Muqaddimah Muslim: The men criticised

Imam Muslim in the introduction to his Sahih, outlines the need to critically analyse narrators in order to determine the reliability of the source of a narration attributed to the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him). In this context, he lists some 50 plus narrators who have been criticised in a variety of ways. Below is a background to these individuals.

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Imam Muslim in the introduction to his Sahih, outlines the need to critically analyse narrators in order to determine the reliability of the source of a narration attributed to the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him).  In this context, he lists some 50 plus narrators who have been criticised in a variety of ways. Below is a background to these individuals.

[1] Shahr b. Hawshab (شهر بن حوشب)

Shahr b. Hawshab al-Asha’ari al-Shami (d. 112). An ordinary narrator. The great Muhaddith Abu ‘Awn b. Abd Allah b. Awn b. Artaban Basri has criticised him. His narrations have a lot of doubts (أوهام) and irsal (ارسال). The author of the four sunans have narrated from him in their book.

[2] ‘Abbad b. Kathir

Abbad b. Kathir Shami1 (d. ?). He is Da’if and Matruk. Imams Sufyan Thawri and Shu’bah have criticised him. Imams Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah narrate from him in their respective sunan.

[3] Muhammad b. Sa’id Maslub

Muhammad b. Sa’id b. Hassan Asadi Shami . He is a notorious liar and would fabricate hadith. Ahmad b. Salih states, ‘He has fabricated four thousand hadith’. Imam Nasa’i also warned against him and called him ‘an infamous liar and fabricator in Syria’. According Abu Zar’a, ‘He himself is of the opinion that there is nothing wrong in fabricating hadith for good things’. Imam Thawri declared him to be a liar (كذاب). Imams Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah narrate from him in their respective sunan.

[4] The Hadith of the Sufi.

Read Shaykh Yunus Jawnpuri’s article on the issue.

[5] Ghalib b. Ubayd Allah

Ghalib b. Ubayd Allah Jazari ‘Uqayli (d. 135). He is extremely weak. Imam Bukhari declares him to be ‘Munkar al-Hadith

[6] Abu Miqdam Hisham Basri

Abu Miqdam Hisham b. Ziyad Basri. He is a Matruk narrator.

[7] Sulayman b. Hajjaj Ta’ifi

Sulayman b. Hajjaj Ta’ifi. He is a Majhul al-Hal narrator. Darawardi, Abd Allah b. Muhammad have narrated from him. Abdullah b. Mubarak has also narrated from him, however, upon further consideration stopped.

[8] Rawh b. Ghutayf

Rawh b. Ghutayf Thaqafi Jazari. He is munkar al-Hadith and used to fabricate hadith.

[9] Baqiyyah b. al-Walid

Abu Yuhmid Baqiyyah b. al-Walid b. Sayid Kali’I Himsi (110-197). He is a good narrator but ‘Uqayli, Abu Mushiz, Abd Allah Mubarak et al. warn that he narrates from all sorts. Hafidh Ibn Hajar ‘Asqalani state that he is truthful but does tadlis. Imam Ahmad and Abu Ishaq Fazari state that, ‘do not accept his narrations if he narrates from an narrators who are not Ma’ruf, however, if he narrates from Ma’ruf narrator it may be accepted’. Imam narrates from him in his sahih as supporting evidence (ta’liqan). The remaining five books also narrate from him.

[10] Harith A’war Kufi

Abu Zuhayr Harith b. Abd Allah Hamdani al-A’war al-Kufi (d. 65). The authorities are split in their judgment on him. Ibn Ma’in, Nasa’i, Ahmad, Ibn Salih, Ibn Abu Dawud  et al. have commended him (توثيق). On the other hand, Thawri, Ibn Mada’ini, Abu Zar’a Razi, Ibn Adi, Daraqutni, Ibn Sa’d, Abu Hatim, Sha’bi, Ibrahim Nakh’i et al. have criticised him. Ibn Hibban declares him to be a Ghali Shi’a. Allama Zahabi. The four sunans narrate from him although he occurs in Sunan Nasa’i only twice.

[11] Mughyarah b. Sa’id

Abu Abd Allah Mughayrah b. Sa’id Bajali Kufi. What a liar (كذاب) and a staunch Rafidhi. He used to believe that Ali (رضي الله عنه) had the ability to revive the dead. He was the first to speak badly about Abubakr and Umar (رضي الله عنهما). At the end he claimed himself to be a prophet and as a result was burnt.

[12] Abu Abd al-Rahim

Abu Abd al-Rahim Shaqiq Dabbi (ضبي) Kufi. He became also became known by the name ‘Qass’ because he used to give speeches in Kufa. He was the leader of the deviant sect Khawarij.  He is a liar and a weak narrator.

[13] Hadith narrated by orators.
[14] Jabir b.Yazid Ju’fi

Abu ‘Abd Allah Jabir b.Yazid Ju’fi Kufi (d. 167). He is a well known weak narrator. He was okay at first but later became a Saba’i Shia. Those who commended him did so prior to him deviating and those criticised him based it upon his later condition. Imam Abu Hanifa severely criticises him. He is narrated from in Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah.

[15] Harith b. Hasirah

Abu al-Nu’man Harith b. Hasirah Azdi Kufi. He is a weak narrator. He is the student of Jabir b. Yazid Ju’fi (see no. 14) and is a ghali Shi’ah. He was alright at first but turned later to Shi’ism as such some have commended (توثيق) him based on his previous condition. Imam Bukhari narrates from him in Adab al-Mufrad and Imam Nasa’i in his sunan [2].

[16] Two unknown people
[17] Abu Umayya Abd al-Karim Basri

Abu Umayyah Abd al-Karim b. al-Makhariq al-Mu’allim al-Basri (d. 126). Many authorities have criticised including Imams Ibn ‘Uyaynah, Ibn Mahdi, Yahya b. Qattan, Ahmad b. Hanbal, Ibn Adi and Ayyub Sakhtiyani. Imam Bukhari narrates from him once in his Sahih. Imam Nasa’i narrates from him a few times and Imams Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah of often in their respective sunans.

[18] Abu Dawud A’ma

Abu Dawud Nafi’ b. Haris, “Alqas al-A’ma” Kufi. He is a Matruk narrator. He has been narrated from by Timidhi and Ibn Majah.

[19] Abu Ja’far Hashimi Madani

Abu Ja’far Abd Allah b. Miswar Mada’ini (also Madani) Hashimi. He is a liar (كذاب) and fabricator of hadith (واضع الحديث).

[20] Amr b. ‘Ubayd

Abu Uthman Amr b. ‘Ubayd b. Bab Basri (d. 143). He is a well known Mu’tazili and is a weak narrator. He is devout and practising man but calls other towards his Mu’tazili belief.

[21] Abu Shaybah Qadhi Wasit

Ibrahim b.Uthman Abu Shaybah ‘Abasi Kufi[3]; also referred to as ‘Qadhi Wasit’ (d. 169). He is Matruk al-Hadith and is very weak. Imams Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah narrate from him in their respective sunans.

[22] Salih Murri

Abu Bishr Salih b. Bashir b. Wadi’ Murri Basri (d. 173). He is a pious person but when giving sermons he would narrate weak hadith. Imam Abu Dawud and Tirmidhi narrate from him in their respective sunan.

[23] Hasan b. ‘Umara

Abu Muhammad Hasan b. ‘Umara Bajali Kufi (d. 153). He was judge in Baghdad. He is extremely weak and has been declared Matruk. Imam Bukhari includes him in his Sahih as supporting evidence (Ta’liqan). Imam Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah narrate from him in his sunan.

[24] Ziyad b. Maymun

Abu Ammar Ziyad b. Maymun Thaqafi Fakihani Basri. He was big liar and fabricator of Hadith. He would fabricate and attribute hadith to the Sahabiyah ‘Attarah and the Sahabi Anas b. Malik (رضي الله عنهما) even though he never met the latter.

[25] Khalid b. Mahduj

Abu Rawh Khalid b. Mahduj Wasiti. He was a very and Matruk narrator. He would attribute narrations to Anas b. Malik despite never meeting him.

[26] Abd al-Quddus Shami

Abu Sa’id Abd al-Quddus b. Habib Kala’I Dimashqi Shami. All muhaddith are unanimous that he is Matruk. Not only was he weak he was also negligent (مغفل). Abd Allah b. Mubarak says, ‘In my opinion it is better do dacoity than to accept hadith from Abd Quddud Shami ’. Imam states, ‘His [Abd al-Quddus] hadith are all over the place’

[27] Mahdi b. Hilal

Abu Abd Allah Mahdi b. Hilal Basri. He is a Matruk narrator and associated with the Qadriyya. According to Ibn Ma’in, ‘he was a deviant and would fabricate narration’.

[28] Aban b. Abu Ayash

Abu Isma’il Aban b. Abu ‘Ayash Fayruz Abdi Zahid Basri (d. 140 circa). He was a minor Tabi’i  and a Matruk narrator. Imam Abu Dawud narrates from him in his sunan.

[29] Ismail b. ‘Ayash

Abu Utbah Ismail b. Ayash b. Sulaym ‘Anasi Himsi (106-182). He was a great man. His narration pertaining to his Syrian teacher are universally accepted, however, his narration originating from the Hijaz or Iraq have been criticised.

[30] Mu’alla b. Urfan

Mu’alla b. Urfan. He is considered Munkar and is a Ghali Shia. He had little knowledge of history. He usually narrates from his uncle Abu Wa’il Shaqiq b. Salamah

[31] Unknown narrator
[32] Muhammad b. Abd al-Rahman

Abu Jabir Muhammad b. Abd al-Rahman Bayadi (بياضي) Madani. All scholars are unanimous on him being weak. Imam Ahmad says, ‘He is extremely weak’. He usually narrates Sa’id b. al-Musayyab.

[33] Abu Huwayrith

Abu Huwayrith Abd al-Rahman b. Mu’awiyah b. Huwayrith Ansari Zuraqi Madani. He is an ordinary narrator. He had a poor memory and is accused of being associated with the Murjiyah sect. Imam Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah narrate from him in their sunan.

[34] Shu’bah Qurashi Hashimi

Abu Abd Allah Shu’bah b. Yahya (Dinar) Qurashi Hashimi Madani. He is the Mawla of Abd Allah b. Abbas (رضي الله عنه) and is an ordinary narrator. Imam Abu Dawud narrates from him in his Sunan.

[35] Salih, Mawla al-Tiwama

Salih b. Nahban, Mawla al-Tiwama, Madani (d. 125). He is an ordinary narrator. He is a honest person (صدوق) but his memory became in his later age. As such only his narrations from students of his early narrations are accepted. Imam Malik classification of him as unreliable (غير ثقة) was in reference to his last years.

[36] Haram b. Uthman

Haram b. Uthman Ansari Salami. He was a very weak narrator and a Ghali Shia. Imams Shafi and Ibn Mu’in say, “الرواية عن حرامٍ حرامٌ”.

[37] Unknown
[38] Shurahbil b. Sa’d

Abu Sa’d Shurahbil b. Sa’d Madani (d. 123). He was a honest person. Imam Bukhari narrates from him al-Adab al-Mufrad, Imams Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah in their respective Sunans. During his later years his memory became weak; he lived up to a hundred. As such some have criticised him.

[39] Abd Allah b. Muharrar

Abd Allah b. Muharrar Jazri; also known as Qadhi Raqqa. He is Matruk and unreliable. He is narrated from in Ibn Majah.

[40] Yahya b. Abu Unaysah

Yahya b. Abu Unaysah Jazri Ruhawi. He is a Matruk narrator. Fallas states that, ‘All scholars are unanimous in rejecting him’

[41] Farqad b. Ya’qub Sabakhi

Abu Ya’qub Farqad b. Ya’qub Sabakhi (d. 131). He was a pious man, however, was weak in hadith as he would make a lot of errors. Imams Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah have narrated from him.

[42] Muhammad b. Abdullah Laythi

Muhammad b. Abdullah b. Ubayd b. Umayr Laythi Makki. He is a very weak narrator. Imam Bukhari classifies him as Munkar. Imam Nasa’i calls him matruk. He usually narrates from ‘Ata b. Abu Rabah.

[43] Ya’qub b. Ata’

Ya’qub b. Ata’ b. Abu Rabah Makki (d. 155). He is a weak narrator. He narrates from his father. Imam Nasa’i has narrated from him.

[44] Hakim b. Jubayr

Hakim b. Jubayr Asadi Kufi. A famous controversial narrator of the four sunans. He is weak and is accused of being a Shia.

[45] Abd al-A’la b. Amir Tha’labi

Abd al-A’la b. Amir Tha’labi Kufi (d. 129). He is an honest narrator; however, there are doubts (وهم) in his narrations. He is narrated from in the four sunans.

[46] Musa b. Dinar

Musa b. Dinar Makki. He is a weak narrator. Saji declares him to be a liar (كذاب) and Matruk. He narrates from Sa’id b. Jubayr (رضي الله عنه).

[47] Musa b. Dihqan

Musa b. Dihqan Kufi Madani (d. before 150). He is a weak narrator. His memory became weak in his later years. Narrate from Abu Sa’id Khudri (رضي الله عنه).

[48] Isa b. Abu Isa Madani

Isa b. Abu Isa Maysarah Kufi Madani Khayyat (d. 151). He is a Matruk narrator. He is narrated by Imam Ibn Majah in his Sunan.

[49] Ubaydah b. Mu’attib

Abu Abd al-Rahim Ubaydah b. Mu’attib Dabbi (ضبي) Kufi. He is considered weak. His memory became poor in his last years. He is quoted in Bukhari (ch. Adahi) as supporting evidence. Imams Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah have taken from him, however, Imams Muslim and Nasa’i have not quoted in their sahih or sunan.

[50] al-Sariyy b. Isma’il

al-Sariyy b. Isma’il Hamdani Kufi. He was a judge and the Uncle of Sha’bi. He is a Matruk narrator. Imam Ibn Majah has taken hadith from him.

[51] Muhammad b. Salim

Muhammad b. Salim Hamdani Kufi. He is a weak narrator. Imam Tirmidhi has taken hadith from him.

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[1] In another place he is referred to as Basri

[2] In Kitab al-Khasa’is

[3] The paternal grandfather of the great muhaddith Abu Bakr b. Abu Shaybah, the author of Musannif Abu Shaybah