar Quduri
Wiqaya (+ summary: Nuqayah)

N.B: Reading these will make way to: Kanz al-Daqa’iq, al-IkhtiyarMajma Abhur, Majma al Bahrayn, and Tuhfatul Fuqaha.


To understand the core text use:

# Binayah
# Hashiyatu Laknawi


To delve further, you must know usul and follow one of the two path:

Muhaddithins’ Path:

# Nasb al-Rayah (+ Dirayah)
# ‘Inayah
# I’la al-sunan

Usuliyyins’ Path:

# Fath al-Qadir
# Radd al-Muhtar
# Badai’ al-Sanai’


16 Rabi II 1437 AH
27 January 2015 CE

[1] Nawhami, Muhammad Saifur Rahman. (2012). The Path to Hidayah. Islamic Studies Bulletin (DIBAJ), Number 1. Available at Accessed 27 January 2015

[2] This is the monumental work of Allm. Marghinani on the Hanafi fiqh.

Praying salah without wudu

Salah will not be accepted without cleanliness so what should one do if they were stuck in a plane with no way of doing wudhu or tayammum? This issue is known as faqid al-tahurayn.


By A. Rahman
14 Rabi II 1437 | 25 January 2016

The prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) said, لاَ تُقْبَلُ صَلاَةٌ بِغَيْرِ طُهُورٍ (trans. salah will not be accepted without cleanliness). This was reported in Tirmidhi and Muslim. The sanad  is sahih. The scholars are unanimous that salah is not permitted without cleanliness and consider a severe sin if one prays without wudhu or tayammum.

So here is the conundrum. What is the ruling if salah time comes and one has no water or soil available with which they may gain cleanliness through wudhu or tayammum respectively?

The schools are differed on this matter. This case is called faqid tahurayn (a person who has no access to water or soil).

قضاء اداء امام
لا لا مالك
نعم نعم شافعي
لا نعم احمد
نعم لا أبو حنيفة

Imam Malik (may Allah almighty have mercy upon him): Both ada and qadha are not wajib as the person is ‘ajiz (incapacitated). So salah is dropped similar to how it is dropped for a woman on her haydh.

Imam Shafi’i (may Allah almighty have mercy upon him): The person should read salah even though he is not tahir (clean), but they will have to do qadha when they have sufficient water. This is also one of the views of Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal.

Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal (may Allah almighty have mercy upon him): Ada is wajib even though the person is not tahir. They do not need to do qadha later.

Imam Abu Hanifa (may Allah almighty have mercy upon him): Ada is not wajib, but the person must do qadha later when water is available. Imam Abu Yusuf (may Allah almighty have mercy upon him) asserts that if possible the person should imitate those praying salah  (do the actions but not read anything) and then do qadha later. This is generally the preferred view amongst the ahnaf.

Note! Here ada means to read on time and qada means to read after the alloted time for salah has expired.


14 Rabi II 1437
25 January 2016

The class rules of Shaykh Zakariyya Kandalwi

By Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
11 Rabi II 1437 | 22 January 2016

Hadrat Shaykh al-Hadith Ml. Zakariyya Kandhalwi at the onset of the madrasah year used to state 10 rules for his class. The following is abridged version of these rules.

  1. Unauthorised absence is unacceptable. If you are ill or needs leave, you must inform and have it authorised.
  2. You must sit in an orderly manner similar to how the saff are straightened in salah.
  3. Your appearance must be proper in that it must not conflict against the salaf and ulama. This is especially so in regards to the beard which must be appropriate length.
  4. When a narration comes with seemingly lewd words, the teacher it will translate it accurately and unambiguously. You are not to laugh at hearing it as it is a sign of disrespect.
  5. Do not put lean your elbow on the book.
  6. Do not sleep in class.
  7. Sit properly; do not sit cross legged or leaning on the wall especially in the lessons of hadith. Have respect for the book externally and internally.
  8. Wear clothing which conforms to the shariah and is loose fitted. Your clothing should be dignified and resemble that worn by the ulama.
  9. Show the utmost respects to the Imams of hadith and fiqh regardless of their school. Do not think or speak ill of them as a result of your bias towards your own school.
  10. If you wish to query based on something which you have learned from another teacher, do so but do not mention their name.

To read the rules in detail and in the words of Hadrat Shaykh al-Hadith Mawlana Zakariyya Kandalwi, read Ap Biti (v. 2 pp. 30-33).

Etiquette towards the teacher


By Mufti Yaseen Shaikh
10 Rabi II 1437 | 21 January 2016

قَالَ لَهُ ۥ مُوسَىٰ هَلۡ أَتَّبِعُكَ عَلَىٰٓ أَن تُعَلِّمَنِ مِمَّا عُلِّمۡتَ رُشۡدً۬ا

Musa said to him, ‘May I follow you, on the footing that you teach me something of the (Higher) Truth which you have been taught?’1

Under this particular verse in Surah al-Kahf, Imam Fakhruddin Razi2 (may Allah have mercy upon him) writes,

You must know that Musa (peace be upon him) upheld many etiquettes and depths of compassion when requesting to learn under Khidr (peace be upon him).

هل أتبعك

He made himself a subordinate of, and subservient to Khidr, because he said, ‘Can I follow you?’

He sought the permission of Khidr for the realisation of this subservience. He is saying, ‘Do you give me the permission to make myself subservient to you’? This is a great expression and exaggeration in humility.

علي أن تعلمن

He said, ‘On the footing that you teach me’. This is an acknowledgement and confession of one’s lack of knowledge, and of the teacher’s knowledge.

من ما علمت

He said, ‘Of that which you have been taught’. The word ‘of’ is partitive. He sought from Khidr teachings of some of that which Allah had taught him (Khidr). This is also an expression of humility. It is as if he said, ‘I am not seeking from you that you make me your equivalent in knowledge, rather I am seeking that you give me a part of the knowledge you have’, just as a beggar seeks only a portion of the wealth of the rich, and not all of it.

He said, ‘which you have been taught’, an acknowledgement that Allah has taught that knowledge to Khidr (it is not self-taught).


He said, ‘of the truth’, thus he was seeking from him guidance. Guidance is a matter if not achieved, one is led to misguidance. (He sought beneficial knowledge).

He said, ‘that you teach me of what you were taught’. This means he is asking Khidr to treat him the same as he was treated by Allah. It is an indication that your favour upon me by teaching me is like Allah’s favour upon you when he taught you. That is why it is said, ‘I am the slave of anyone from whom I learn a letter’.

Following a teacher

Following (subservience) means to do like the one being followed. It means to abide by the same practice the teacher abides by. This teaches that at the beginning stages, the seeker must always comply, not argue, or raise objections’.

‘May I follow you’, means following him absolutely, in all matters, not restricted to some matters besides others.

Khidr (peace be upon him) knew Musa (peace be upon him) was the Prophet of the people of Israel, who received the Torah, was spoken to by Allah directly, and selected for many powerful miracles. Despite all of these honourable and elevated attributes, he came with such pearls of humility. This shows that he came seeking knowledge with the greatest humility, which was fitting, because the one who has more knowledge, also knows more about its fortune. So his search for it is also more intense, and his etiquette towards those who possess the knowledge is also greater and complete.

In the sequence ‘May I follow you on the footing that thou teach me something’, he first made himself his subordinate/subservient, then requested he teach him. So, he started with khidmah (service), which is the first stage of pursuit, then the second stage, seeking knowledge from him.

He only sought knowledge from him; he had no other motives such as wealth or position.


[1] al-Kahf, verse 66

[2] Born in 543 A.H., died in 606 A.H.- He was born in Rayy, originally from Tabristan, had traveled to Khwarzam and Khurasan. He was a champion of the Ash’ari tradition in theology, a Shafi’i in Fiqh, influenced heavily by Al-Ghazali. He wrote the famous Tafseer known as Al-Tafsir al-Kabir)

Where does tawatur start?

By Shaykh al-Hadith Ml. Muhammad Yunus Jawnpuri
Yawaqit al-Ghaliyah v.1 pp.40
Translated by Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami – 9 Rabi II 1437 | 20 Jan 2016

For tawatur, it is a condition in every stage that group be such that collusion upon a lie be normally impossible. All usul experts state this point.

قال ابن الهمام في التحرير خبر جماعة يفيد العلم. لا بالقرائن المنفصلة. بخلاف ما يلزم نفسه أو المخبَر عنه. و عنه يتفاوت عدده. و شروط المتواتر تعدد النقلة بحيث يمنع التواطؤ عادة علي الكذب و الاستناد إلي الحسّ و لا يشترط في كل واحد و إستواء الطرفين و الوسط في ذلك أي التعدد و الإستناد لأن أهل كل طبقة لهم حكم أنفسهم فيشترط كل منهما فيهم. انتهي بزيادة من التقرير و التحبير لابن أمير الحاج – ص 233 ج 2

Muhaqqiq Ibn Humam has declared the middle and the two sides being equal a condition. This mentioned by all the usul experts. The meaning of the two end (tarafayn) is [as follows]. The beginning side (ibtida’) refers to where the sanad starts. The ending side (intiha’) refers to where the sanad ends. The ending side is the sahabi. Hence, all the examples of mutawatir which the ulama have wrote, in every one there is a large group of sahabah (may Allah almighty be pleased with him). Muhaqqiq Ibn Humam writes on,

و الحنفية قالوا الخبر متواتر و آحاد و مشهور وهو ما كان آحاد الأصل متواترا في القرن الثاني و الثالث اهـ

This text states the very same thing. The reason being, from the three generation (qurun thalathah), the first generation (qarn) is that of the sahabah, the second qarn is that of the tabi’in and the third qarn is that of the tab’ tabi’in. Despite a hadith being mutawatir in the second qarn it is not considered mutawatir because there was no tawatur in the first qarn. Consequently, for tawatur it is a conditional that in the generation of the sahabah, there also be a large group.

قال صاحب مسلم الثبوت و عندما عامة الحنفية ما ليس بمتواتر آحاد و مشهور اهـ و قال صاحب فواتح الرحموت فالقسمة عندهم مثلثة وجه الحصر أن الخبر إن رواه جماعة لا يتوهم تواطؤهم علي الكذب ثمّ وثمّ فمتواتر و إلا فإن روي عن صحابي جماعة لا يتوهم تواطؤهم ثمّ و ثمّ و تلقّته الامة بالقبول فمشهور اهـ

This text is clear, in the generation of the sahabah, a [large] group is a condition.

و قال ابن عابدين في حاشية الدر المختار (ص 177 ج1) المشهور في أصول الفقه ما يكون من الآحاد في العصر الأول اي عصر الصحابة ثم ينقله في العصر الثاني و ما بعده قوم  لا يتوهم تواطؤهم علي الكذب


[Shaykh al-Hadith] Muhammad Yunus [Jawnpuri]
(may Allah almighty increase his blessing)
قد عرضته علي شيخنا (مولانا محمد زكريا الكاندلوي نور الله مرقده) فأقره
Friday, 10 Jumada II 1390

Types of mutawatir

Tawatur can be achieved in four ways – tawatur fil isnad, tabaqat, ta’amul and qadr mushtarak. All of them lead to certainty.


By Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
8 Rabi II 1437 | 19 January 2016

The author of Usul al-Shashi writes,

Mutawatir is that which is transferred from one group to [another] group such that there is no possibility of collusion upon a lie due to them being so many. [Furthermore,] it should have reached you in the same way. Examples of it is the reporting of the Quran, numbers of raka’ats and amount fixed for zakat. Its ruling is that it results in certainty (ilm qat’i) and to deny it is kufr.

Tawatur can be achieved in four ways – tawatur fil isnad, tabaqat, ta’amul and qadr mushtarak. All of them have the same ruling.

Tawatur fil Isnad

The message which is narrated with so many sanads in every generation from the time of the Prophet to now such that it is impossible for them to have colluded upon a lie in any given generation.

Example: من كذب علي متعمدا فليتبوء مقعده من النار

Tawatur fi al-tabaqat

The message for which there are no huge collection of identifiable sanads but in every generation there are so many narrators stating it from the time of the Prophet to now that it is impossible for them to have colluded upon a lie in any given generation.

Example: The Quran

Tawatur fi al-ta’amul

The message for which there are no huge collection of identifiable sanads or statements but in every generation there are so many people acting upon it from the time of the Prophet to now that it is impossible upon to have colluded upon a lie in any given generation.

Example: The five times prayer

Tawatur fi al-Qadr al-Mushtarak

The message for which there are no instances which are reported or acted to the level of tawatur, however, when multiple corroborative instances are combined it becomes such that is was impossible for them to have colluded upon a lie in any given generation.

Example: The miracles of the Prophet (peace be upon him)

An introduction to mutawatir


Allamah Abu Barakat al-Nasafi writes in Manar:

[Mutawatir] is the message which is narrated by a group whose number [is so high that it] cannot be accounted and it is [normally] impossible for them to have colluded upon a lie. This criterion extends [to every point in the chain]. Hence, its end will be like its start, its start like its end and middle like it two sides. For example, the reporting of the Quran and the five salahs. [Mutawatir] results in knowing with certainty (yaqin) like seeing gives necessary knowledge.

Mulla Jiwan explains the text in his commentary, Nur al-Anwar:

[Mutawatir] is the message which is narrated by a group whose number [is so high that it] cannot be accounted and it is impossible for them to have colluded upon a lie.

[The reason for the impossibility] is due to sheer number, differed places and character. An exact number (minimum threshold) is not specified as [opposed to what] some have inferred such as seven, forty and seventy. Rather, so long as necessary knowledge is attained, it will signify tawatur.

This criterion extends [to every point in the chain]. Hence, its end will be like its start, its start like its end and middle like it two sides.

In other words, [the volume] will remain the same in every era from the start when the message arose to the end when it reached the reporter. The start is the era when the message occurred. The end is the era of every reporter as they would have perceived it as the end. If it was not like that at the start, it will be ahad al-asl and called ‘mashhur’ so long as it spreads in the middle and the end [with the second or third generation]. If it did not spread like that in the middle or end [despite the fact that it had tawatur at the start], it is [considered] munqati’.

For example, the reporting of the Quran and the five salahs.

The examples are of mutawatir in general and not mutawatir [as found in the] sunnah. The reason being there is a dispute as to [whether] mutawatir in the sunnah exists. It is said, no [example] of it is found. Some said, ‘innamal a’malu bi al-niyyat’ and others said, ‘al-bayyinatu ala al-mudda’i wa al-yaminu ala man ankar’ [are examples of mutawatir].

[Mutawatir] results in knowing with certainty (yaqin) like seeing which gives necessary knowledge.

This is in contrast to what the mu’tazila say, ‘it provides convincing knowledge such that it gives weight to the truth but does not deliver certainty’. This is also in contrast to another group who say, ‘it provides evidentiary knowledge which arises from considering factors; [it does not deliver] necessary knowledge’. [Mutawatir leads to knowledge necessarily] because the existence of Makkah and Baghdad is clear and apparent [through mutawatir reports]; [it is free] from the need to prove it with evidence to remove doubt of its existence or the need to defend it through hypothetical constructs.


  • There is no specific threshold for tawatur. The numbers stated such as 5, 7, 10, 12, 40, 70 etcetera should be perceived more as a marker. It is a rule of thumb that a hadith which contain 10 or more separate sahabah is indicative of that hadith being mutawatir although not necessarily so.
  • The impossibility of collusion refers to the fact that it should be practically or generally (adatan) impossible. It does not refer to that which is theoretically (aqlan) impossible (cf Yawaqit al-Ghaliyah v. 1. p. 41).
  • The message must have been mutawatir in every era including the time of the sahabah (See Yawaqit al-Ghaliyah v. 1 p. 40).
  • The example of mutawatir in the sunan is من كذب علي متعمدا فليتبوأ مقعده من النار. The point mentioned by Mulla Jiwan addresses mutawatir in both text and sanad. If one considers mutawatir to have other forms such as through practice or amalgamation, there will many examples within the sunnah (cf types of mutawatir).
  • Necessary knowledge (ilm daruri or ilm yaqini) is knowledge which is self evident (requires no evidence) and understandable to any average person who hears. This is in contrast to evidentiary or convincing knowledge (ilm iktisabi or ilm nazari) which requires evidence to know and a level of expertise to understand (cf Nuzhat al-Nazar lil Asqalani).


Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
8 Rabi II 1437
18 January 2016

Allamah Zafar Ahmad Usmani

The great alim, muhaddith-jurist, researcher, prolific writer and shaykh, Zafar Ahmad b. Abd al-Latif Uthmani Thanwi. He was born on 13 Rabi I 1310 (Oct, 1892) and died in Dhul Qa’dah 1394 (1974 CE). He was a close member of Hakim al-Ummat Ml. Ashraf Ali Thanwi’s circle who was also his maternal uncle and teacher. Amongst others, he also studied under Shaykh al-Hadith Ml. Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri from who he has ijazah for the kutub sittah. He served as a teacher in Mazahirul Uloom for seven years and thereafter at Imdamul Uloom in Thana Bawan. He also taught at Madrasah Muhammadiyah in Rangoon, Burma, served at head teacher Madrasah Aliyah in Dacca for eight years and was the shaykh al-hadith at Darul Uloom Islamiyyah in Ashafabad (Hyderabad, Sind).

His magnus opus is Ila’ al-Sunan in which he produced and critically analysed the hadith evidence used in the Hanafi fiqh. He further wrote supplementary works to this title; Qawa’id fi Ulum al-Hadith and Inja’ al-Watan ‘an al-Izdira’ bi Imam al-Zaman. It took twenty years to complete. Another work of note is Dala’il al-Qur’an ‘ala Masa’il al-Nu‘man (popularly known Ahkam al-Quran li Thanwi) in which he was assigned to write from the beginning to Surah Nisa’. These works were commissioned by Hakim al-Ummat Thanwi. He has many other works in Arabic and Urdu. His fatawa is published in multi volumes under the title Imdad al-Ahkam; they are particularly insightful as he highlights the principles of the issues.

May Allah almighty have mercy upon him and grant him a high station in Junnah.


Muhammad Saifur Rahman
5 Rabi II 1437
15 January 2016

For a more detail read the biography written by Shaykh Abdul Fattah Abu Ghuddah (May Allah have mercy upon him) available in introduction to ‘Ila al-Sunan.

Mawlana Mamluk al-Ali Nanautwi

1204 – 1267 AH (1789 – 1851 CE). One of the great Alim of his time in Delhi and a renowned educator. His student number is countless and notably include nearly all the founders of Deoband.

By Mawlana Abd al-Hayy b. Fakhr al-Din al-Husayni
Nuzhat al-Khawatir v.7 pp.1119 #917
Translated by Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami

The great Shaykh and scholar. Mamluk al-Ali b. Ahmad Ali b. Ghulam Sharf b. Abd Allah al-Siddiqi Nanautwi. [Considered] one of the famous teachers. He was born and raised in Nanauta – a village in the district of Saharanpur. He acquired knowledge from Allamah Rashid al-Din Dihlawi and other ulama. He specialised in fiqh, usul, Arabic and had complete mastery of logic. He was posted to teach in Madrasa Dar al-Baqa’. He benefited [them] the length of his age and exerted his effort on this [endeavour] so much so that his advancements became known amongst the ulama. A huge number of people, a sum which is countless, have learnt from him. He travelled to the Hijaz in 1258. [There] he did hajj and ziyarah. [Then] he returned to India after a full year. He died eleven days before the end of Zul Hijjah, 1267 AH before seven from liver disease.

[This entry is based on] the article of his son [Shaykh] Ya’qub [included] in the biography of Shaykh Muhammad Qasim Nanautwi. [May Allah almighty have mercy upon them all].

For a detailed article, read ‘Nanautwi, Mamluk al-Ali – d. 1267‘. Islamic Studies Bulletin (DIBAJ). Issue 104. Available at

Ml. Nur al-Hasan Rashid Kandhalwi has written a detailed book on his biography entitled, ‘Ustad al-Kull Hadrat Mawlana Mamluk al-Ali Nanautwi‘. The work is in Urdu and has been published by Mufti Ilahi Bakhsh Academy; Kandhla, India, (1430 AH/ 2009 CE).


4 Rabi I 1437
14 January 2016

Note: In regards to his date of death, the sources are inconsistent  with some suggesting he died on 11 Zul Hijjah whilst this entry suggests it was 11 days before the end of Zul Hijjah. Furthermore, he was in the full time employ of Dehli college which was a government institute as opposed to Darul Baqa where at the most he could have been a visiting lecturer.

Have wudu in lesson

Ilm is not gained, it is given. For this privilege, one cannot simply rely on the minimum; rather they must go beyond the fard and embrace the sunnah, mustahab and the requisite etiquettes of which one is cleanliness. Verily Allah loves the repentant and the clean (Baqarah: 222). The prophet (peace be upon him) would encourage one to be in wudu even if it were just before going to sleep. Be clean, have wudu, when studying the din and seeking the love of Allah.

Read Mufti Umar Faruq Lawharwi’s article, ‘Have wudu whilst in lessons of hadith‘. Islamic Studies Bulletin (DIBAJ), Issue 2. Available at

Buyu’ terminology chart

The chart below illustrates the terminologies in buyu’ (business). Click on the image to enlarge.

Buyu's terminology chart
illustrator: Abdul Qadir Ja’far

Note! Use the chart as a guide but not as the source of your answer for which you should turn to the book. Some of the masa’il stated may not be representative of the position of all the schools or it may be an over generalisation. For example, there is differed opinion on the selling of guard dogs.

How to prepare for a lesson (Mutala)


By Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
Nawhami Bulletin – 1 Rabi II 1427 | 11 January 2016

If you want to understand a subject well and gain depth, you must prepare before going to lesson – this is called mutala. The following is a suggested approach to preparing for a text covered in a lesson.

Firstly, determine the literal meaning (lughat) and form (sayghah) of the words. You may enquire, is the word an ismfi’l or harf? If the word is an ism, what is the gender (muzakkar or mu’annath), number (wahidtathniya or jama’) and type (ma’rifah or nakirah)?  If it is a fi’l, what is the sayghah as per the rules of sarf and perhaps even ascertain what is its masdarIf it is a harf, which group of harf does it belong. Ultimately, you would determine, what does this word literally mean and perhaps it has more than one literal meaning? The primary skill in this step is sarf and vocabulary (esp. masadir).

Secondly, determine the structure (tarkib) of the sentence and the relationship between the words vis status (marfu’mansub and majrur). You may need to identify if the word is mu’rab, mabni (ghayr mutamakkin) (mabni), ghayr munsarif or munsarif to glean how the word will react to a stimuli (‘amil). Ultimately, you should try to read the text and identify its function through the irab. The primary skill in this step is nahw.

Thirdly, translate the text in a meaningful way. You may ask what did the author intend here? If there are different possible meanings, what is the likely meaning here. To this end, you will need to look at the context of the sentence by checking what came prior to and after it as well as read further around the topic.

The objective is not to understand everything rather identify areas where you may need help. The part which you do not understand, mark it and when in class ask the teacher to clarify.

This is a tried and tested method. At first it may seem tedious and time consuming. In fact at first a few lines may take your entire time. But rest assured, it gets easier – after awhile you will get sharper and faster. Then reading will become a joy and you would advance at an accelerated pace so long as you are consistent in mutala daily even if the quantity is little.

If you were to read the dars nizami entirely in this manner, you would have built within yourself a capacity to de-construct any subject in the field.

Extended reading, beyond the dars nizami, is the subject of another note. Suffice it to say, you should read selectively and consult a pious expert alim regarding a book rather than reading any and every book that crosses your path – do not squander your time or cloud your judgement.


Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
1 Rabi II 1437 AH
11 January 2016 CE

The principle of blocking the means

Blocking the means (sadd al-zara’i) or closing the ‘floodgate’ is a legal principle used as a device to stop the future occurrence of sin.

By Allamah Zafar Ahmad Uthamani
Ahkam al-Qur’an v.1 pp.54-46 – Hakim al-Ummat Ml. Ashraf Ali Thanwi (Editor)
Translated by Ml. Zameelur Rahman in Deoband – 18 December 2011

The ummah have agreed that when an abomination is attached to a permissible or desirable action and it becomes a means to disobedience or innovation, even though that is not the intention and objective of the doer, it is obligatory to remove this disobedience whatever it may be. Thereafter, they differed:

Some of them said: This desirable act should be totally abandoned in order to block the means to disobedience and to sever the substance of innovation in the religion.

And some of them said: This abomination is removed, and a recognised desirable act is not abandoned for its sake.

The Hanafis, Malikis and Hanbalis have inclined to the first [view]. Their proof is in His (Exalted is He) statement: “O you who believe, do not say ra‘ina, but say unzurna,” (Qur’an 2:104), as Ibn Kathir said in his Tafsir:

Allah Almighty forbade His servants from resembling the disbelievers in word and deed, and that is because the Jews would keep in mind the allusion in the speech with the objective of degrading [the Prophet (upon him blessings and peace)] – may the curses of Allah be upon them. Thus, when they intended to say: “Listen to us,” they would say: “Ra‘ina” (observe us) with the hidden meaning of “stupidity” (ru‘unah). [This is] as He (Exalted is He) said: “Among the Jews there are some who distort the words against their contexts, and say, ‘We hear and disobey,’ and, ‘Hear. May you not be made to hear,’ and, ‘Ra‘ina,’ twisting their tongues and maligning the religion.” (Qur’an 4:46)

Al-Baydawi said:

“Twisting their tongues,” twisting and turning with [their tongues] the speech into what resembles an insult, since they used ra‘ina, which resembles what they would use to insult one another, in place of unzurna.

It is not hidden that the sanctity of the Sahabah (Allah Almighty’s pleasure be on them all) is far removed from them [ever] alluding as the Jews would allude, or twisting their tongues as they would twist [them], yet despite this, you see they were forbidden from this word. This is not but from the door of blocking the means to abomination, and severing resemblance with the disbelievers. This is an elementary principle, from which uncountable branches derive.

From this the meaning of “relative innovation” (al-bid‘ah al-idafiyya) which ‘Allamah al-Shatibi discussed in his book al-I‘tisam is understood, and we will quote here a beautiful passage from it. He said:

Often an original practice is lawful but it falls onto the pattern of an innovation through the door of means…The reason for the inclusion of innovation here is that all that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) performed continuously of optional prayers and which he displayed openly in congregations, they are Sunnah, so acting on optional activities which are not Sunnah in the way a Sunnah is practiced equates to removing the optional act from its place stipulated in the Shari‘ah. Then a consequence of this is the laypeople and the ignorant believe that it is a Sunnah. This is a great evil! Because believing what is not a Sunnah [to be a Sunnah], and acting upon it within the remit in which a Sunnah is practiced equates to changing the Shari‘ah, just as if it were believed that an obligation is not an obligation or that that which is not an obligation is an obligation, and then practice in accordance with this belief – For, this is ruinous! So, granted, the action is originally valid, but its extraction from its remits [stipulated in the Shari‘ah] in belief or practice equates to ruining the laws of the Shari‘ah.

From this the justification of the righteous Salaf in their intentional avoidance of Sunnahs becomes manifest – so that the ignorant person doesn’t believe that it is from the obligations, like the sacrifice (udhiyah) and other than that, as has preceded. This is why most of them also forbade tracing the relics [of pious people], as al-Tahawi, Ibn Waddah and others transmitted from Ma‘rur ibn Suwayd al-Asadi, he said: “I attended the [Hajj] season with the commander of the believers, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab (Allah be pleased with him). When we turned back to Medina, I went back with him. When he had prayed with us the Morning Prayer and recited therein alam tara kayfa fa‘ala (Sura 105) and li’ilafi Quraysh (Sura 106), he then saw people taking a path, so he said: ‘Where are these people going?’ They said: ‘They are going to a mosque here wherein the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) prayed.’ He said: ‘Those before you were destroyed because of this! They traced the relics of their Prophets and adopted them as churches and monasteries. Whoever [unintentionally] catches the prayer in any of these mosques in which the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) prayed, then he should pray in them, otherwise he should not intentionally proceed to them.’”

Ibn Waddah said: I heard ‘Isa ibn Yunus – the Mufti of the people of Tartus – say:

‘Umar ibn al-Khattab ordered the cutting of the tree under which the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was pledged allegiance. He cut it because the people would go and pray under it, so he feared temptation for them.

Ibn Waddah said:

Malik ibn Anas and other jurists would dislike going to those relics of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) with the exception of Quba’ alone.

Malik would dislike all innovations even if it was [done] in goodness. All of this is a means to not take as a Sunnah what is not a Sunnah, or to consider as part of the Shari‘ah what is not recognised. Malik would dislike going to the Bayt al-Maqdis for fear that that would be taken as a Sunnah, and he would dislike going to the graves of the martyrs and he disliked going to Quba’ for that very fear – despite the reports that have come on encouragement towards this, but since the ‘ulama feared the consequence of that, they avoided it.

Ibn Kinanah and Ashhab said: We heard Malik say when he came to [the grave of] Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqas: “I wish my legs were paralysed and I did not do this!”

Sa‘id ibn Hassan said: I used to read [hadiths] to Ibn Nafi‘, and when I read the hadith of spending generously [on one’s family] on the night of ‘Ashura’, he said to me: “Burn it!” I said: “Why is that O Abu Sa‘d?” He said: “For fear that it will be taken as a Sunnah.”

Hence, these are permissible or desirable activities, but they disliked their performance for fear of innovation, because taking them as Sunnah by continuously practicing upon them with open display of them – which is the nature of Sunnah – and when it falls on the pattern of Sunnahs, they turn into innovations without doubt. (End of abbreviated quote from al-Shatibi)

I say: This is the position of our Hanafi Imams (Allah Almighty have mercy on him). It is according to this [principle,] al-Halabi said in Sharh al-Munyah under “The Prostration of Gratitude and what is Done after the Prayer”: “It is disliked because the ignorant believe it is Sunnah or obligatory, and every permissible act leading to this is disliked.” Al-Shami said in the “Undesirable Acts of Prayer” of Radd al-Muhtar (1:43): “When a ruling wavers between Sunnah and innovation, avoidance of Sunnah is given priority.” The same [passage] is found in the Funerals [section] of Fatawa ‘Alamgiriyya and in it there is the addition: “That which wavers between obligatory and innovation, it should be practiced with caution.” Al-Tibi and al-Sayrafi said in their marginalia to Mishkat al-Masabih under the hadith of Ibn Mas‘ud, “None of you should make any part of his prayer for the devil by believing that it is duty-bound on him to turn to his right, for indeed I have seen the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) many times having turned to his left,”: “[The principle] behind this is that one who persists on a recommended act and has resolve on it, and does not act on a concession, then the devil has afflicted him, so what about the one who persists on innovations or abominations?” These [quotations] are found in Majmu‘at al-Fatawa al-Laknawiyyah (2:295).

In brief, blocking the means and cutting off resemblance with the disbelievers is a wide door in the religion on which is premised uncountable branches and rulings; and the basis of all of this is what is contained in this noble verse of a clear indication to this.

Overcoming personal challenges

A scattered mind and frail body may become a hindrance to learning. Start everyday with a focus and objective, then exert effort to attain it regardless of state or circumstance – do not think, ‘I cannot do this’.


By Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami

A scattered mind and frail body may become a hindrance to learning. The pious always faced one form of challenge or another. However, they made their mind and body subservient to the will of Allah Almighty and thus overcame all challenges. The key is focus and effort. They determined their focus and then tirelessly worked towards that goal regardless of state or circumstance. Those who lack focus or effort become the victim of their state and circumstance.

Hakim al-Ummat Ml. Ashraf Ali Thanwi says,

Those who are in the habit of hard work, look at how their health is good. Look at the village folks, they are so much more stronger than you. Hot or cold; it does not faze them. [Now] look at the city folks, even the mu’azzin is so brittle that it is difficult for them to exit the masjid to give azan. God forbid should something befall the city people, what would they do. This is not just me saying, everyone knows that seeking luxury is not a good thing whilst effort and hard work is a good thing. However, the culture has changed such that there is no effort. Culture is in your control – change this culture [where] we consider idleness and seeking luxury a high achievement … if not in matters of din, at least do mubah (any permissible actions)  but for goodness sake do not sit around uselessly.

– Tuhfat al-Fuqaha (p. 262 v. 1)

Those who make the luxury of this world their focus and so exert no real effort in anything, their mind and body becomes diseased.  Those who make luxury of the hereafter their focus and so exert effort to utilise every moment, their spirit remains high and driven regardless of their state.

The Prophet (peace be upon him) walked with purpose; it always seemed he is going somewhere. The path to perfection in Islam is to avoid trivial matters.

Start everyday with a focus and objective, then exert effort to attain it regardless; do not think, ‘I cannot do this’.


7 January 2015

Not for public consumption


Knowledge should be shared but not everything learned is to be spread to the general public. Some things are best left amongst the ulama. This is not tantamount to hiding knowledge as that is applicable to necessary and preferable matters of din and not arcane issues. Take caution and be mindful of the consequence of what you tell the public for you may distance them further. Do not confuse people rather build them gradually. There are certain ahadith which the sahabah only mentioned in their death bed for fear of the adverse effect it would have on the people (cf Muslim). The Prophet (peace be upon him), on the urging of Hadrat Umar, stopped Hadrat Abu Hurayrah from spreading a hadith to the masses on possibility that it would bread complacency. This was the hadith that whoever says la ilaha illallah would enter jannah.

Imam Qurtubi writes,

Those discrete and distinct issues which the general public will not understand rather it is likely they will misunderstand, it is better not to mention such issues and rulings to the public. This does not fall under hiding knowledge. Regarding such issues Hadrat Abd Allah b. Mas’ud (may Allah Almighty be pleased with him) said, if you present such ahadith to the public which they cannot understand fully, you will place them in fitnah.

Mufti Shafi Usmani write,

In Sahih Bukhari, Hadrat Ali (may Allah almighty be pleased with him) is reported as saying reports that mention only so much knowledge which their intellect can bear. Do you want people to belie Allah Almighty and his Prophet (peace be upon him)? The reason being, that which is beyond their understanding will create doubts and qualms in their heart which may lead them to deny.


26 Rabi I 1437
6 January 2016

The Miqat

Miqat is the set boundary beyond which a Muslim intending to do hajj or umrah is not allowed to cross without ihram.

In essence there are two sets of boundaries. The outer boundary and the inner boundary. The first (marked red) highlights the point before which a person must start Ihram for those living beyond it. The second (marked blue) highlights the boundary of the haram and requires those living within to go beyond it and initiate ihram if they wish to do umrah such as the case of Hadrat Aysha (may Allah almighty be please with her) who whilst in Makkah was sent to Tan’im to put on her ihram for umrah.

Thulathiyat of Ibn Majah

By Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami

Thulathi (pl. thulathiyat) is a hadith where there are only three narrators between the author and the Prophet (peace be upon him) in the sanad. A thulathi is the shortest chains available in the kutub sittah.

Sanads with shorter chains (‘ali) are favoured over those that have longer chains (nazil). The reason being, a shorter chain is easier to analyse and has a lower margin of error as opposed to  a sanad that has more people in the chain. However, it should be noted that a short sanad does not guarantee that the hadith is reliable.

There are five thulathiyat in Sunan Ibn Majah. These are as follows:

حدّثنا جبارة بن المغلّس، حدّثنا كثير بن سليمٍ، قال: سمعت أنس بن مالكٍ، يقول: قال رسول الله صلّى الله عليه وسلّم : من أحبّ أن يكثر الله خير بيته، فليتوضّأ إذا حضر غداؤه، وإذا رفع – رواه ابن ماجة (3620) باب الوضوء عند الطعام

حدّثنا جبارة بن المغلّس، حدّثنا كثير بن سليمٍ عن أنس بن مالكٍ، قال: ما رفع من بين يدي رسول الله صلّى الله عليه وسلّم فضل شواءٍ قطّ، ولا حملت معه طنفسةٌ – رواه ابن ماجة (3110) باب الشواء

حدّثنا جبارة بن المغلّس، حدّثنا كثير بن سليمٍ عن أنس بن مالكٍ، قال: قال رسول الله صلّى الله عليه وسلّم : الخير أسرع إلى البيت الّذي يغشى من الشّفرة إلى سنام البعير – رواه ابن ماجة (3356) باب الضيافة

حدّثنا جبارة بن المغلّس، حدّثنا كثير بن سليمٍ سمعت أنس بن مالكٍ يقول: قال رسول الله صلّى الله عليه وسلّم : ما مررت ليلة أسري بي بملإٍ إلّا قالوا: يا محمّد، مر أمّتك بالحجامة  – رواه ابن ماجة (3479) باب الحجامة

حدّثنا جبارة بن المغلّس، حدّثنا كثير بن سليمٍ عن أنس بن مالكٍ، قال: قال رسول الله صلّى الله عليه وسلّم : إنّ هذه الأمّة مرحومةٌ، عذابها بأيديها، فإذا كان يوم القيامة دفع إلى كلّ رجلٍ من المسلمين رجلٌ من المشركين، فيقال: هذا فداؤك من النّار  – رواه ابن ماجة (4292) باب صفة أمة محمد صلي الله عليه وسلم

In all of these narrations the sanad is the same which is from Jubarah b. Mughallith who narrates from Kathir b. Sulaym who in turn narrates from Anas b. Malik (may Allah almighty be  pleased upon him) who says that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said …

The above mentioned sanad is da’if due to Kathir b. Sulaym who is generally criticised (cf Tahzib al-Kamal) particularly when he quotes Hadrat Anas b. Malik (may Allah almighty be pleased with him). Hafidh Ibn Hajar Asqalani declares him da’if, Imam Bukhari calls him munkar whilst Imam Nasa’i classed him to be matruk.

Jubarah b. Mughallith is a mutakallam fih narrator. Ibn Numayr says that he is ‘honest’ and Imam Abu Dawud Sajistani says he is ‘a pious man’. In contrast, Imam Zahabi et al. simply call him weak. The weakness does not arise from the lack of piety. Abu Zur’a states, ‘I do not see him as a person who would lie rather he was presented with fabricated hadith and he in turn forwarded it; I do not think he intended to lie.’ Imam Ahmad b. Hanbal said, ‘Some of his hadith are fabricated.’ Hafidh Ibn Hajar Asqalani clarifies that he reported the fabricated collection of Kathir b. Sulaym. Yahya b.Mu’in calls him a liar which is a bit harsh whilst Imam Bukhari is more reserved and declares his hadith Mudhtarab as in its authenticity are hit and miss. Considering this it is understandable why Usman b. Abi Shaybah and Maslamah consider him reliable.

In summary, Jubarah b. Mughallith is a good person and can be reliable person, however, his hadith cannot be accepted outright rather  one should check from whom he narrates. If it is from Kathir b. Sulaym and the like, reject it whilst if it is a reliable narrator his narration may be accepted (cf Tahzib al-Kamal).



Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
24 Rabi I 1437 AH
4 January 2016 CE

Pray for knowledge

Knowledge is light. It is a gift given by Allah almighty and cannot be merely acquired by sheer ability alone. We must beseech Allah for knowledge.

By Shaykh al-Islam Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani
In’am al-Bari v.1 p.46
Translated by Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami #111123501

[Knowledge is light. It is a gift given by Allah almighty and cannot be merely acquired by sheer ability alone. We must beseech Allah for knowledge. Mufti Taqi Usmani advises students of Hadith how to pray and outlines a dua. He says:]

Oh Allah! In truth we are not deserving of gaining this knowledge or becoming its student; we have no capacity. The reality is that our smutty mouths and filthy tongues are not even good enough to be permitted to say the name of Muhammad Rasul Allah (صلي الله عليه و سلم) let alone be given the opportunity to study his Ahadith and utterances. Oh Allah! We have absolutely no capacity to study the words of your beloved (صلي الله عليه و سلم), however, Oh Allah! You are the creator and maintainer of capacity. Through your grace, generosity and mercy, grant us this aptitude and fitness. Grant us the ability to value this blessing. Grant us the ability to fulfil the rights associated with this knowledge. The radiance and blessing which you have gifted within the Ahadith, we deserve none of it but Oh Allah! We are definitely in need. We deserve nothing at all but are in need of everything. Oh Allah! Consider what we deserve, consider what we need and with your grace and generosity give us the radiance and blessing based on our needs. Give us the ability to fulfil the etiquettes, conditions and requisites needed for acquiring this knowledge. Give us the proper understanding of this knowledge. Give us the ability to act and stay steadfast upon it.

Hadiths reported by Sufis

The experts of hadith are weary of the hadith of sufis as highlighted by Imam Muslim. It should be noted that it is not the fact that they are sufi which makes them unreliable rather it is the manner in which they evaluate hadith.

By Muhaddith al-Asr Shaykh Muhammad Yunus Jawnpuri
al-Yawaqit al-Ghaliyah fi Tahqiq wa Takhrij al-Ahadith al-‘Aliyah
Translated by Ml. Muhammad Habib in Deoband – 4th April 2010

[This is a beneficial read to understand the rationale of Imam Muslim (may Allah almighty have mercy upon him) when he writes in his Muqaddimah that the hadith of the sufis are not to be relied upon. Also note that the term sufi in some parts sparks debate. Before embarking on a discussion first determine the definition of a sufi as it is not uniform. –Saif]

Scholars have not given credence to the [hadith] reports of Sufis, as these respected people, due to their preoccupation with acts of devotion (‘ibadat), are unable to fully dedicate themselves to [the seeking of] knowledge. This is why their reports are littered with errors and confusions. Likewise, their husn al-zann (good opinions regarding others) is to such a degree that they do not even make critical analysis and, consequently, accept any spoken word without investigation. This is why their reports contain weak, rejected and fabricated hadiths in abundance.

This becomes evident after seeing Abu Talib Makki’s Qut al-Qulub and the works of Imam al-Ghazali, Abu ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami and others.

‘Allamah Taj al-Din al-Subki has compiled all those countless reports which Imam al-Ghazali has mentioned in Ihya’ al-‘Ulum, but are not found elsewhere. There are, however, many reports which do exist either in wording or meaning.

The truth is that every art has its connoisseurs. We gladly accept that the Sufis are worthy of veneration. However, that does not mean we also accept their word in those sciences in which they do not specialise.

Yahya al-Qattan says: ”We have not seen the pious (Sufis) more imprecise in anything as they are in hadith.” Another variation reads, “We have not seen the people of good (Sufis) more imprecise in anything as they are in hadith.”

Explaining this, Imam Muslim (pg. 14) writes: “Imprecision finds its way on to their tongues but they do not intend it.”

Imam al-Nawawi elaborates: ”This is so because of their non-possession of the skills employed by the people of hadith, and hence, error creeps into their reports without their knowledge and they tend to relate inaccurate reports not suspecting them to be false.”

However, no one has rejected the reports of those Sufis who have gained proficiency in this science. For example, Imam Abu Isma’il al-Ansari al-Harawi (d. 481 AH), the author of Manazil al-Sa’irin, was a Sufi as well as a hadith scholar. His work, Manazil al-Sa’irin, is a renowned work of tasawwuf, of which al-Hafiz Ibn al-Qayyim wrote an extremely detailed commentary, entitled Madarij al-Salikin.

Similarly, the student of Imam Muslim, Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Sufyan and his student Abu Ahmad al-Jaludi and others were all from amongst the ascetic Sufis, and people (hadith scholars) have accepted their reports.

The hadith scholar, Abu ‘Abd Allah Yunini, is from amongst the great Sufis. He attained the mantle of tasawwuf from the respected Shaykh ‘Abd Allah al-Bata’ihi, who is from the companions of Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani. [Abu ‘Abd Allah] Yunini is also a renowned hafiz of hadith. Al-Hafiz al-Dhahabi has specifically mentioned him in Tadhkirat al-Huffaz (Vol. 4, p. 223).

Similarly ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad al-Dawudi (d. 467 AH) is a renowned Sufi. Al-Hafiz al-Sam’ani relates in Al-Ansab: ”He was a master in tasawwuf”, and he is from amongst the transmitters of [Sahih] al-Bukhari.

The likes of ‘Allamah Ibn Daqiq al-‘Id and Ibn al-Humam and others being Sufis is a known fact.

[Finally], all praise is due to Allah, most of our shaykhs of the Wali Allahi tradition were Sufis as well as imams of hadith.

That is the bounty of Allah, He grants to whom He wills.

Only Allah knows best.

The servant
Muhammad Yunus
(may Allah forgive him)
Monday 11th Rabi’ al-Thani 1391 AH.

Criticism of the Arab publishing houses

Avoid Darul Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, al-Fikr and Ihya al-Turath prints especially when they have been edited by Muhammad Hasan al-Shafi’i and Ahmed Izw Inayah.

By Mufti Husain Kadodia
Edited by Ml. Bilal Ali Ansari in at-Tahawi – 12 May 2009

To understand different criticisms and comments about Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, one would have to first understand how these publishers work.

In the past most of these publishers, eg. Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, Dar al-Fikr, etc., would just have a group of typists, with one “muhaqqiq” (research scholar).

The typist would type out the book, relying on some old print of it, the muhaqqiq would type out a half page biography of the author and all of a sudden you have you nice, sleek new print!

They then realized that customers were getting cleverer, and that they would only buy “Muhaqqaq” (researched, revised, and properly edited) prints. So they had to start outsourcing the tahqeeq. In other words, if al-‘Ilmiyyah decided they needed to print al-Mabsut of al-Sarakhsi, they would take the old reliable print, hand it over to their group of typists who in a few days would have it ready in a text document, complete with thousands of errors added free of charge. Of course, no re-checking, correction, etc… would take place.

It would then be handed over to a “Muhaqqiq”. In the case of al-Mabsut, ‘Muhammad Hasan ibn Ismail ash-Shafi’i” ! He would then make a long-drawn takhrij of every hadith in the book and also made takhrij of some of the fiqhi quotations. He wouldn’t touch or research the typed-out muharraf (changed) matan (text) except very rarely! Once he was finished with this, the book would then be handed back to al-‘Ilmiyyah, who would typeset it and print it as a “tab’ah jadidah muhaqqaqah mulawwanah, etc…” (New Critical Revised Colored Edition)

That was their old habit. For the last few years, however, they had to improvise a bit as they realized that customers checked the front of the book to see if the makhtutaat (the original manuscripts) were relied upon in the tahqiq. So what did they do now?

Well, they either openly lied by putting pictures of some makhtutaat at the beginning and saying we relied on these, or they would play with words and say “these are copies of the makhtutat of this book” without saying that they relied upon them, but instead giving you that impression!

Muhammad Hasan ash-Shafi’i is really famous for doing this. He has made tahqiq of dozens of books in this manner. Don’t ever buy a book with his name on the cover…

There are dozens of “poor muhaqqiqqs” in Egypt especially who work for al-‘Ilmiyyah in this manner. They get paid per book and are happy as they are earning a steady income, while al-‘Ilmiyyah is overjoyed with this relationship since they need pay them only a penny: about $200 for a one volume book on which they will make thousands of dollars!

Then you get the Maktabah at-Tahqiq. These guys realised that there is money in tijarati tahqiqqaat (revenue research). They rent a two-room flat, cram 15 graduates fresh out of a Jami’ah into it and start tahqiq. These muhaqiqin get paid about $100-$200 a month!

Because of their large numbers they can work on big books easily. Either they make tahqiq of a book for the first time from a makhtut (manuscript), in which they will only rely on one or two generally and most of the time they are full of errors (eg. Al-Muhit al-Burhani, the Ihya at-Turath print, or an-Nahr al-Fa‘iq, etc..), all done by another good friend, Ahmed Izw Inayah of Damascus (Shaykh Husain Kadodia is also friends with the previously mentioned Ustaadh Muhammad Hasan al-Shafi’i). Stay far from his tahqiqaat as well, unless there exists no other print, as is the case with an-Nahr and Uyun al-Madhahib of al-Kaki.

But most of the time these guys will take an already printed book and just type it out and add takhrij. This is what the Shaykhain of Tahrif , ‘Ali Muawwadh and ‘Adil ‘Abd al-Mawjud, are famous for.

What happens is that these guys don’t do the work, they just own the maktabah. So based on who did the work, the book would be good or terrible […]

These makatib then offer the competed book to different publishers. It is sold to the highest bidder.

So while the publishers like al-‘Ilmiyyah had nothing to do with the tahqiq in cases like this, they aren’t completely free of blame, as they deliberately buy these tijarati tahqiqaat.

Now the muhaqqiqs know that if they come out with a new book, never printed before, after a very little while other publishers like al-‘Ilmiyyah will steal it and type it out as their own tahqiq.

So the muhaqqiqs then got clever.

So from one maktabah of tahqiq, 3 of them would take the same book, just spread it out in a different number of volumes and with different muhaqqiqs on the cover, each to a different publisher. Generally al-‘Ilmiyyah, al-Fikr, and Ihya at-Turath.

They will then buy it- so the maktabah cashed in thrice- and thus you will find multiple prints of the same book coming onto the market at one time, with all the same mistakes.

If anyone compared the Ihya at-Turath copy of al-Muhit al-Burhani – 11 vols- with the al-‘Ilmiyyah one – 9 vols- he will understand what I am saying. Both are identical, yet the muhaqqiq – Ahmed Inayah- of course denied that he sold it to both. Rather, he says al-‘Ilmiyyah copied his one. And Allah knows best.

The class rules of Mufti Muzaffar Husayn

There are general etiquettes and then there are etiquettes particular to teachers. The following are some classroom rules stated by Mufti Muzaffar Husayn who was the hadith teacher and former principal of Mazahirul Uloom in India. Wait for the lesson to start inside the class; do not loiter outside. Attend class and consistently so. Do not leave the classroom unnecessarily. Focus! Do not doodle, text or distract others during lesson. Do not do anything which is unrelated to the current lesson during lesson time such as grooming or reading a novel. Come prepared; do not leave your books at home.

By Mufti Muzaffar Husayn Mazahiri
Taqrir Tirmidhi
Translated by Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami; Bulletin #150805501 – 19 Shawwal 1436

[There are general etiquettes and then there are etiquettes particular to teachers. The following are some classroom rules stated by Mufti Muzaffar Husayn who was the hadith teacher and former principal of Mazahirul Uloom in India. Wait for the lesson to start inside the class; do not loiter outside. Attend class and consistently so. Do not leave the classroom unnecessarily. Focus! Do not doodle, text or distract others during lesson. Do not do anything which is unrelated to the current lesson during lesson time such as grooming or reading a novel. Come prepared; do not leave your books at home. – Saif]

[Mufti Muzaffar Husayn Mazahiri (may Allah almighty have mercy upon him) states,]

It is a story through the year and I do not like fighting over and over either. In a lesson and especially so in a lesson of hadith, there are a few matters which must be given consideration […] The first is the general etiquettes of a lesson and the second is [specific] with each teacher who have particular approaches and some principles which want the students to fulfil.

First etiquette

The very first thing I want from you is that at the very least you are not standing here and there at lesson time. If you stand here and stand there, this is your first fight with me. When you stand here and there, I consider that in other words you have made a complaint about the teacher even if you have not made the complaint verbally […] Meaning complaint can be done with ‘قال’ (statement) as well as through ‘حال’ (conduct). This conduct of yours entails complaint. When the lesson time has started and the teacher has not arrived or came ten minutes late due to which you are standing here and there, you have announced that the teacher is not there yet. Is that not a complaint? When you complain about a teacher, it is apparent you cannot benefit from them. Even if there is not a clear fight, however, it is the ruling of Allah Almighty that when bitterness forms inside and the heart becomes constricted then one cannot benefit. Even if there are lots of lectures and everything else but the circumstance will be as I have mentioned that it is difficult to benefit. You should save yourself from this habit. At the very least let me tell you about myself that do not stand around in my lesson time. I should not see you standing. Rather sit for ten minutes and wait. I will send a message that there will be no lesson. It is my habit that if I am unable to teach the lesson, I inform but six or seven minutes late and not before.

Second etiquette

Let me mention to you another thing. In a few days something else starts which not being present in class. There are some who do not even bother to come here and sit in lesson. They are relaxing at lesson time even though it is mandatory upon them to be present and remain in lesson. If you start adopting this approach that you come sometimes and don’t come sometimes, I will start feeling dim and withdrawn, my lectures will become shallow and I would assume what is the point of in-depth speeches.

Let me mention another point. There are those who attend class (Masha-Allah). But the extent of their care is that if there is registration they will be present and if there is no registration they will be absent. Remember! In two or three days I will see your face (I will know who is what). After that I will be able to tell if you are not coming to lesson. Do not assume that if there was no register it is not known as to who did not come. […] This is a form of cheating with the lesson and the teacher […] Many are under the assumption that we have put one over [the teacher]; the teacher did not ask and so did not know. This is an error. This error should be removed as it is nothing and everything is known.

However, let me say that after the first, second or third occurrence, I may say that you are not consistent. Subsequently, after the third time I will assume that come or do not come, if after telling you, still you did not come, I will not ask why you did not come. The reason being, you are not children. Masha-Allah, you have intellect, are mature, have understanding, are able to lead the people, manage an organisation and all other thing. Even then if you are careless about what benefits and harms you, who can inform you. After the third time, as you would have read, even the Quran states, ‘This is a separation between me and you’. So up to three time the apology will be heard but after the third time it is not necessary. This is my personal stance or else the rule of the madrasah is different. Whether they expel you or keep you that is the madrasah’s matter, however, the special relationship that we have will definitely be different. Even if you do not call it a literal separation consider it is a figurative one. A figurative separation is when there is no connection between the teacher and student. So this separation is born. The point being, be consistent in you attendance.

Third etiquette

Some of our friends (viz. students) have adopted another form. Listen regarding it also. They arrive and are present, however, studying is not their objective. Their main purpose is to register their attendance. As soon as they have been marked in, they need to go toilet, they need to urinate, they have an extreme need, they have an illness and so they leave the class. Some will try to adopt this corner or that corner and thereafter when they feel like it, they leave, and when they feel like it, they return. They think we have fooled them and the teacher does not have a clue who left […] To inform or not to inform is a separate issue, however, to assume that it was not known, is not correct. It is definitely known but it is not my habit to say over and over; it is not appropriate either.

Fourth etiquette

There are some of our friends whose mind-set is that let us go to lesson and these poor souls come to lesson also as well as remain in lesson. However, whilst remaining some start doodling, sometimes sending a note here and sometime sending a note there, or thereafter they start to sign towards each other.

Fifth etiquette

Some fellows have gone to the limit, and this is my experience that someone is doing their moustache or reading a novel. The lesson of hadith is going on and the novel is open. It is a sad case! Think, the novel is open and hadith is being taught. Similarly, a scissors is in front or a pen and with these their exercise is done upon the book. These are experiences which I am telling. I am not merely saying but it is my experience. Now you let me how can such students gain anything.

Sixth etiquette

Similarly, some do not even bring their books such as today where some have come without their books. Meaning they are so well researched that they do not consider it necessary to lift so many books, and even if they pick, it is one or two important books which they will bring from their residence.

Listen! Those who find it burdensome to even carry books, it is clear what burden they will take to carry knowledge. I ask that if it is difficult to bring books for four lessons at once from the room, what would they be able to preserve of the lectures of four lessons? I want to ask to those whose state in regards to the respect of knowledge that they cannot even bring books and sit without books. This is my long experience and you will also see, this is their regular habit that they come without books and they impose on those who have brought their books. Think! What are they studying who cannot even bring books?


All these thing are causes for the deprivation, loss and deficiency in knowledge. Hence, if you want to study and teach properly, it should be learned in the right manner with full consideration of the etiquette of knowledge. The teacher should consider their station and student should realise their obligation. Thereafter, Allah almighty will very easily grant knowledge.


Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami (Translator)
19 Shawwal 1436
5 August 2015

Ml. Saharanpuri on Shami and Badai’

Ml.Khalil Ahmad Saharanpur advises that to create an affinity to fiqh one should read Shami (Radd al-Muhtar) and Badai’ al-Sanai’ comprehensively.

By Mawlana Ashiq Ilahi Mirati
Tazkirat al-Khalil pp. 351-352
Translated by Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami Bulletin #151228501 – 18 Rabi I 1437

When writing a fatwa, Hadrat [Ml. Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri] would often check Shami. If [Allm. Shami] would report a view [of an authority], he would consider it evidence but if it was the opinion of the author, he would not consider it evidence [in of itself]. Rather, he would critically analyse and research. He would say, ‘we are of one time –  they are men and we are men. His opinion is not evidence against us until his opinion is not supported by the view of the salaf’.

In his free time, he would often check Badai’. I have heard on many occasions Hadrat [Saharanpuri] make a lot of duas for its author [Allm. Kasani]. He would say, ‘For sure, this man is a faqih and Allah almighty has created him for fiqh’.

Ml. Zafar Ahmad Sahib once asked, Hadrat [Saharanpuri] to suggest a solution which will create an affinity to fiqh. He responded,

It is the habit of muftis that they revise the book only when a request for a fatwa is made. This is insufficient and results in the answer containing many errors. The reason being, they write an answer in a hurry after checking it in one place despite the fact that in this matter there is more detail in another place which changes the ruling for the given query. Hence, to create an affinity with fiqh one should read Shami and Badai’ comprehensively. Our Hadrat Gangohi read Shami fully multiple times but [then again] at that time Badai’ was not available in print. Now I consider it necessary to review also along with Shami. The reality is that Badai’ is an amazing book. Once he said, although Shami has more derivative edicts but the principles and the why of fiqh is more in Badai’. If one creates a familiarity to [Badai’], they will get to grips with fiqh.

The different temperaments of the pious

How would you have reacted in the given case? This is a useful exercise to connect with the ulama and the sahabah. Would Hadrat Abu Bakr, Umar and Usman (may Allah almighty be pleased with them) reacted alike considering what we know of their personality?


By Hakim al-Islam Qari Muhammad Tayyab Qasimi
Arwah Thalatha, p. 16
Translated by Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami; Bulletin #151225501 – 13 Rabi I 1437

Hadrat Amir Shah Khan Sahib relates that one man invited Shah Wali Allah Sahib (Muhaddith) Dihlawi, Mawlana Fakhr al-Din Sahib and Mirza Mazhar Jani Jana for food. He sat all three of them down and left. The man returned after midday. He placed one paisa (shilling) in each of their hand and said,

Hadrat, I left for some work and absolutely forgot about the invite given to you. Now there is no time to arrange the food, hence, keep this money for food.

Mawlana Fakhr al-Din Sahib thanked him and said,

Brother, even this is a favour because if we were to work from morning to now, we would have got a paisa and here you have sat us in comfort and gave us a paisa.  Shah Wali Allah accepted it silently and said nothing. However, Mirza Muhammad Jani Jana was offended and said,

You wasted the time of this honourable people. Shah Wali Allah Sahib would have taught hadith till now and Mawlana Fakhr al-Din Sahib would have benefited his adherents. (He did not say anything regarding himself as in what he would have done). However, you have stopped them from doing Islamic services. Be warned, never do that again.

Thereafter, the three got up and left. After stating the story, Amir Shah Khan Sahib said, Hadrat Haji Imdad Allah related this story to me as well as Hadrat Mawlana Qasim Sahib Nanotwi and Hadrat Mawlana Gangohi also.

Hadrat Haji Sahib after discussing this story said, Mawlana Rafi al-Din’s case is one of humility – it resonates of chistiyat. Hadrat Mawlana Qasim Sahib said, Shah Wali Allah’s case is higher in that his nafs was unfazed. Hadrat Gangohi used to say that Mirza Mazhar Jani Jana’s case is very high. Justice dictated here what Mirza Sahib said.

This highlights the differences of characters and opinions of our elders.

Hāfiż Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalānī’s day

By Shams al-Din al-Sakhawi
al-Jawāhir wa al-Durar, vol.3, pp.1050-1051
Translated by Ml. Muntasir Zaman in Ahadith Notes – 26 November 2015

In his early days, he (Allāh have mercy upon him) would perform the Fajr prayer at Jāmi‘ al-Hākim when it was still dark. Afterwards -perhaps after becoming a judge- he began performing it at Madrasah Mankūtamuriyyah when it [the sky] was bright. He would go to the Madrasah from the private quarters of his residence. When he completed his prayers, if anyone required his assistance, he would speak to them; otherwise, he would return home and engage in the morning adhkār and recitation of the Qur’ān. He would then engage in research and writing until the time of Salāt al-Duhā and then perform it [Salāt al-Duhā]. Thereafter, if there were people seeking permission to read hadith, he would attend to them. Thus, some would read with transmission and others with commentary; he would remain seated with them until shortly before the Zuhr prayer. He would then return home and rest for one-third of an hour, and perform the Zuhr prayer at his residence.

Thereafter, he would research and write until roughly two-thirds of an hour after the adhān of ‘Asr. Then he would go to the Madrasah and find the students and others waiting for him, so he would perform ‘Asr with them. After the prayer, he would sit to deliver lessons. By then, those who had prescribed invocations either finished them or had a small amount remaining. This is why he delayed slightly, intending wide spread benefit and considering the feelings of the students.

In between their recital to him, as well as in the morning session, he would write answers to Hadith and Fiqh related queries that were sent to him. Occasionally, a discussion would ensue between him and the students regarding some of the queries. Generally, this session would only terminate shortly before sunset. Thereafter, he would return home and eat dinner if he was not fasting; otherwise, he would wait for the adhān to eat and then pray.

He would engage in voluntary prayers or research until he heard the adhān for ‘Ishā’ during which he would make his way to the Madrasah, and upon his arrival, a group of students would be waiting for him. He would pray two raka’āt and then generally sit for dictation or mutual discussion for over an hour and then pray ‘Īshā’ in congregation. Thereafter, he would return home and perform the [post-‘Īshā’] Sunnah prayers. During the month of Ramadān, after the adhān, the prayer of ‘Īshā’ would commence once he appeared and the appointed Imām for the Tarāwīh prayer would go forward. For a lengthy period, the appointed Imām was al-Badr Hasan ibn ‘Abd Allah […] and after his demise, it was Nūr al-Dīn al-Samannūdī. Some nights I prayed with him. He would first pray ‘Īshā’ and then Tarāwīh. When the Imām would stand for the Witr prayer, he would generally remain seated and would engage in dhikr until its completion and then go home to rest. Thereafter, he would do as I described under the section “his night vigil prayer (tahajjud).”

This was his routine most of the time. When he had classes or official duties, however, his schedule would change slightly- as well as in Ramadān.

Mufti Shafi Usmani’s day

By Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
Nawhami Bulletin #120501501 – 9 Jumada II 1433 / 1 May 2012

The pious Ulama achieved greatness through dedication to Allah and maintenance of their duties to themselves and others for the sake of Allah. They made time for ibadat as well as fulfilling the rights of their body, family and meeting financial and social obligations. Here is a glimpse of one such man from the not too distant past.

In 24 Shawwal 1344 AH, the future grand Mufti Muhammad Shafi Usmani (d. 1399) wrote to Hakim al-Ummat Ml. Ashraf Ali Thanwi outlining his daily routine at the onset of the new academic year. He writes,

“As Hidayah generally goes unfinished during class hours I have planned to start teaching after the morning salah, an hour before the lesson, from Kitab al-Nikah and during lesson from the beginning [of the Kitab]. [I will teach] Hidayah in the first period, preparation of Hidayah in the second, exercise of Arabic writing in the third, and Maqamat in the fourth. After this, [I will spend] one and a half to two hours in business[1. He used to run a book store] and [then] an hour of rest (Qaylulah). After Zuhar Salah I will recite one juz of the Quran and thereafter write an article or thesis for an hour. [This will be] followed by one period of teaching Hammasa. After Asr I will go out for leisure. After Maghrib as per instruction Zikr of Allah’s name; to which now [I] adhere to for twelve Tasbihs and some times more. After Isha, the reading of books.”Hayat Mufti A’zam. (1415). Mufti Rafi Usmani. Idarat al-Ma’arif; Karachi, Pakistan. p. 60

Note how his timetable revolves around salah. After every salah there is a concrete action followed by a task that is flexible. The best actions are those that are measured and consistent.


Looking at a woman

It is prohibited to look at a woman’s face or hand with desire. This is undisputed. The same is the case if there is fear that it may lead to mischief. In the absence of desire or fear, the fuqaha are divided. The Hanafis and Malikis permit whilst the Shafi’is and Hanbalis still prohibit.

By Shaykh al-Islam Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani
Takmilah Fath al-Mulhim, vol. 4, pp. 225-234
Translated by Ml. Zameelur Rahman

As for the positions of the fuqaha on the permissibility of looking at the face of a woman and her hands, the fuqaha have agreed on the impermissibility when it is with the intention of gratification (taladhdhudh), or if there was a fear of temptation inviting the man to be alone with her. There is no dispute in the prohibition of looking at the face of a woman and her hands in this case. As for when the man is safe from temptation and does not desire gratification by looking there is disagreement over its permissibility. The position of the Hanafis and the Malikis is the permissibility of looking at the face and hands in this case and this is the position of many of the Shafi’is and few Hanbalis. However the preferred [view] according to the Shafi’is and the Hanbalis is absolute impermissibility even if safe from desire and temptation.

The Hanafi position

Shams al-A’immah al-Sarakhsi said in al-Mabsut (10:152), “It is permissible to look at the area of apparent adornment of women and not the hidden [adornment] due to His statement Most High, ‘they should not display their ornaments except what appear thereof’ (24:31). ‘Ali and Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with them) said, ‘what appears thereof’ is kohl and the ring. ‘A’ishah (Allah be pleased with her) said one of her two eyes and ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) said her shoes (khuff) and shroud (mula’ah) … The prohibition of looking is for fear of temptation and the greater part of her attractiveness is in her face, the fear of temptation in looking at her face is greater than it is when looking at other parts. ‘A’ishah reasoned similarly but she said, ‘if she finds no escape from walking on the road, then it is necessary that she opens her eye to see the road. So it is permissible for her to uncover one of her eyes due to this necessity, and what is established by necessity should not go beyond the scope of the necessity.’

“However, we [Hanafis] adopt the view of ‘Ali and Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with them) since reports have been transmitted giving a dispensation to look at her face and hands. From these reports is what was narrated that a woman offered herself [for marriage] to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace), and he looked at her face and did not desire her.

“And when ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with him) said in his sermon, ‘Know that you may not go in excess in the dowries of women’ and a woman with flushed cheeks said, ‘Are you expressing [a view] using your [personal] opinion or did you hear this from Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace), for indeed we find in the Book of Allah Most High the opposite of what you say…?’ Hence, the narrator mentioned that she had flushed cheeks, and this contains a clarification that her face was unveiled.

“And Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) saw the hand of a woman that was not dyed with henna and he asked, ‘is this the hand of a man?’

“And when Fatima (Allah be pleased with her) gave one of her two children to Bilal or Anas (Allah be pleased with them), Anas said, ‘I saw her hand and it appeared as if a half-moon.’

“It is thus proven that there is no harm in looking at the face and hands. Furthermore, the face is the site of kohl and the hand is the site of the ring … Moreover, there is no doubt that it is permissible to look at her garment, and fear of temptation is not considered in this, and looking at her face and hands is the same. Al-Hasan ibn Ziyad narrated from Abu Hanifah that it is permitted to look at her foot also, as was mentioned by al-Tahawi, because just as she is tried with showing her face in working with men and showing her hand in receiving and giving, she is tried with showing her feet when walking barefooted or wearing sandals, and she may not find shoes on every occasion [when she goes out]. It is mentioned in Jami’ al-Baramika, it was narrated from Abu Yusuf that it is permissible to look at her forearm also because in baking and washing clothes she is tried with showing her forearms also. It was said, ‘similarly, it is permitted to look at her front teeth also, because that appears from her when talking to men.’

“All of this is when looking is not with desire (shahwah). If one knows that if he looks, he will become desirous, then it is not permissible for him to look at any part of her because of his statement (Allah bless him and grant him peace), ‘whoever looks at the beauties of a foreign woman with desire, [melted] lead will be poured into his eyes on the Day of Resurrection’ and ‘Ali (Allah be pleased with him) said, ‘do not follow up a glance with another glance for indeed the first is [permissible] for you and the second is against you’, meaning by the second that one does it intentionally with desire … And similar is the case if his preponderant opinion is that if he looks he will become desirous, because preponderant opinion in that thing the reality of which cannot be known [with certainty] is just like certainty.”

The Maliki Position

As for the Malikis, their position is what was mentioned by al-Kharshi in his marginalia on Mukhtasar Khalil (1:347): “The ‘awrah of a free-woman before a foreign man is her entire body, even her loose hair and forelock, with the exception of the face and hands, the outside of them and their inside. Furthermore, looking at them (the face and hands) without gratification and without fear of temptation and without a reason, is permissible, even if it is a young woman. Malik said, ‘a woman may eat with a non-near-relative (ghayr dhi mahram) and with her male servant, and she may occasionally eat with her husband and others of those with whom he dines’. Ibn al-Qattan said, ‘this contains proof of the permissibility of the woman showing her face and hands to a foreign man, since it is not conceivable to eat except in this manner [i.e. by showing the face and hands].’” An equivalent [passage] is [found] in Sharh al-Muwaq of al-Hattab (1:499) in more detail.

‘Alish said in Minah al-Jalil (1:133), “Thus, it is permissible for her to uncover them [i.e. the face and hands] before a foreign man, and he may look at them if he does not fear temptation. If temptation is feared then Ibn Marzuq said, ‘the well-known position of the madhhab is the obligation to conceal them.’” An equivalent [passage] is [found] in Mawahib al-Jalil by al-Hattab (1:399, 500).

The Shafi’i Position

The position of the Shafi’is is what was mentioned by al-Nawawi in Kitab al-Nikah from al-Minhaj in his statement, “It is prohibited for a mature male to look at the ‘awrah of a mature foreign free woman, and similarly [it is prohibited to look at] her face and hands when one fears temptation, and also when safe from temptation according to the correct opinion.”

Al-Khatib al-Shirbini said below his statement, “according to the correct opinion”, “and Imam [al-Juwayni] reasoned that the Muslims are in agreement on banning women from emerging while their faces are unveiled, and [he reasoned] that looking is the act in which one would most expect temptation and the stirring of desire … And the second view is that it is not prohibited, and Imam [al-Juwayni] attributed this to the majority (jumhur) [of the Shafi’is] and the two shaykhs (al-Nawawi and al-Rafi’i) attributed it to most (aktharin).

“[Al-Isnawi] said in al-Muhimmat that: It is the correct view because most have adopted it. Al-Balqini said, ‘giving weight (tarjih) [to one opinion] depends on the strength of reason, and the verdict (fatwa) is given according to what is in al-Minhaj‘… That which the Imam transmitted regarding agreement on banning women, i.e. the rulers banning them, [from emerging while their faces are unveiled], conflicts with what al-Qadi ‘Iyad related from the ‘ulama that it is not obligatory on the woman to conceal her face along her path and that it is only a good practice (sunnah), and it is [obligatory] on men to lower their gaze from them because of the verse [i.e. 24:30]. The author (al-Nawawi) related this in Sharh Muslim and approved of it. One of the latter-day scholars said there is no conflict in that, rather their being banned from that is not because concealing [the face] is obligatory on them in its essence, rather because there is general benefit in it, and in leaving [the ban] is an infringement of honour (muru’ah). [Here] ends [the statement of al-Isnawi]. The outward purport of the statement of the two shaykhs is that concealing [the face] is obligatory in itself, so [the need for] this reconciliation does not arise, and the statement of al-Qadi is weak.” See Mughni al-Muhtaj (3:128, 129). An equivalent [passage] is [found] in Nihayat al-Muhtaj (6:184, 5).

The Hanbali Position

The position of the Hanbalis is what was mentioned by Ibn Qudamah in al-Mughni (6:558,9) in Kitab al-Nikah in his statement, “As for men looking at a foreign woman without a reason, it is prohibited entirely according to the apparent statement of Ahmad … and al-Qadi [Abu Ya’la] said, ‘it is prohibited for one to look at anything besides the face and hands because this is ‘awrah, and it is permitted for him to look at her with reprehensibility (karahah) when safe from temptation and the look is without desire. This is the position of al-Shafi’i … [In support] of our view is Allah’s statement Most High, “And when ye ask of them anything, ask it of them from behind a veil” (33:53) … As for the hadith of Asma, if it is authentic, it is possible that it was before the revelation of [the verses of] hijab, so we understand it as such.’”


By considering these four positions it is clear that they all agree on the prohibition of looking at the face of a woman with the intention of gratification or when there is fear of temptation. The preponderant view in the madhhab of the Shafi’is and the Hanbalis is its prohibition when safe from temptation also. The Hanafis and Malikis only allow it with the condition of safety from temptation and the intention of gratification. Meeting this condition is very difficult, particularly in our age in which corruption has become prevalent, to the degree that it has become a condition that almost cannot be met in most situations, and for this [reason] the latter-day scholars from the Hanafis prohibited it absolutely.

Its reprehensibility was transmitted in Al-Durr al-Mukhtar: “If one fears desire or has doubts, looking at her face is prohibited. Thus, the permissibility of looking is conditional on the absence of desire and otherwise it is prohibited. This was in their time. As for our time, Quhustani and others prohibited looking at [the face of] young girls except when looking is due to a need, like when a judge and a witness judge and witness over her…”

Al-Haskafi said in Shurut al-Salah, “and it is prohibited for a young woman to uncover the face among men, not because it is ‘awrah, but for fear of temptation.” And he said in Bab al-Ta’zir, “the master may reprimand his slave, and the husband his wife if she doesn’t beautify [herself]” to his statement “or she uncovers her face before a non-close-relative.”

Imam Abu Bakr al-Jassas said in Ahkam al-Qur’an (4:458) under His statement Most High, “they should cast their jilbabs over their [persons]”, “in this verse is an indication that the young woman is commanded to conceal her face from foreign men and to display the concealment and modesty when going out so that suspicious people do not desire them.”

My father, ‘Allamah Mufti Muhammad Shafi’ (Allah have mercy on him), said in his Ahkam al-Qur’an (3:469), “and by this explanation we offered, the texts and narrations that are apparently contradictory are in agreement. As you know from what we cited to you of the verses and narrations that some of them allow uncovering the face and hands, either with certainty and conviction like the hadith of al-Fadl ibn ‘Abbas according to al-Bukhari and the hadith of Asma bint Abi Bakr in [Abu Dawud’s] al-Sunan and the hadith of the one who offered herself [for marriage] according to al-Bukhari and [other narrations] like them; and some [of the verses and narrations] allow it as a possible interpretation due to the disagreement that occurred between the Companions (Allah be pleased with them) in the explanation of His statement Most High ‘except what appear thereof’, the details of which have passed.

“And some [of the verses and narrations] prohibit uncovering the face and hands, and foreign men looking at them, like His statement Most High ‘and stay in your houses’ (33:33) … and His statement Most High ‘ask it of them from behind a veil’ (33:53) and His statement ‘they should cast their jilbabs over their [persons]’ (33:59) according to the explanation of the majority of the Companions and His statement Most High ‘except what appear thereof’ (24:31) according to the explanation of ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud …

“Thus, these texts of the Book and narrations of the Sunnah apparently conflict and contradict and in what we have mentioned to you, with the help of Allah Most High, this problem is resolved, for when you realise what we said, you will understand that all of these texts are in agreement in meaning, well-coordinated in the rulings, and all of them are in effect (muhkam) and are not abrogated, but a [particular] ruling is preconditioned by conditions, so wherever the conditions are met, it is made permissible, and wherever they are not, then it is not [permissible] …

“All of this is when the reality of the difference between the explanations of Ibn ‘Abbas and ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud is conceded. Our teacher, the noblest of teachers, Ashraf ‘Ali al-Thanawi (Allah illuminate his resting place), said in a volume devoted to this subject called Ilqa’ al-Sakinah fi Tahqiq Ibda’ al-Zinah that there is no difference between their explanations upon an in-depth and close examination, since the phrase ‘what appears’, although it was explained [by Ibn ‘Abbas] as the face and hands, but what is cited as the exception [in the verse] is on the [morphological] pattern of zuhur (passive appearance) not izhar (active showing). This clearly indicates that the objective [of the verse] is making an exception of what cannot be concealed. Rather, [it is an exception] when adornment appears upon exertion and work, without an intention to show it, because harm may be inflicted upon them by concealing [the face and hands] upon exertion and work. In this case, the exception would also be in accordance with the explanation of Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) which is the face and hands may appear due to a need, and this does not contradict the statement of ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him). I say: and this meaning is supported by what Ibn Kathir said in his explanation of His statement Most High, ‘they should not display their ornaments except what appear thereof’, ‘i.e. they should not reveal any part of their adornment to foreign men except what they are unable to conceal.’”

The upshot is that a woman is commanded in the Noble Qur’an to stay in her house and not emerge except when there is a need. Moreover, if she were to emerge due to a need, then she is commanded to conceal the face by donning the jilbab or burqa’ and in [a manner] that she does not unveil her face. Yes, there are two situations that are exceptions to this: first, the situation of needing to show the face because concealing it will inflict harm upon her as in a [large] crowd or for another need like providing testimony. Second, her face becomes exposed unintentionally during exertion and work. Men are commanded in these two situations to lower their gaze. And Allah Most High knows best.


This translation was first published in on the 10th June 2010 entitled ” The Hijab of Women and its Boundaries”. The original translation has been split into two parts; (1) The boundaries of hijab and (2) Looking at a woman.

The boundaries of hijab

Hijab is prescribed in the shariah. This is a fact. However, the level of coverage differs depending on circumstance. This article highlights three boundaries which dictate the extent to which a woman must cover.

By Shaykh al-Islam Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani
Takmilah Fath al-Mulhim, vol. 4, pp. 225-234
Translated by Ml. Zameelur Rahman

Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaybah and Abu Kurayb narrated to us. They said: Abu Usamah narrated to us: from Hisham: from his father: from ‘A’isha (Allah be pleased with her): she said:

Sawdah (Allah he pleased with her) went out [in the fields] in order to relieve her need after the hijab had been prescribed upon her. She had been a bulky lady, physically taller than other women, and she could not conceal herself from one who had known her. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab (Allah be pleased with him) saw her and said, ‘O Sawdah, by Allah, you cannot conceal [yourself] from us. Therefore, be careful when you go out.’” ‘A’isha said: “She turned back. Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was at that time in my house having his evening meal and there was a bone in his hand. Sawdah entered and said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, I went out and ‘Umar said to me so and so.’” ‘A’isha said: “Revelation came to him, then it was lifted from him and the bone was [still] in his hand and he had not put it [down]. He then said, ‘Permission has been granted to you that you may go out for your needs.’ (Sahih Muslim)

The subject of the hijab of women has, today, become a significant issue, on which discussion and debate has been ongoing, so we wish to produce an outline of the [correct] view on this [issue]. And Allah Most High gives success and is the Helper.

Writings on the topic of the veiling and unveiling of women have proliferated in our time. The best that I have seen on this subject is a treatise by my late father Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Shafi’ (Allah have mercy on him) which he called Tafsil al-Khitab fi Tafsir Ayat al-Hijab, which is a section from his Ahkam al-Qur’an (3:393-483), in which he examined the verses and hadiths cited on the subject and exhausted the positions of the fuqaha (jurists) and the statements of the exegetes regarding the limits of hijab and its description. The sum of what he concluded after an extensive study is that the hijab that is legislated and commanded in the Book and the Sunnah has three levels, each above the other in hiddenness and concealment. All of them are mentioned in the Book and the Sunnah and none of them have been abrogated, but they have been prescribed for different circumstances.

They are:

[1] Hijab of the persons (ashkhas) of women in houses and walls, private quarters and howdahs, whereby foreign men do not see any part of their persons, garments or external or internal adornment, or any part of their body, including the face, the hands and the remainder of  the body.

[2] Hijab with burqa’ and jilbab, whereby nothing from the face and hands, the rest of the body and the clothing of adornment are shown, so nothing is seen besides their concealed persons from above the head to the foot.

[3] Hijab with jilbabs and items of clothing that resemble them, while exposing the face, the hands and the feet.

The first boundary

The default rule in the hijab of women is hijab of the first level which is that she is concealed in the house and does not emerge, except for a need, the explanation of which is to come. This is proven by the statement of Allah Most High, “and stay in your houses” (Qur’an 33:33). It is apparent that this command is not specific to the purified wives because none of the preceding and succeeding rules in this verse are specific to the Mothers of the Believers (Allah be pleased with them) by consensus. Likewise [this is proven by] His statement Most High, “And when ye ask of them anything, ask it of them from behind a veil” (Qur’an 33:53). This verse was revealed during the walimah (wedding feast) of Zaynab (Allah be pleased with her), whereupon a veil was drawn between her and the men.

Furthermore, this is proven by the following hadiths:

[1] It was narrated from ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) that Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “The woman is ‘awrah. When she emerges [from her house] Satan looks at her.” Al-Tirmidhi transmitted it and said, “The hadith is hasan sahih (sound and authentic), gharib (uncommon)”. Ibn Khuzaymah and Ibn Hibban transmitted it in their Sahihs with this wording and added, “and the closest that she is to the Face of Her Lord is when she is in the depth of her home.” See al-Targhib by al-Mundhiri (1:136).

[2] It was narrated from Jabir (Allah be pleased with him), he said: “Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “The woman advances in the shape of Satan and retires in the shape of Satan.” Muslim transmitted it (1:129).

[3] The hadith of the chapter transmitted by the compiler (Imam Muslim) as Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said therein, “permission has been granted to you that you may go out for your needs,” since this indicates that the permission to go out is restricted to [times] of need and in [times] other than need a woman stays in her house.

[4] It was narrated from ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) that Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “The prayer of a woman in her house is more virtuous than her prayer in her room and her prayer in her chamber is more virtuous than her prayer in her house.” Abu Dawud transmitted it and al-Hakim transmitted it in al-Mustadrak from Umm Salamah (Allah be pleased with her) as [mentioned] in Kanz al-‘Ummal (8:259). Ibn Khuzaymah transmitted it in his Sahih, as [mentioned] in al-Targhib by al-Mundhiri (1:135).

[5]  It was narrated from Umm Humayd, the wife of Abu Humayd al-Sa’idi, that she came to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and said, “O Messenger of Allah, I love to pray with you.” He replied, “I know that you love to pray with me. However, your prayer in your storage room is better than your prayer in your bedroom; your prayer in your bedroom is better than your prayer in your courtyard; your prayer in your courtyard is better than your prayer in the mosque of your people; and your prayer in the mosque of your people is better than your prayer in my mosque.” [The sub-narrator] said, “She requested that a prayer area be built for her in the deepest and darkest part of her house, and she prayed therein until she met Allah Most High.” Ahmad transmitted it in his Musnad (6:371) and Ibn Hajar in al-Isabah attributed it to Ibn Abi Khaythamah through this route, and this is an authentic chain. Al-Shawkani transmitted in Nayl al-Awtar (3:161) from Ibn Hajar that he said, “Its chain is sound (hasan).” Al-Mundhiri mentioned it in al-Targhib (1:135) and said, “Ahmad narrated it, as did Ibn Khuzaymah and Ibn Hibban in their Sahihs”.

[6] It was narrated from Ibn ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with them both) in marfu’ form, “Women do not have a share in leaving [the home] except in [times of] need.” Al-Tabrani transmitted it as [mentioned] in Kanz al-‘Ummal (8:263).

These hadiths prove with clarity that the default rule for the woman is that she is hidden in her house, her person is concealed from foreign men and she does not leave her house except for a need.

The second boundary

However, a woman may need to emerge for her natural needs. It will then be permissible for her to emerge in these kinds of situations while concealed in a burqa’ and jilbab whereby no part of her body is shown. This is the second level of hijab, and indeed this level has been commanded in the Noble Qur’an where Allah Most High said, “O Prophet! Tell thy wives and daughters, and the believing women, that they should cast their jilbabs over their [persons]” (33:59) and it is apparent that by casting the jilbab over the woman is meant concealing her entire body even her face.

Jilbab according to what was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with them both) is that which covers from top to bottom. Ibn Hazm said in al-Muhalla (3:217), “Jilbab in the language of the Arabs, in which Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) spoke, is that which covers the entire body, not a part of it.” Ibn Jarir, Ibn al-Mundhir and others transmitted from Muhammad ibn Sirin, he said: “I asked ‘Abidah al-Salmani about this verse ‘they should cast their jilbabs over their [persons]’ so he lifted the blanket [draped] around him, concealed his face with it and covered his entire head until it reached the eyebrows and covered his face, then he took out his left eye from the left side of his face”. This was [mentioned] in Ruh al-Ma’ani (22:89).

Ibn Jarir transmitted in his Tafsir (22:46) from Ibn ‘Abbas in the explanation of this verse, “Allah commanded the believing women [that] when they emerge from their houses for a need, they [must] cover their faces from above their heads with jilbabs and reveal [only] one eye.” It was also narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas and Qatadah, “[the woman] twists the jilbab above the forehead and tightens it, then she folds it unto the nose even if her eyes are exposed; nonetheless, she conceals the chest and most of the face.” Al-Alusi [mentioned] it in Ruh al-Ma’ani (22:89). In sum, this verse proves that the woman is commanded to cover her face when she emerges at her [time of] need.

Furthermore, this is proven by His statement Most High, “Such elderly women as are past the prospect of marriage, there is no [blame] on them if they lay down their garments” (24:60), since Allah Most High made it permissible for old women in this verse to lay down their garments and it is clear that the intended meaning of laying down the garments here is not laying down all clothes. The intended meaning of it is only to lay down the jilbab or shroud from the external garments, the laying down of which will not lead to exposing the ‘awrah. For this [reason] ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) explained garment in this verse as jilbab and shroud, and a similar [interpretation] was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas, Ibn ‘Umar, Mujahid, Sa’id ibn Jubayr, Abu l-Sha’tha’, Ibrahim al-Nakha’i, al-Hasan, Qatadah, al-Zuhri, al-Awza’i and others as mentioned in Tafsir ibn Kathir. Hence, this verse proves that laying down the jilbab which necessitates exposing the face is specific to old women who have no prospect of marriage, and that it is not permissible for young women to lay down their jilbabs and expose their faces before foreign men.

It is clear that when the female Companions left for their needs they would go out concealed in jilbabs and hidden in shrouds and would not uncover their faces before foreign men. From the [narrations] that prove this are the following hadiths:

[1] Abu Dawud transmitted in Kitab al-Jihad, Bab Fadl Qital al-Rum from Qays ibn Shammas (Allah be pleased with him), he said: “A woman called Umm Khallad came to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) while she was veiled (wearing a niqab) enquiring about her son who was killed. One of the Companions of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said to her, ‘You have come to ask about your son while you are veiled?’ She said, ‘If I am afflicted with the loss of my son I will never suffer the loss of my modesty.’ Then Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, ‘He has the reward of two martyrs.’ She asked, ‘And why is that O Messenger of Allah?’ He said, ‘Because he was killed by the people of the book.’”

[2] It was narrated from Umm ‘Atiyyah that Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) would bring out the unmarried women, old women, the women in the private quarters and the menstruating women in the two ‘Ids. As for menstruating women they would keep back from the place of prayer and would witness the supplication of the Muslims. One of them said, “O Messenger of Allah! If one does not have a jilbab?” He said, “Let her sister cover her with her jilbab.” This hadith was transmitted by a number of collectors of authentic [narrations], and this is the wording of al-Tirmidhi (no. 539), Bab Khuruj al-Nisa’ fi l-‘Idayn, and al-Tirmidhi said, “this hadith is hasan sahih.”

[3] Al-Bukhari transmitted [something] similar to it (no. 980 in Kitab al-‘Idayn) from Hafsah bint Sirin and its wording is: “so she said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, is there harm for any of us when she does not have jilbab that she not come out?’ He said, ‘Her companion should cover her with her jilbab.’”

[4] ‘Abd al-Razzaq and a group transmitted from Umm Salamah, she said, “When this verse ‘they should cast their jilbabs over their [persons]’ was revealed, the women of Ansar came out as if there were crows on their heads, from the tranquillity, and [draped] over them were black clothes that they would wear.”

[5] Ibn Mardawayh transmitted from ‘A’ishah, she said, “Allah Most High bless the women of the Ansar. When ‘O Prophet! Tell thy wives and daughters, and the believing women …’ was revealed they tore their thick outer garments and made veils from them, and they prayed behind Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) as if there were crows on their heads.” See Ruh al-Ma’ani (22:89) for the two narrations.

[6] It was narrated from ‘A’ishah, she said, “Riders would pass us when we accompanied the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) while we were in ihram. When they came by us, one of us would let down her jilbab from her head over her face, and when they had passed on, we would uncover our faces”. Abu Dawud transmitted it in Kitab al-Hajj (no. 1833).

These hadiths clarify that the female Companions (Allah’s pleasure be on them) would, after the revelation of the [verses of] hijab, adhere strictly to covering their bodies with jilbabs and draw them over their faces when going out. The last hadith proves that this importance of hiddenness does not cease to continue even in the state of ihram in which it is prohibited for a woman that a piece of clothing touches her face.

The third boundary

The third level of hijab which is that women go out concealing the bodies from head to foot while uncovering the face and hands, at the time of need, is with the condition of safety (amn) from temptation (fitnah). This is proven by His statement Most High in Surah al-Nur, “And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty; that they should not display their ornaments except what appears thereof.” The exegetes have differed over the explanation of “what appears thereof”. It was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas, Ibn ‘Umar and ‘A’ishah (Allah be pleased with them) that they explained it as the face and hands, and this is the view of ‘Ata’, ‘Ikrimah, Sa’id ibn Jubayr, Abu l-Sha’tha, al-Dahhak, Ibrahim al-Nakha’i and others. And it was narrated from ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) that he interpreted “what appears thereof” as the shroud and jilbab. Hence, the verse according to the first explanation proves that the woman can uncover her face and hands at the time of need and this is further supported by the following hadiths:

[1] It was narrated from ‘A’ishah (Allah be pleased with her) that Asma’ bint Abi Bakr (Allah be pleased with them both) entered upon the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) while wearing thin clothing, so he turned away from her and said, “O Asma! Indeed when a woman reaches [the age of] menstruation, it is not proper that anything should be shown except this and this”, and he pointed to his face and hands. Abu Dawud transmitted it, but Abu Dawud and Abu Hatim al-Razi said: “it is mursal, Khalid ibn Darik did not hear from ‘A’ishah”.

[2] It was narrated from ‘Ali (Allah be pleased with him) in the event of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) returning from al-Muzdalifah that he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) made al-Fadl ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) his riding companion. He came to the pillars to throw pebbles at them and then came to the place of sacrifice (manhar). It is mentioned therein: a young slave girl from Khath’am sought a verdict from him and said, “Indeed my father is an old man and the obligation to Allah to perform Hajj has reached him. Is it permissible for me to perform Hajj on his behalf?” He said, “Perform Hajj on your father’s behalf.” ‘Ali said: “he turned the neck of al-Fadl, and al-‘Abbas asked, ‘Why did you turn the neck of your cousin?’ He said, ‘I saw a young man and woman [in such a situation] that they are not safe from Satan.’” Al-Tirmidhi transmitted it in Bab ma Ja’a anna ‘Arafata kullaha Mawqif (no. 885).

Abu Ya’la transmitted from al-Fadl ibn ‘Abbas, he said: “I was riding behind Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and a Bedouin with whom was a beautiful daughter began presenting her to Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) in the hope that he would marry her”. He said, “I began to glance at her, and the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) took hold of my head and turned it.” Al-Haythami mentioned it in Kitab al-Nikah in Majma’ al-Zawa’id (4:277) and he said, “its narrators are the narrators of authentic [narrations].” Either this was another incident, or one of the narrators erred in the explanation that the girl belonged to a Bedouin. And the hadith of al-Tirmidhi is clear in that her father was not with her. And Allah knows best.

[Further] detail of this event was transmitted by al-Bukhari in Kitab al-Isti’dhan (no. 6228) from ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) and its wording is: Al-Fadl ibn ‘Abbas rode behind the Prophet as his companion rider on the back of his she-camel on the Day of Sacrifice (yawm al-nahr) and al-Fadl was a handsome man. The Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) stopped to give the people verdicts. In the meantime, a beautiful woman from the tribe of Khath’am came, asking the verdict of Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace). Al-Fadl started looking at her as her beauty attracted him. The Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) looked behind while al-Fadl was looking at her; so the Prophet held out his hand backwards and caught the chin of al-Fadl and turned his face to the other side in order that he should not gaze at her, [to the end of] the hadith.

This slave girl’s face was uncovered as is clear from the context of the hadith of Ibn ‘Abbas since he said therein that she was beautiful and al-Fadl was attracted to her beauty. The hadith explains that the Prophet turned the face of al-Fadl away from glancing at her and he did not command the slave girl to cover her face because she was in the state of ihram, and he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) probably feared she would collapse or something else if she was required to conceal her face in such severe crowding, so he did not command her to [do] this. This is a proof that it is permissible for a woman to uncover her face according to a need when the rest of her body is concealed.

[3] It was narrated from Sahl ibn Sa’d that a woman came to Allah’s Messenger and said, “O Messenger of Allah, I have come to give you myself in marriage.” Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) looked at her. He looked at her carefully and fixed his glance on her and then lowered his head, to the end of the hadith. Al-Bukhari transmitted it in Bab al-Nazr ila l-Mar’ati qabla l-Tazwij (no. 5125). It is clear in this event that the woman’s face was uncovered at this time, and al-Sarakhsi adduced this as proof in al-Mabsut (10:152) that the face of a woman is not ‘awrah.

This translation was first published in on the 10th June 2010 entitled ” The Hijab of Women and its Boundaries”. The original translation has been split into two parts; (1) The boundaries of hijab and (2) Looking at a woman.

Hadith Musalsal bil Awwaliyat

The very first hadith that normally teachers teach is the hadith rahmah. This custom is known as Musalsal bil Awwaliyat.

By Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
Nawhami Bulletin #151218501 – 6 Rabi I 1437 / 18 December 2015

الحمد لله رب  العالمين. و الصلاة و السلام علي سيدنا و مولانا محمد خاتم النبيين، و علي اله و أصحابه أجمعين، و علي كل من تبعهم بإحسان إلي يوم الدين. أما بعد: قال النبي صلي الله عليه و سلم:  الراحمون يرحمهم الرحمن – تبارك و تعالي –ارحموا من في الأرض يرحمكم من في السماء. رواه أبو داود  و الترمذي و احمد عن عبد الله بن عمرو بن العاص رضي الله عنهما

It is customary that the very first hadith that a teacher teaches be the hadith rahmah which is the following hadith:

الراحمون يرحمهم الرحمن، ارحموا من في الأرض يرحكمك من في السمآء

Trans: The prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “Rahman has mercy upon those who show mercy. Have mercy upon those who are on the earth and He who is in the sky will have mercy upon you”.

The custom of starting with this hadith is called musalal bil awwaliyat. It has been done for many generations.

This was the very first hadith which I heard from the pre-eminent muhaddith of our time, Shaykh Yunus Jawnpuri (may Allah almighty raise his rank). The same was for him from his teacher and they from their teachers and so on and so forth. The chart below recounts one of the chains.

Sh. Yunus Jawnpuri الشيخ يونس الجونبوري
Sh. Zakariyyah Kandhalwi شيخ الحديث مولانا محمد زكريا كهاندلوي
Ml. Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri الشيخ مولانا خليل أحمد سهارنبوري
Ml. ‘Abd al-Qayyūm Badanwi مولانا عبد القيوم البدانوي
Sh. Ishaq Dehlawi الشاه اسحاق الدهلوي
Shah ‘Abd al-Aziz Dehlawi الشاه عبد العزيز الدهلوي
Shah Wali Allah Muhaddith Dehlawi الشاه ولي الله المحدث الدهلوي
Sayyid ‘Umar ibn Ahmad al-Saqqaf السيد عمر بن أحمد السقاف
Sh. ‘Abdullah b. Salim al-Basri الشيخ عبد الله بن سالم البصري
Sh. Yahya b. Muhammad al-Shawi الشيخ يحي بن محمد الشاوي
Sh. Sa’id b. Ibrahim al-Jazayiri الشيخ سعيد بن ابراهيم الجزائري
Sh. Sa’id b. Muhammad al-Maqqari الشيخ سعيد بن محمد المقري
Sh. Ahmad Haji al-Wahrani الشيخ أحمد حاجي الوهراني
Sh. Ibrahim al-Tazi الشيخ ابراهيم التازي
Sh. Muhammad b. Abi Bakr al-Maraghi الشيخ محمد بن أبي بكر المراغي
Hafidh Zayn al-Din al-Iraqi حافظ زين الدين العراقي
Sh. Muhammad b. Muhammad al-Bakri al-Maydumi الشيخ محمد بن محمد البكري الميدومي
Sh. ‘Abd al-Latif b. ‘Abd al-Mun’im al-Harrani الشيخ عبد اللطيف بن عبد المنعم الحراني
Hafidh Ibn al-Jawzi الحافظ ابن الجوزي
Sh. Isma’il b. Abi Salih al-Nayshaburi الشيخ إسماعيل بن أبي صالح النيشابوري
Sh. Abu Salih Ahmad b. ‘Abd al-Malik al-Mu’adhdhin الشيخ أبو صالح أحمد بن عبد المالك المؤذن
Sh. Muhammad b. Muhammad Mahmish al-Zabadi الشيخ محمد بن محمد المهمش الزبدي
Shaykh Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Bazzaz الشيخ أحمد بن محمد البزاز
Shaykh ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Bishr ibn al-Hakam الشيخ عبد الرحمن بن بشر بن حكم
Hadrat Sufyan b. ‘Uyaynah حضرت سفيان بن عيينة

This is where the custom terminates whereby the hadith rahmat was the very first hadith which was taught. After this point the hadith was taught but it was not the very first hadith learned.

Hadrat Amr b. Dinar عمر بن دينار
Hadrat Abu Qabus (the Mawla of Abd Allah b. Amr) أبو قابوس مولي عبد الله بن عمرو بن العاص
Hadrat Abdullah b. Amr b. al-‘As (may Allah almighty be pleased with them) عبد الله بن عمرو بن العاص رضي الله عنهما
The final prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم

The total of this chain is 29 generations. May Allah almighty have mercy upon them all. Shaykh Yunus relays this hadith with the same form from other teachers also.

Furthermore, the very first hadith I heard from Shaykh al-Hadith Mawlana Fazlur Rahman Azami (may Allah almighty raise his rank) was also this hadith.

I also heard this hadith from Shaykh al-Islam Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani as well as my esteemed teachers Shaykh al-Hadith Mufti Umar Faruq Lawharwi on numerous occasions and Shaykh al-Hadith Mawlana Yusuf Koti whilst studying Tirmidhi. However, it was not the very first hadith as I heard other ahadith from them before. May Allah almighty protect them and raise their ranks.

The custom is followed to initiate a bond between the teacher and student. To iterate that the din is acquired and preserved through person to person – it is not merely confined to the text. Allah almighty sent the Quran and along with it the prophet (peace be upon him) to explain, expound and demonstrate the Quran. Without the texts one will be lost and without the person one will become wretched.

The full explanation of the hadith is the subject of another lesson. Suffice it to say, be kind to others and Allah almighty will be kind to you. Indeed it is a great kindness that Allah almighty gave us intellect and knowledge. It is what differentiated Hadrat Adam (peace be upon him) from the others.  Allah almighty says,

الرَّحْمَـٰنُ – عَلَّمَ الْقُرْآنَ – خَلَقَ الْإِنسَانَ – عَلَّمَهُ الْبَيَانَ

Trans: al-Rahman. He taught them the Quran. He created man. He taught them expression.



Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
6 Rabi I 1437
18 December 2015