The different meanings of Amr

Amr can possibly refer to one of sixteen possible meanings. The default meaning of amr is for wujub.

By S. Zaman  – 23 Safar 1438 | 22 November 2016

Amr is a statement of a speaker to another from an authoritative position saying ‘إفعل’ (to do something).

By default amr is for wujub meaning the command in the statement must be followed. Other meanings may be inferred but only if you can provide justification.

In total, Amr can possibly refer to one of the following sixteen possible meanings.

Use Description Example
الوجوب To compel أَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ (2:43)
الاباحة To show the allowance of something وَإِذَا حَلَلْتُمْ فَاصْطَادُوا (5:2)
الندب To give preference فَكَاتِبُوهُمْ إِنْ عَلِمْتُمْ فِيهِمْ خَيْرًا (24:33)
التهديد To address one in anger اعْمَلُوا مَا شِئْتُمْ (41:41)
التعجيز To make another helpless فَأْتُوا بِسُورَةٍ مِنْ مِثْلِهِ (2:23)
الارشاد To give a suggestion (i.e: try it) وَأَشْهِدُوا ذَوَيْ عَدْلٍ مِنْكُمْ (65:2)
الارشاد To mock كُونُوا قِرَدَةً خَاسِئِينَ (2: 65)
الامتنان To show your favour upon another كُلُوا مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ اللَّهُ (6:142)
الاكرام To show respect ادْخُلُوهَا بِسَلَامٍ آمِنِينَ (15:46)
الاهانة To insult …ذُقْ
التسوية To show indifference اصْلَوْهَا فَاصْبِرُوا أَوْ لَا تَصْبِرُوا سَوَاءٌ (52:16)
الدعاء To make a request اللهم اغفرلي
التمني To make a wish وَنَادَوْا يَا مَالِكُ لِيَقْضِ عَلَيْنَا رَبُّكَ (43:77)
الاحتقار To show disrespect and a low regard أَلْقُوا مَا أَنْتُمْ مُلْقُونَ (26:43)
التكوين To make something happen كُنْ فَيَكُونُ (2:117)
التاديب To educate كل مما يليك

Abjad numerals

The abjad numerals is a decimal system which is used in Arabic to number lists

The Abjad numerals was a method of writing numbers before the introduction of the Arabic numerals. Although not used in calculations anymore it continues to be used in numbering lists.

The Abjad numeral uses a decimal system. Each unit (1-9), ten (10, 20, 30 to 90) and hundred (100, 200, 300 to 900) is assigned a separate letter. The thousand is assigned a letter.

The units:

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
ي ط ح ز و ه د ج ب ا

The tens:

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20
ض ف ع س ن م ل ك

The hundreds:

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
ق ر ش ت ث خ ذ ض ظ غ

Here is a mnemonic to easily remember the values:

أِبْجَدْ هَوَّزْ حُطِّي كَلِمَنْ سَعْفَص قَرْشَتْ ثَخَذْ ضَظِغْ

The system works similar to the Roman numerals. For instance, when smaller values follow larger values, the two are added together to attain the total, for example, the number 11 is written as يا.

See the conversion table for the standard numbering order:

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
ط ح ز و ه د ج ب ا
يط يح يز يو يه يد يج يب يا ي 10
كط كح كز كو كه كد كج كب كا ك 20
لط لح لز لو له لد لج لب لا ل 30
مط مح مز مو مه مد مج مب ما م 40
نط نح نز نو نه ند نج نب نا ن 50
سط سح سز سو سه سد سج سب سا س 60
عط عح عز عو عه عد عج عب عا ع 70
فط فح فز فو فه فد فج فب فا ف 80
صط صح صز صو ص صد صج صب صا ص 90

To write a number in the hundreds, simply put the relevant notation in front of the letters above. For example:

700 701 786
ذ ذا ذفو

An alternative method has also been used whereby all the values of the words are added to produce a number. The field is known as gematria or isopsephy. This follows from the notion of some cultures that the numeric value of a word has some relation with the word or subject.

An example of this is equating 786 to بسم الله الرحمن الحيم.

م ي ح ر ل ا ن م ح ر ل ا ه ل ل ا م س ب
40 10 8 200 30 1 50 40 8 200 30 1 5 30 30 1 40 60 2

2+60+40+1+30+30+5+1+30+200+8+40+50+1+30+200+8+10+40 = 786

Note: the mushaddad letter counts as one.

Some have opted to write 786 instead of بسم الله الرحمن الحيم on the assumption that the reward is the same. There is no basis of this in the shariah rather one is advised to write the full basmalah.

Arabic language is important to all Muslim. However, to us the function of the abjad numerals is not a spiritual one rather it aptly fulfills an organisational need which allows us to categorise and present information which is readily accessible. Whilst there may be patterns from which some may draw aesthetic value, it has no bearing on the application of the shariah.

————–

Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
22 Safar 1438
21 November 2016

Credit: This note is adapted from the submissions of S. Zaman and F. Khan

Lightning, thunder and thunderbolt

 

رعد | برق | صائقة

In the Quran, Allah almighty uses the thunderstorm to exemplify His might. He uses three synonymic (mutaradif) words which translates to thunder (رعد), lightning (برق) and thunderbolt (صائقة).

قال الجوهري في الصحاح: الرعد الصوت الذي يُسْمَع من السَحاب اهـ البرق واحد بروق السحاب ويقال رعدت  السماء وبرقَت برقانا، أي لمعت اهـ الصاعقة نار تسقط من السماء في رعد شديد. يقال صَعَقَتْهُم السماءُ، إذا ألقت عليهم الصاعقَةَ. والصاعِقَةُ أيضا صيحة العذاب

الرعد / Thunder / The noise in the sky

أَوْ كَصَيِّبٍ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ فِيهِ ظُلُمَاتٌ وَرَعْدٌ وَبَرْقٌ – 2:19
وَيُسَبِّحُ الرَّعْدُ بِحَمْدِهِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ مِنْ خِيفَتِهِ – 13:13

البرق / Lightning / The flash in the sky

أَوْ كَصَيِّبٍ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ فِيهِ ظُلُمَاتٌ وَرَعْدٌ وَبَرْقٌ – 2:19
يَكَادُ الْبَرْقُ يَخْطَفُ أَبْصَارَهُمْ كُلَّمَا أَضَاءَ لَهُمْ مَشَوْا فِيهِ – 2:20
هُوَ الَّذِي يُرِيكُمُ الْبَرْقَ خَوْفًا وَطَمَعًا وَيُنْشِئُ السَّحَابَ الثِّقَالَ – 13:12
يَكَادُ سَنَا بَرْقِهِ يَذْهَبُ بِالْأَبْصَارِ – 24:43
وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ يُرِيكُمُ الْبَرْقَ خَوْفًا وَطَمَعًا وَيُنَزِّلُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً – 30:24
فَإِذَا بَرِقَ الْبَصَرُ – 75:7

الصاعقة / Thunderbolt / A bolt of lightning accompanied by thunder

يَجْعَلُونَ أَصَابِعَهُمْ فِي آذَانِهِمْ مِنَ الصَّوَاعِقِ حَذَرَ الْمَوْتِ – 2:19
لَنْ نُؤْمِنَ لَكَ حَتَّىٰ نَرَى الله جَهْرَةً فَأَخَذَتْكُمُ الصَّاعِقَةُ – 2:55
فَقَالُوا أَرِنَا الله جَهْرَةً فَأَخَذَتْهُمُ الصَّاعِقَةُ بِظُلْمِهِمْ – 4:153
وَيُرْسِلُ الصَّوَاعِقَ فَيُصِيبُ بِهَا مَنْ يَشَاءُ – 13:13
فَإِنْ أَعْرَضُوا فَقُلْ أَنْذَرْتُكُمْ صَاعِقَةً – 41:13
مِثْلَ صَاعِقَةِ عَادٍ وَثَمُودَ – 41:13
فَأَخَذَتْهُمْ صَاعِقَةُ الْعَذَابِ الْهُونِ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ – 41:17
فَعَتَوْا عَنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّهِمْ فَأَخَذَتْهُمُ الصَّاعِقَةُ وَهُمْ يَنْظُرُونَ – 51:44

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