How to study Sahih Muslim

Use Sharh Nawawi and Fath al-Mulhim as your base but supplement with relevant book dependent on the area of focus. Nawawi is better for sanad and aqa’id whilst Fath al-Mulhim for Hanafi fiqh and language.

By Muhaddith al-Asr Shaykh Yunus Jawnpuri
Yawaqit al-Ghaliya v.1 p. 275
Translated by Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami  – 28 Ramadan 1438 | 23 June 2017

In Muslim, there are both the disciplines of ilm riwayat al-hadith1 and ilm dirayat al-hadith2.

In the Muqaddimah, Imam Muslim discusses ilm dirayat al-hadith (usul hadith). Hence, you should get aid from the books usul hadith such as al-Kifayah of Khatib, ‘Ulum al-Hadith of Hakim, Fath al-Mughith of Sakhawi, Tadrib al-Rawi of Suyuti, Sharh Nukhbah of Ibn Hajar amongst others. Nawawi in Sharh Muslim has covered sufficient amount of usul. In Fath al-Mulhim there is also a significant amount, but in some instances, it is less than the Sharh of Nawawi.

After the Muqaddimah, the discipline of riwayat al-hadith starts. In riwayat, the sanad and matn are both worthy of attention.

In the present times, the practice of commenting on the sanads has ceased. However, if you want to review its, Sharh Nawawi has adequate records of the names and reports on the rijal (narrators). Before this check the books of rijal.3 Those hadith which are in Fath al-Bari etcetera, their status can be discovered there.

As for the matn of hadith, nowadays, there is a practice of commentary. On the matn, the usul is discussed as well as fiqh, lughat, and sarf. The points of usul are related to the muhaddithin as well as the mutakallimin.

The muhaddithin address the ilal (علل) and other matters of the matn. Hence, it is necessary to review the books of ilal. At present, Ilal Ibn Abi Hatim has passed my attention. If you can access other books of ilal review them such Ilal Darqutni, Ilal Kubra of Tirmidhi, Ilal Khallal among others.

The mutakallimin only comment on ahadith which relate to the names and qualities [of Allah Almighty]. Nawawi has elaborated on the issue significantly. Beyond this, you will find it a good amount in Mushkil al-Hadith of Ibn Furak and Mushkil al-Athar of Tahawi. Hafiz Ibn Hajar, Allamah Ayni and others in the commentaries of Bukhari have discussed it in detail. In Fatawa Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah, he addresses the issue of Istiwa ala al-Arsh and Nuzul Bari in fine detail, but due to it, the Asha’irah are on his throat.

In terms of Hanafi fiqh, Fath al-Mulhim is better. However, one should not suffice on it alone rather you should review the Sharh of ‘Ayni on Bukhari, Awjaz, Bazl, and Fath al-Bari. The lectures of A’lam al-Muta’khkhirin4 Mawlana Anwar Shah Kashmiri are essential and particularly important. These books also contain discussion on lughat and sarf. For further research [on fiqh] study the books of mutun5.

Muhaddith al-Asr Shaykh Muhammad Yunus Jawnpuri
Circa 1387 AH (1968 CE)6

————

Supplementary reading

Nawhami, Muhammad Saifur Rahman. (2014). Introduction to Hadith. Islamic Studies Bulletin (DIBAJ), Number 3. Available at http://uloom.com/dibaj/article/141227501

Nawhami, Muhammad Saifur Rahman. (2014). Muslim b. Hajjaj al-Qushayri – d. 261. Islamic Studies Bulletin (DIBAJ), Number 3. Available at http://uloom.com/dibaj/article/110905501

Nawhami, Muhammad Saifur Rahman. (2016). How to Prepare for Lesson. The Students’ Notebook. Available at: http://uloom.com/student/160111501

——————-

[1] علم رواية الحديث هو علم بنقل اقوال النبي صلي الله عليه و سلم و افعاله و احواله بالسماع المتصل و ضبطها و تحريرها

[2] علم دراية الحديث هو علم يتعرف به انواع الرواية و احكامها و شروط الرواة و اصناف المرويات واستخراج معانيها

[3] Rijal relates to the critical study of narrators. In one lecture, in reference to Muslim, I heard Shaykh Yunus recommend Tahzib al-Kamal as a good choice for checking rijal.

[4] Lit. The most knowledgeable of the later scholars. The work is scattered but see Fayd al-Bari.

[5] Such as Quduri, Kanz, Wiqayah, Bidayah, Tuhfat, Majma’ al-Bahrayn, and Multaqa al-Abhur. See ‘How to study Hidayah’ available online at: http://uloom.com/dibaj/article/120426501

[6] The letter is not dated but the question was asked in 12 Zul Qa’dah 1387 AH.
—–

Cite Key: #170624501 – 28 Ramadan 1438 | 23 June 2017

Mishkat #1.1: Hadith Jibril

Hadith Jibril is a narration which outlines the interaction between the final Prophet and Hadrat Jibril. In their discussion, they summarise the dīn and outline the meaning of Iman, Islam and Ihsan as well as matters relating to the hereafter. Shaykh Muhammad Saleem Nawab explains.

By Shaykh al-Hadith Muhammad Saleem Nawab
From the notes of the Mishkat class (1438) at Madani College – 16 Ramaḍan 1438 | 11 June 2017

Hadrat Shaykh al-Hadith Ml. Muhammad Saleem Nawab Falahī (may Allah Almighty preserve him) while teaching Mishkāt (20 – 23 Sept 2016) said:

عن عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه قال : بينا نحن عند رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ذات يوم إذ طلع علينا رجل شديد بياض الثياب شديد سواد الشعر لا يرى عليه أثر السفر ولا يعرفه منا أحد حتى جلس إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فأسند ركبتيه إلى ركبتيه ووضع كفيه على فخذية وقال : يا محمد أخبرني عن الإسلام قال : الإسلام : أن تشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله وتقيم الصلاة وتؤتي الزكاة وتصوم رمضان وتحج البيت إن استطعت إليه سبيلا. قال: صدقت. فعجبنا له يسأله ويصدقه. قال: فأخبرني عن الإيمان. قال: أن تؤمن بالله وملائكته وكتبه ورسله واليوم الآخر وتؤمن بالقدر خيره وشره. قال صدقت. قال: فأخبرني عن الإحسان. قال: أن تعبد الله كأنك تراه فإن لم تكن تراه فإنه يراك. قال: فأخبرني عن الساعة. قال: ما المسؤول عنها بأعلم من السائل. قال: فأخبرني عن أماراتها. قال: أن تلد الأمة ربتها وأن ترى الحفاة العراة العالة رعاء الشاء يتطاولون في البنيان. قال: ثم انطلق فلبثت مليا ثم قال لي: يا عمر أتدري من السائل؟ قلت: الله ورسوله أعلم. قال: فإنه جبريل أتاكم يعلمكم دينكم. رواه مسلم

Translation

Umar ibn Khattab (RA) said: one day when we were sitting with the Messenger of Allah ﷺ; there appeared before us a man dressed in extreme white clothes, whose hair was jet black. There were no signs of a journey on him, and none amongst us recognised him. He sat with the messenger of Allah ﷺ; he sat with his knees in front of his knees, and placed his hands on his thighs and said: ‘Oh Muhammad, tell me about Islam?’ The Messenger of Allah ﷺ replied, ‘Islam is to testify that there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, to establish prayer, pay zakāt, observe fasting in Ramadhan and perform pilgrimage if you are able’. He said: ‘you have spoken the truth’. So we were surprised that he asks and affirms. Then he said: ‘tell me about imān?’ He replied: ‘It is to believe in Allah, His angels, His messengers, and the last day, to believe in destiny – good and bad’, he said: ‘you have spoken the truth’, he said: ‘tell me about ihsān?’ He replied: ‘It is to worship Allah as though you can see Him and if you feel you cannot see Him, Allah sees you’. He said: ‘Then tell me about the hour?’ He replied: ‘The answerer does not know more than the questioner’. He said: ‘Then tell me about its signs?’ He replied: ‘that the slave girl will give birth to her mistress and that you will see the barefooted, naked, poor men and shepherds competing in building tall buildings.’ Then he went away, but I stayed for some time. Then he ﷺ said: ‘Oh Umar, do you know who the questioner was?’ I replied: ‘Allah and His Messenger know best.’ He said: ‘It was Jibrīl, who came to teach you your religion.’

Titles of this Hadith

This Ḥadith is very comprehensive – Jāmi’

It is commonly known as Hadith Jibrīl as it reports that Jibrīl (AS) came down to relay the fundamentals of the dīn to the Prophet of Allah ﷺ.

Qadi ‘Iyād Maliki1 said that due to this Ḥadith addressing the outer and inner acts of worship,2 it can be termed Ulum al-Shari’ah as everything refers back to it.

Thus, Imam Qurtubi (R) calls this Hadith, Umm al-Sunnah.

Some even call this Hadith, Umm al-Jawāmi.’

Accordingly, the author of Mishkat, Allāmah Baghawi (R), mentioned this Ḥadith straight after the very first hadith which is Hadith al-Niyyah.

When did it occur

There is no definitive date as to when Jibrīl (AS) came to Rasulullah ﷺ with this Ḥadith. Allah knows best.

However, Mullā ‘Ali Qari (R) mentions in Mirqāt that this Ḥadith was most likely revealed near the end part of the life of the Prophet of Allah ﷺ. Hafiz Ibn Hajar Asqalani (R) also says the same in Fath al-Bari.

Allāmah Turpushti in his commentary of Mishkāt says that this took place in 10 AH (before Hajjatul Wadā’).

Question: Why would this Ḥadith not be revealed at the beginning of nabuwwat; would this not have been better and easier?

Answer: Mullā ‘Ali Qari (R) says that throughout the period of nabuwwat, Jibrīl (AS) came with different ahkām; so towards the end, this Ḥadith came as a summary (ijmāl) – to mention everything in one majlis (gathering). It made it even easier to remember the gist (khulasah). The timing ensured that these ahkām are not considered abrogated later on.

This Ḥadith covers three key points: ‘Aqāid (Imān), Ahkam (‘Ibādah) and Tasawwuf (Ihsan).

Historical context (Shan wurŪd)

People used to come and ask Rasulullah ﷺ questions: the sahaba and hypocrites both. While the sahabah used to ask for Islāh (self-rectification); the hypocrites used to ask only to waste time.

Hence, Allah Almighty revealed verse 101 in Surah Māida; wherein Allah warned the people regarding their questionings.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَسْأَلُوا عَنْ أَشْيَاءَ إِن تُبْدَ لَكُمْ تَسُؤْكُمْ وَإِن تَسْأَلُوا عَنْهَا حِينَ يُنَزَّلُ الْقُرْآنُ تُبْدَ لَكُمْ عَفَا اللَّهُ عَنْهَا ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌ

After that, the Sahabas become extremely careful with their questions, to the extent where there is a narration in Muslim in which Rasulullah ﷺ said, ‘Ask me!’. Still, out of fear and respect for the Quran they did not.

Due to this, Allah sent Jibrīl (AS) to ask these important questions instead to teach the people.

Explanation

بَيْنَماBayn (بين) is ẓarf zamān, and (ما) is zā’idah (زائدة)

ذات – is zā’idah (زائدة)

يَوْم – day

It refers to daytime but can also mean day or night in general

بَارِزا – Clear

In a narration in Bukhari, it says bārizan. Rasulullah ﷺ used to sit intermingled among the people such that people had to ask who was the Prophet of Allah. So, the Sahabah decided he should be given a clear position and made for him a clay place. Bārizan is referring to this stepping.

اِذْا طلَعَ عَلَيْنَا رجُل – Suddenly, a man appeared to us.

Here, the narrator uses the word tala’a (طلَع) to allude to a celestial object (from the sky). This is because the being who came was from above viz. the angel Jibrīl (peace be upon him) as they found out later.

In this narration, there is no further use of word man (رجل). However, in a narration of this Ḥadith in Nasai, it adds:

رجل احسن الناس وجها، و اطيب الناس ريحا، كان ثيابه لم يمسه دنس

Adāb (etiquettes) of a student: The narrator then describes Jibrīl (AS). From these descriptions of you should understand how a student should look and be:

  • A genuine time of seeking knowledge is in young age (شديد سواد الشعر)
  • One seeking knowledge should be clean as mentioned in the narration of Nasai – your apparel has an impact on one’s spirituality. (شديد البياض)
  • Listen attentively from one’s teacher (فاسند ركبتيه الي ركبتيه)
شديد بياض الثياب – He had clean white clothing.

Mullā ‘Ali Qari (R) says, ideally a student should wear white clothing because as soon as you have a mark, you would see it and clean it.

A Ḥadith narrated by Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas states, البسوا ثيابكم البياض

Hāfiz bin Hajar Asqalani (R) also says,

Jibrīl (AS) is an angel made from light- and light is white; this is also why he came down dressed as such.

شديد سواد الشعر  – He had jet black hair.

This is an indication of youth and strength which are qualities found in angels who are a strong creation of Allah.3

لا يُرى عليه أثرُ السفر

Trans: there was no sign of journey apparent upon him.

This indicated has not travelled far and so must be local to Madinah. Hence, at least one person should have recognised him. However:

ولا يعرفه منا احد- No one recognised him.

This negates the assumption that this ‘man’ was from the local area.

Question: How is Umar (RA) saying that ‘No One recognised him’? Should he not only speak for himself?

Answer: Hāfiz ibn Hajar al Asqalani says that Umar (RA) said, ‘No one knew him’ as an educated guess. As Umar (RA) was amongst the most well-known and if he didn’t know of someone, usually no one would know of them.

Also, it can be said, due to the reaction of the people such as nudging and speculation, it was evident that no one knew him.

It is stated in Fathul Bari that the exchanged ‘looks’ were that of when a stranger appears.

Initially, it seems even Rasulullah ﷺ did not recognise the ‘man’ as Jibrīl (AS). He must not have come in his usual form of Dihya ibn Khalifa Farwa Qalbi.

Jibrīl (AS) used to usually assume the form of the Sahabi, Dihya al Qalbi. Allāmah Badruddin ‘Ayni mentions, he was so handsome that the women of Madina used to peep out of their windows just to get a glimpse of him. Hence, he used to wear a covering on his face when he used to leave his house to avoid fitnah.

فاسند ركبتيه الي ركبتيه

Trans: He placed his knees on the knees of Rasulullah ﷺ.

(1) Allāmah Rashīd Ahmed Gangohi (R) says: this does not refer to when one touches one kneecap with the other person’s kneecap. Rather it is an indication to his closeness in sitting.

(2) Mulla ‘Ali Qari (R) says: he sat in a manner in which a man would sit in prayer in tashahhud as it is more humbling.

This closeness in sitting shows the man’s need, and eagerness in seeking knowledge.

On this point of sitting with good manners, Hāfiz bin Hajar Asqalani points out how on one side the ‘man’ behaves ill-mannered much like the Bedouins – He called the Prophet by his name by saying, ‘O Muhammad!’ instead of ‘Rasulullah’. On another, he seemed to be full of etiquettes. There are many subtle points to be learnt here.

و وضع كفيه علي فَخِذَيهِ

Trans: He placed his palms on his thighs.

The ه in فَخِذَيهِ refers to either putting his hands on the thigh of Rasulullah ﷺ or putting his hands on his own thighs.

(1) Imam Nawawi (R) says it is more preferred to say that he put it on his own thighs and this is more humble.

(2) Imam al Baghawi (R) says, in Sharh al-Sunnah, that the ه refers to the thigh of Rasulullah ﷺ. This is supported by some narrations.

Question: Is it not against manners to place hands on another’s thigh.

Answer: some say that it was only done to gain Rasulullah’s attention, to show the importance of what is about to be discussed, or to hide his Angel status.

(3) Some say that for a short time his hands were on his own thighs, and for some time they were on Rasulullah’s thighs, or vice versa.

قال يا محمد – He said, ‘O Muhammad!’

To call Rasulullah ﷺ by his name is considered against manners. This is discouraged in verse 63 of Surah Nur,

لَا تَجْعَلُوا دُعَاءَ الرَّسُولِ بَيْنَكُمْ كَدُعَاءِ بَعْضِكُمْ بَعْضًا ۚ قَدْ يَعْلَمُ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ يَتَسَلَّلُونَ مِنْكُمْ لِوَاذًا ۚ فَلْيَحْذَرِ الَّذِينَ يُخَالِفُونَ عَنْ أَمْرِهِ أَنْ تُصِيبَهُمْ فِتْنَةٌ أَوْ يُصِيبَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

(1) This was the way of the Bedouins and as Jibrīl (AS) was speaking as a human, he was addressing Rasulullah ﷺ in that manner as well.

(2) Some narrations do have ‘Ya Rasulullah’ instead. So it is said that there is a possibility that Jibrīl (AS) used both terms.

(3) The name Muhammad is a proper noun (معنى العلمي) but is also an adjective (معني وصفي) which means ‘the praised one.’ He may have said it with the intention of adjective meaning.

Question: Why did  Jibrīl (AS) not give salām first?

Answer: he wanted to conceal his identity, and adequately portray the Bedouin mannerism.

Also, he did not do salām to show the masalāh that it is not wājib to do so.

Some merely say that he did say salām, it is just not mentioned here. This is because حتي سلم is stated in other narrations such as Nasai, Abu Dawud et al. (upon the authority of Abdullah bin Mas’ud) and the Musnad of Ahmad bin Hanbal (upon the authority of Abdullah bin ‘Umar).

اخبرني عن الاسلام – tell me about Islam

Some narrations state, ما الإسلام instead.

For this Ḥadith, you will find different sequences in the questioning of Jibrīl (AS); this is considered to be changes made by the narrators themselves.

For instance, in Bukhari and Muslim, one of the order is as follows: Imān then Islam, and Ihsan. While another narration of Muslim also has: Islam then Imān and Ihsan (as it is in Mishkāt). There are also narrations with the order: Islam, Ihsan and Imān as mentioned in Fathul Bari.

Those that kept it to Imān, Islam and then Ihsan, can be understood to have done so to place the asl (core) first, the presentation of Islam second and the combination of both (Ihsan) last.

The order of Mishkāt is perfectly fine which is Islam, then Imān and Ihsan. Allāmah Tībī mentions that Islam is connected to the zāhir (outer) while Imān is with the bātin (inner). The bātin is more important, but we have to give a detailed account of the zāhir.

الاسلام ان تشهد ان لا اله الا الله الخ

Trans: Islam is to testify that there is none worthy of worship but Allah.

In Bukhari the wordings are different but to a similar effect:

ان تعبد الله و لا تشرك به

Here, the belief in Rasulullah ﷺ, establishing salāh, giving zakah, fasting in Ramaḍan, and performing Hajj (if one can) is also mentioned.4

Islam is to obey the dictates of Allah and follow Rasulullah ﷺ in your overt action - to submit to whatever is the hukm of Allah.

Imam Tahawi (R) said:  ولا تثبت قدم الإسلام إلا على ظهر التسليم والاستسلام

Islam requires iqrar bil lisan (إقرار بالسان) which is verbally admitting one’s faith for the validity of ahkām dunyawiyyah (any actions which is done in this world).

Shah Waliullah (R) says in Hujjatullah al-Bāligha, ‘All actions come under six actions: salāh, zakāt, fasting, hajj, jihād and qurbani.’

Man is created from the four elements; fire, water, earth and air. Fire demands elevation resulting in qualities such as pride. To combat that Allah gave us salah. Hence, Iblis said, ‘I am better than Adam’. Water lacks contentment – to combat that Allah Almighty gave us Hajj. Earth is miserly and whatever goes into it destroyed. To combat that Allah has given us zakat to destroy stinginess. Air wants fame; it wants to be heard. To combat that Allah has given us sawm.

Salāh and zakāt are always mentioned together as they are mentioned together in the Quran after salāh and zakāh after which comes sawm, and then Hajj.

(1) Salāh is a physical (بدني) form of worship. Here salāh refers to the farāidh of salāh. Hence, one remains Muslim if they refuse nawāfil.

Nevertheless, one should endeavour to pray salāh properly:

  • (a) Allah says, ‘Establish salāh’; nowhere in the Quran does it say ‘صلوا’. Hence, the reward is contingent on one’s consistency and true establishment of salāh.
  • (b) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas (RA) said, salāh is the completion of ruku’, sajdah, tilawah, concentration etcetera.
  • (c) Imam Qatadah (a student of Anas bin Malik) added that it is [also] to preserve it’s time (meaning to pray salāh in its time).

(2) Zakāt is a financial (مالي) form of worship. It compulsory on those who meet the criteria which would have already studied in the books of fiqh.

(3) Sawm in Ramadan is a passive (تركى ) form of worship. Some narrations mention sawm first, but the order in Mishkāt go by the order of the acts which became fardh first historically.

Some narrations also mention salāh, zakāt and hajj first, then sawm as the former three are active actions (فعلي) actions whereas Sawm is passive (تركى).

The order in Mishkāt, however, is more so in the order of forming relationships. Salāh helps one form a relationship with our creator, zakāt is with the creation and sawm is with the poor of the creation.

The story of Bishr al-Hāfi (RA): One day he was shivering severely with cold, while there laid a coat beside him. Instead of wearing the coat, he said, ‘I do not have enough money to buy coats for all those who are feeling the cold like me, so the least I can do is feel the pain with them’.

(4) Hajj is mentioned last as it had become compulsory at the end.

In the narration of Bukhari via Abu Huraira (RA), he does not say Hajj. This is an omission by one of the narrator. It seems improbable that Hajj was not compulsory as the event is said to have occurred after Hajjatul Wadā. If one assumes it to have occurred before the journey, then was slightly before the Hajj by which time the command had already come. Furthermore, other narrations include Hajj in the narration.

قال صدقت فعجبنا له يساله و يصدقه

Trans: He said, ‘You said the truth’. So we were surprised that he asks and affirms.

The people were shocked that the ‘man’ asked a question (which suggests that he does not know) and then confirms the answer.

This was essential because Jibrīl (AS) came as a teacher.

Mawlana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (R) says that the affirmation is no big deal, but it is the way in which Jibrīl (AS) was affirming that confused and amazed the sahabah.

Mullā ‘Ali Qāri (R) defines ta’ajjub (تعجب) as: حالة للقلب تعرض عند الجهل بسبب الشئ

فاخبرني عن الايمان – Inform me about Imān

The levels of Imān are of three types:

  1. Imān of the general masses.5
  2. Imān of the people who are close to Allah – their hearts are always attached to their Lord (those who are distant from the dunya)
  3. Imān of the elite – their outer and inner are engrossed in the obedience of Allah, (a person who is engrossed in the zāt (ذات) of Allah)

In this question about Imān, Jibrīl (AS) is not asking for the literal definition of Imān. Rather he is asking about that which is associated to Imān (متعلقات الإيمان) – what a person must do once he has accepted Islam. The narration goes on to explain this and states that Imān is to believe in:

(1) الله that He is our creator and sustainer. Evidence of tawhīd can be found in Ilm al-Kalām by Allāmah Idris Kandhalwi.

(2) ملائكته – plural of Malak

هم اجسام علوية لطيفة تتشكل بأشكال مختلفة. Angels are:

  • created from light
  • They never disobey Allah (they fulfil all tasks)
  • We must believe they exist
  • We do not know how many angels exist
  • Those angels that we have been told of in detail, we believe in them in all their details and likewise for those whom we know of without details

There are several types of angels with separate roles; the ones we know of are:

  1. Those angels who carry the throne of Allah: Jibrīl, Israīl, Israfīl and Mikaīl. However, on the Day of Judgement, there will be eight angels carrying Allah’s throne.
  2. Those who stay around the throne of Allah
  3. The greatest of the angels, they are the same as the ones who carry the Throne of Allah
  4. The angels that oversee Jannah
  5. Those angels that oversee Jahannam
  6. Those angels that protect humans and always stay with humans. There are approximately 10. Shah Abdul Aziz in Tafsir Fathul Aziz mentions 160.
  7. Kirāman Kātibīn (the respected writers, the one on the right has authority over the left; when one does a sin, the one on the left asks the one on the right if he may write the sin)
  8. Those angels that question in the grave – Munkar and Nakīr

(3) كتبه – the Books that Allah has sent.

A big book is called kitāb, and a small one is known as a sahīfa.

We know of four with certainty (ثبوت القطعي) are four: Tawrah, Injīl, Zabūr and the Quran. They are all abrogated except for the Quran.

It is said that the Torah was revealed on the 6th of Ramadan, Zabūr on the 12thof Ramadan, Injīl on the 18th of Ramadan and the Quran was revealed in 24 AH. There was no known date in Ramadan when the Quran was revealed, though it is said to have been on Laylatul Qadr. Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud adds that Laylatul Qadr falls in the last ten days of Ramadan.

In Hilyatul Awliya, Ibn Hibbān mentioned that Rasulullah ﷺ was asked how many kutub there were, and he answered 104. 50 to Shīth6 (AS), 30 to Idris (AS), 10 to Ibrahīm (AS), 10 to Musa (AS) before the Tawrah and the four main mentioned Books. However, a narrator in this narration, Ibrahīm ibn Hishām, is weak.

(4) رسله – His messengers. This is to believe in Allah’s messengers – the known and unknown ones.

Hāfiz Ibn Kathīr mentions that there are 124000 prophets and 315 from them are Rasūls. Another narration mentions that it is 313.

Allāmah Nasafi (R) says that it is better to not restrict the number to a specific number as Allah says there are some ‘we’ mentioned and some we did not. For instance, only 25 are mentioned in the Quran.

To believe in the Ambiya (AS) means:

  • To acknowledge that all are sent by Allah
  • Believe that they are all infallible (معصوم)
  • Believe that they all conveyed the message and fulfilled all of their responsibilities.
  • To follow the prophet sent to them

(5) اليوم الاخر – the last day – The wordings of Bukhari say that it is to believe in the meeting with Allah and the day of Resurrection.

One is to believe in all that will happen on the Day of Judgement (hereafter). This includes the life in Barzakh, the peace and punishment of the grave, resurrection, giving account (hisāb), Jannah and Jahannam.

(6) تؤمن بالقدر خيره و شره – To believe that good and bad comes from Allah.

The repetition of ‘belief’ emphasises the importance of belief in Qadr (fate). One should not try to understand taqdīr based on intellect alone. Just believe there is Qadr irrespective if you understand it or not – We are only required to have Imān.

Instead of khayrihi wa sharrihi, some narrations have huluwwihi wa murrihi (حلوه و مره).

Literally, Taqdīr means to measure. There are two aspects of taqdīr which are used together: qadr (قدر) and qaḍā’ (قضاء) – Qadr is like the blueprint and Qaḍā’ is the manifestation of the blueprint).

Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Mas’ud used to say: ‘understand that you will never reach the reality of Imān until you understand that whatever is to reach you will never miss you and whatever is to miss you will never reach you.’

Qari Muhammad Tayyib (R) has written a whole book on qadr, and at the end, he wrote: ‘Never has anyone understood this and they will not until the Day of Judgement.’

At the end of the Sahabah era, a group that rejected qadr arose. They were known as the Qadariyya. The three most prominent promoters of this group were Ma’bad al-Juhani (Leader of Qadariyyas in Basra), Ghaylān (in Damascus) and Ja’ad bin Dirham.

This group believed that they were the creators of their own actions, and so Allah only becomes aware of these actions as they are doing them. Na’udhubillah.

The Sahabah that challenged them include Abdullah bin Umar, Jabir ibn Abdullah, Anas bin Malik, Uqbah bin ‘Āmir, and Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with them all). The Sahabah even stated that this group should not be given salām, not be visited when sick nor should their janazah be performed or attended.

The Qadariyya, if they only believed that humans created their own actions, then these individuals will be classified as Fāsiq and Mubtadi. However, if they also deny Allah’s knowledge, they will be classified as a Kāfir.

Hasan al-Bisri who was a tabi’ī (21 AH – 110 AH aged 89 years) said, ‘I asked Sayyidina Ali ibn Abi Tālib regarding qadr.’ He replied in writing, ‘A person who rejects qaḍā’ and qadr in that good and bad being from Allah has done kufr. A person who puts his sin on Allah, that person is a transgressor. Allah is not obeyed out of force nor is He disobeyed by empowerment.’

Belief in qadr is an amazing thing, because when you believe in qadr, it will never leave you in depression or pain. You will remember that this is what my Lord wanted for me.

Also, such a person will never have arrogance, because all the good that they do is all from the qadr of Allah.

فأخبرني عن الإحسان الخ – Tell me about ihsān

It is to worship Allah as if you see him, and if you feel like you cannot see him, [remember,] He sees you.

The author of Mishkāt mentioned ihsān right at the end because ihsān is connected to both Islam and Imān.

Ihsān (means to have Ikhlas). It is used in two ways:

  1. If used without harf jarr (متعدي بنفسه), it means to beautify or solidify
  2. If used with harf jarr, it means to reach the benefit of something

Ihsān in worship is of two types:

(1) Ihsān Zāhiri (احسان الظاهري) is when you do worship by fulfilling either farḍ and wajib or sunnah and mustahab.

(2) Ihsān Ma’nawī (احسان المعنوي) is when you do worship with full concentration.

The narration is used in the latter type (Ihsān Ma’nawī); either you worship as if you can see Him (Allah)7 or if you cannot see him, [remember] He sees you.

Allāmah Anwar Shah Kashmiri (R) says that between Islam and Imān the connection comes and goes. Imān starts from the heart and ends on the physical body, whereas Islam starts on the physical body and ends up in the heart.

Worshipping Allah

Imam Ahmed saw Allah multiple times in his dreams, so one day he asked Allah, ‘O Allah! What is the best of deeds?’ Allah replied, ‘To read the Quran, whether you understand it or not.’

In the narration when it says ‘To worship Allah…’, it refers to acknowledging the oneness of Allah.

Mullā ‘Ali Qari (R) said that to worship Allah also means to obey Allah in his orders and to stop what He has prevented us from doing.

Definition of Ibādah:

  • Qāri Muhammad Tayyib said: it is obeying the hukm.
  • Imam Rāghib al-Asfahani (R) said: it is an action with your choice (even if it) goes against your desires and bodily wants.

There are three stages of ibādah

  1. a person only worships Allah for the reward – this is the lowest stage of ibādah.
  2. One worships Allah as he wants the nobility of becoming connected with Allah.
  3. To worship Allah because he thinks I am a slave and Allah is my Lord, and the connection between slave and master is ibādah. He prays to gain the pleasure of Allah.

Imam Fakhruddin Razi (R) said: Grammatically this sentence should have been na’budu iyyaka, but the word iyyaka is first to show that the objective is to reach Allah.

Hāfiz bin Hajar Asqalani (R) says there are two parts to Ihsān: Mushāhadah (مشاهدة) and Murāqabah (مراقبة).

Question: Mushāhadah (مشاهدة) we have previously mentioned, so the question arises how do we attain the latter?

Answer: This is through excessive remembering Allah on the tongue which will lead to Allah’s remembrance in our hearts. This will also lead to Mushāhadah (مشاهدة) which is the peak of Imān.

In Ma’ariful Ḥadith, Allāmah Nu’mani (R) says the Ihsan is needed in our entire life, not just in salāh.

Example:

The entire madrasah who have been called by the King of the time to his court. But there happens to be one student who has lost her sight. Will that blind student play around by herself while she is in the court yard of the king or will she maintain her adab? She will maintain it. She cannot see the king but the king can see her, and this is why she maintains her adab.

It is also said that in the phrase in the hadith, fa-in lam takun, the kāna (كان) here is the kāna of completion. So, to see Allah, you have to completely become nothing (because we are nothing compared to Him).

Question: Why did Jibrīl (AS) not say sadaqta (صَدَقْتَ) after the third answer.

Answer: Some hadith do have this wording (sadaqta), so the narrator may have omitted it.

Mullā ‘Ali Qari (R) says that the reason why it’s been omitted here is because status of Ihsān is between the servant and his Lord, so no one will know of this – it is a secret.

الإخلاص سر من أسراري أستودعه قلب من أحب من عبادي

Like in this Hadith, you will find in the Quran that it mentions Islam, Imān and Ihsān together.

فاخبرني عن الساعة الخ

Trans: Then he said tell me about the hour. [The Prophet] replied the answerer does not know more than the questioner.

In Bukhari, it states matas sa’a (متي الساعة) – ‘When is the last hour?’

The first three previous questions fully peaked when it reached Ihsān so after ascending to the highest note; the only way is down. This is similar to how the world is completely built and peaked, so now the only thing left is its destruction, to go down – The Hour.

Example: The is a story in a Ḥadith in Bukhari. Rasulullah ﷺ had a horse which had never been beaten in a race. One day a Bedouin came with a very nice horse, and he wanted to race the horse of Rasulullah ﷺ. The Bedouin’s horse ended up winning. The Sahabah were very upset at the turn of events, but Rasulullah ﷺ explained to them that when something reaches its peak, the only means left is to come down.

The hour (الساعة) or the moment, when the end will come is not known to the people. Qiyāmah will happen in a sudden. Allah says in Surah A’rāf (ayah 187) the people do not know when Qiyamah will take place, but it will take place suddenly.

سْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ السَّاعَةِ أَيَّانَ مُرْسَاهَا ۖ قُلْ إِنَّمَا عِلْمُهَا عِنْدَ رَبِّي ۖ لَا يُجَلِّيهَا لِوَقْتِهَا إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ ثَقُلَتْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ لَا تَأْتِيكُمْ إِلَّا بَغْتَةً ۗ يَسْأَلُونَكَ كَأَنَّكَ حَفِيٌّ عَنْهَا ۖ قُلْ إِنَّمَا عِلْمُهَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

This is an indication of it happening very fast. It’s called ‘the hour’ as for Allah and the believers, the time will go by like a moment and with ease.

According to Allāmah Qurtubi (R), there are three types of Qiyamah:

  1. الساعة الصغرى – when one person passes away their personal Qiyāmah has started
  2. الساعة الوسطى – when a whole generation has passed away
  3. الساعة الكبرى – reference to the perishing of all

Question: Like it has been mentioned, when you reach maqam ihsān, you have reached the peak. The peak of Imān and Ihsan has already been reached with Rasulullah ﷺ, and now it is only decreasing. So why hasn’t Allah caused Qiyāmah to come?

Answer: Ibādah is of two types:

(1) كم  – Quantity: in the sight of Allah, a greater number remains

(2) كيف – Quality: this reached has its peak at the time of Rasulullah ﷺ

Question: Why did Rasulullah ﷺ not say لا ادري or لا اعلم(I do not know)?

Answer: if Rasulullah ﷺ had said this, it would have left the door open for people to say that modern technology can now find a cure to death, which can also tell them about Life after death and so on. Hence, he closed this door so no one else can say they know about the last day either.

Instead, he said that the answerer does not know more than the questioner.

Here the use of the ب in باعلم is for  تأكيد النفي

From a narration in Bukhari, we simply know that it may take place on a Friday.

Imam Humaydi (R) mentions the same narration in Kitāb al-Nawadir; However, this dialogue takes place between Jibrīl (AS) and Isa (AS).

فاخبرني عن اماراتها الخ

Trans: Then tell me about its signs…

In different narrations, the wordings vary in this part also. This is fine as they are to the same effect in meaning.

Signs of Qiyāmah are two types:

  1. Minor: the slave girl will give birth to her master and that you will see the barefooted, naked, poor men and shepherds competing in building tall buildings).
  2. Major: the Sun rising from the East to the West, the coming of Ya’jūj, Ma’jūj and Isa (AS) and so on so forth.

This narration only mentions the minor signs and not the major ones.

Every single minor sign has occurred expect for one: that the river Euphrates (between Iraq and Syria) will vomit out heaps of gold; in trying to attain that gold, every 100 that will go after it, 99 of them will die. Some say this has already happened, as by ‘gold’ it meant black gold (oil).

ربتها أن تَلِدَ الأَمَةُ – Muhaddithīn have explained

(1) It indicates to a change in time when Qiyāmah becomes so close that the slave will become the master and the master will become the slave. (unworthy people will take leadership).

Hāfiz bin Hajar al Asqalani says that if we take it to mean a change of states, then the Rabb will become a Murabba from the Murabbi. [Mullā ‘Ali Qari (R) gives preference to this meaning].

(2) Allāmah Khattābi (R) says: this is an indication that the Muslims will gain victory after several victories (in different countries); so the Muslim slave girls who were Umm Walad – their children will then become owners of them. [Imam Nawawi gives preference to this explanation].

(3) Hāfiz bin Hajar Asqalani (R) says this is an reference to a child being disobedient to their parents – mothers treated like slaves.

(4) This may also be an indication towards transactions of slave girls. That there will come a time that a person will buy a slave girl and he will not realise that it is his mother.

Imam Sha’bi used to say, Qiyāmah will not come until knowledge will become ignorance and ignorance will become knowledge.

Question: No one is supposed to call their master Rabb so why is this word used in the narration? A hadith on the authority of Abu Huraira (RA) states, ‘None of you should call your slaves abdi nor your masters rabb (call them sayyid).

Answer: It is based on adab and makrūh tanzihi as in although it is disliked, it is can be used sometimes.

وأن ترى الحفاة العراة العالة رعاء الشّاء يتطاولون في البنيان

Trans: You will see the barefooted, naked, poor men and shepherds competing in building tall buildings.

الحفاة – plural of حافي; someone who walks barefoot. Rasulullah ﷺ is indicating to how they have forgotten their past, and how now they have nothing left to even cover their feet.

العراة – plural of عاري; someone who had no clothes (left naked or barely clothed).

العالة from عائل; someone who has a family and due to increased expenses they are poor.

رعاء – plural of رَاعِي; Shepherd. Those people who were once a Bedouin and they used to herd sheep (الشاء). Shā’ (الشاء) is a plural of shāt (شاة) which means sheep and goat. They had nothing, and as soon as they got wealth, they became boastful and competitive with buildings.

Additionally, this last sign refers to their change of state – instead of living in villages, they will live in the city.

يَتَطاولون – They will build tall buildings

This also shows that their love for the Dunyā will increase, as people will be so engrossed in their tall buildings there.

There is nothing wrong with building yourself a mansion, but you should not be boastful or prideful.

In the adhān, Allahu Akbar (اللهُ اكبَر) outlines that only Allah is worthy of having pride.

Also, this links to the creation which are made from the four elements: fire, water, air and soil. It illustrates that Allah is more powerful than all. No matter how strong the fire is or the water, wind or soil, Allah is greater than them. He is greater than the fire and whatever is created from fire (jinnāt); water and whatever is created from water (ocean creatures), and air and what is created from air and soil (humans).

What is the connection between this set of signs and the previous sign (about slave girls)?

There will come a time a lady will give birth to her master. This narration is unclear (خفي) regarding the meaning, and as birth is a concealed, it is not observable.

In contrast, this set of signs are very clear (جَلي). It says that you will be able to see (ان تري)  only in the people and buildings.

ثم انطلق فلبثت مليا

Trans: Then he Jibrīl (AS) went away, but I stayed for some time.

مَلِيَّا comes from ملاوة: stayed for a long time. It can also mean, being rich, but this meaning is not taken here

The narration in Abu Dawud, Nasai and Tirmidhi say that: I (Umar) stayed for three days. So he found out as to who the speaker was: on the third day.

Ibn Hibbān (R) states, he found out after the third day

In Sahih Muslim, it that after the ‘man’ had left, Rasulullah ﷺ said to the sahabah, bring that man back to me. So they left trying to call him back. But they came back and said, ‘Oh Rasulullah, we could not find him’. So Rasulullah ﷺ went on to mention that this was Jibrīl (AS) in that Majlis.

Reconciling between all the above narrations, in Mirqāt, Mullā ‘Ali Qari (R) states that at the time that Rasulullah ﷺ announced who the man was, Umar (RA) was not there. He was preoccupied with other work, and so he found out after three days.

ثم قال لي: يا عمر اتدري من السائل؟ قلت: الله و رسوله اعلم

Trans: Then he ﷺ said: ‘O Umar, do you know who the questioner was?’ I said: ‘Allah and His Rasūl know best.’

This does not mean that Allah and His Messenger know the same amount; they do not have equal knowledge. It means that Allah and His Messenger know the best, Allah knows everything, and Rasulullah ﷺ knows best from the whole creation.

قال: فانه جبرئيل اتاكم يعلمكم دينكم

Trans: He said: it is Jibrīl who came to you to teach you your religion.

There are four ways you can say the angel’s name: Jibrīl, Gabrīl, Jibrīl, Jibrāīl.

Question: Rasulullah ﷺ was the teacher at that time so why is the attributes of the educator going to Jibrīl (AS)?

Answer: This is because questioning is the half of knowledge (السؤال نصف العلم) and this becomes the means of attaining it.

——

[1] The author of Kitāb al-Shifa

[2] عبادة الظاهرية و الباطنية

[3] It is never too late to learn. However, one should especially learn when they are young and strong. Also people should send their brightest and strongest to learn the din.

[4] Shaykh Saleem Nawab mentioned an interesting mnemonic to illustrate what the din demands of us. (1) ISLAM = I Submit to the Laws of Allah and Muhammad. (2) MUSLIM = My Ultimate Success Lies In following Muhammad

[5] It is formed of the essential component; Tasdiq bil Qalb, Iqrar bil Lisan and A’mal Salihah

[6] The son of Adam (AS)

[7] this would be with نور بصيرة (visualizing with the inner self); when this is so strong, you can feel a presence this becomes:  مقام مشاهدة.

اليانع الجني – إسناد كتاب السنن للإمام أبو داود السجستاني

قال الشيخ عبد الغني المجددي في اليانع الجني:

يرويه شيخُنا العلاّمةُ بإسناده الّذي سَبَقَ في ((الموطّأ)) إلى الإمام أبي عبد العزيز رضي الله عنه عن شيخه المُفَضَّل الجليل الشّادح الغرّةِ، الواضحِ التَّحجِيل، أبي طاهرٍ محمّد بن إبراهيم الكُرديّ المدنيّ، عن الشيخ الأجل حسنِ بن عليٍّ العُجَيميّ، عن الشيخ عيسى المغربيّ، عن الشيخ شهاب الدّين أحمد بن محمّدِ الخفاجيّ، عن الشيخ المُسْنِدِ بَدْرِ الدّيْن حسنٍ الكرخيَ، عن الحافظِ الإمام المُجْتَهدِ أبي الفضل جلالُ الدّين السُّيُوطِيّ، عن الشّيخ مُحَمَّدِ بن مُقْبِلٍ الحلبيّ، عن الصّلاحِ بن أبي عمر المقدسيّ، عن أبي الْحَسَنِ علِيٍّ بِن محمّد بن أحمد البُخَاريّ، عن مُسْنِدِ عصْرِهِ أبِيْ حَفْصٍ عُمَرَ بنْ طَبَرزَد البَغْدادِيّ، عن أبي الوليد إبْرَاهِيْم بِنْ محمّد بِنْ مَنْصُورٍ الكَرْخيّ، وأبي الفتحِ مُصلحِ بِنْ أحْمَد بِنْ مُحَمَّدٍ الدَّوميّ، كِلاَهُمَا عَنِ الحَافِظِ أبِيْ بَكْرٍ أحْمَدَ بِنْ عَلِيٍّ بِنْ ثَابِتٍ الخَطِيبِ البَغْدَادِيّ، قَال: أَخبَرَنا الإِمامُ القاضي أبو عمرٍو القاسِمُ بنُ جعفَرِ بنِ عبدِ الواجدِ الهاشِمي، قَال: أخْبَرَنَا الإمامُ القَاضيّ أَبُو عَمْرٍو اللُّؤْلُؤيّ، قَال: حَدَّثّنَا أَبُو دَاوُد سُلَيْمَانُ بِنُ الأَشعَثِ السِّجِسْتَانِيّ رَضِيَ الله عنْهُ و عَنْهُمْ.

قُلْت: لَم أقِف فِي ((عُجَالةِ الشَّيْخِ عَبْدُ العَزيز)) على صيغ الأداءِ الَّتي ذكَرَها رِجَالُ هَذَا السَّنَدِ لِأَنَّه لم يحكِهَا فِيها، و أمّا الخَطِيْبُ و الّذينَ بَعْدَهُ فَإِنّيّ وقَفتُ على ألفاظهم في مَوْضعٍ آخَر، و أسانيدُ الشَّيْخِ أبي عَبْد العَزيز العُمَرِيّ يرحمُهُ الله تعالى مستَوفاةٌ فيْ كِتَابِه {الإرشاد إلى مُهِمّاتِ الإسنَاد}، و هو رضي الله عنهُ يَتحَرَّى سَوْقَ الأسانيد كما هي، فَمنْ وَقَفَ على كِتَابه فليُحَقِّق منه أمرَ هَذا السَّنّد، و كذا ما أذكرُهُ بَعْد ذلك مِن إسنادي النّسائيّ و ابن ماجه مِن طَرِيْقِهِ إنْ شَاء اللهُ تعالى.

وأمّا رجالُ السَّنَد:

فالخفاجيّ نِسْبَةٌ إلى خَفَاجةَ- بالفتحِ والتّخْفيفِ – حيٌّ مِنْ بَنِيْ عَامِرٍ تُوفِّي سَنَة تِسْعٍ و تِسعينَ و ألفٍ.

والسّيُوطيَ: اسمُهُ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمنِ بِنْ أبِي بَكْرٍ، مَنْسُوْبٌ إلى أسيُوطٍ بَلَدٍ مَعْرُوْفٍ و بصَعِيْدِ مِصر، ولدَ بِالْقَاهِرَة، و كان يُلَقَّبُ بابنِ الكُتُب، لأنّ أباهُ أمَرَ أُمَّهُ وكانت أُمَّ وَلَدٍ لهُ أن تأتيهُ بِكِتَابٍ مِن بَيْنِ كُتُبِه فذَهَبَت وأَخَذَهَا المَخَاضُ و هِيَ بَيْن الكُتُبِ فَولَدَتْهُ بَيْنَها، حَافِظٌ جَلِيْلٌ مُجْتَهِدٌ، لَهُ مُصَنَّفاتٌ فِي العُلُوْم، تُوفّي سَنَةَ إحْدى عَشَرَةَ و تِسْعِ مِئَة.

وتُوفّي ابنُ طَبَرَزَدَ سَنَةَ سَبْعٍ و سِتَّ مئة.

والدَّومّي – بِالفتحِ والميم بعد الواوِ – مَنْسُوْبٌ إلى دَوْمَةِ الجَنْدَل، مَوضِعٌ فَاصِلٌ بَيْن حدَّي الشَّامِ وَالْعِرَاق، كان فيه قِصَّةُ التَّحْكِيْم.

والخَطِيْب: هُوَ الحَافِظُ المَشْهُوْرُ، ذُو التَّصَانِيْفِ المُفِيْدةِ فِيْ عُلُومِ الحَدِيْث، تُوفّي سَنَة ثَلاَثٍ وسِتِّيْن و أَرْبَعِ مِئَة.

واللُّؤْلُؤيّ تُوفّي سَنَةَ تِسْعٍ و عِشْرِيْنَ، و قِيْل: ثلاثٍ و ثَلاَثِينَ و ثلاثِ مِئَة.

و ابن منصورٍ الكرْخيّ مَنْسُوبٌ إلى الكَرْخِ بإسْكَانِ الرّاء المُهْمَلة، هكذا رأيتُهُ في غَيْرِ مَوْضِعٍ، و قال الفاسيّ: الكُرُّخي بِضَمِّ الكَافِ و تشديدِ الرّاء، و لعلَّ الصَّوابَ هُوَ الأوَّلُ، واللهُ سُبْحانَهُ و تَعَالى أَعْلَمُ.

طَرِيْقٌ آخَر

ويرويه شَيْخُنا العلاّمَةُ مِنْ طَرِيْق الشَّيخِ الحَافظِ الأنْصاريّ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ بِأسانِيْدِه، مِنْها إسْنَادُهُ مِنْ طَرِيْق الحَافِظِ ابنِ الدَّيْبَع، و قّدْ فَرَّقَهُ في كِتَابه، فأجْمَعُ لك شملَ ما شتَّتَهُ، وأختَصِرُ بِحذْفِ بَعْضِ ما طَوله؛ مخافةَ السّآمةِ على النّاس.

فالشَّيخُ عَابِدٌ الأنصاريّ الحافظُ يرويه عنِ الشريفِ عبدِ الرَّحمنِ بنِ سُلَيْمَان، عن أبيه سُليمانَ بنِ يحيى بنِ عُمَرَ مَقْبُولٍ الأهدَل، عن الشَّرِيفِ أحمدَ بِنِ محمَّدٍ شريف مَقبولٍ الأهدَل، عنِ الشَّريف أبي سُلَيْمَان يحيى بن عُمَرَ مَقْبُولٍ الأهدل، عن الشَّريف أبي بَكرِ بنِ عَلِيٍّ بطّاحٍ الأهدَل، عن عمِّه الشريف يُوسُوفَ بنِ مُحمَّدٍ بطّاحٍ الأهدل، عن الشَّريف طَاهرِ بنِ حُسَينٍ الأهدل، عن الحافظ عبد الرَّحمن ابنِ عَلِيِّ الدَّيبَعِ الشَّيباني، عن الزَّينِ الشَّرحيّ، عن نَفيسِ الدِّينِ سُلَيْمانَ بنِ إِبراهيمَ بنِ عُمَرَ العَلويّ، عن مُوفَّقِ الدِّينِ عَلِيِّ بنِ أبي بَكْرِ بنِ شَدّادٍ، قال: أخبَرَنا أبو العبّاسِ أحمدُ بنُ أبي الخَيرِ بنِ مَنْصُورٍ الشِّماخيّ، عن أبيه قال: أخبَرَنَا بها أبو عبد الله محمّد بن إسماعيلَ الخَضْرميّ، وأبو بكر بن أحمد الشّراحيّ، و سُلَيْمانُ ابن عقيلٍ العسقلانيّ، وبطّال بن أحمد الرُّكبيّ، ومُحمّد بن عبد الله العُجَينيّ، و سُفيان بن عبد الله الخَضُوريّ، وآخرون، قالوا: أخبرنا بها نصرُ بنُ أَبِي الفَرَج المِصريّ، أخبرنا بها النَّقيبُ أبو طالبِ بنِ أبي زَيْدٍ العلويّ، عن أبي عليٍّ التُّسْتَرِيّ، أخْبَرَنا بها القاضي أبو عُمَر القاسم بن جعْفَرٍ الهاشميّ، عن أبي عليٍّ اللُّؤْلُؤيّ، عن مُؤَلِفِها الحافظِ المتِقِنِ أبي دَاوُدَ سُلَيمَان بنِ الأشعثِ السِّجسْتَانيّ رضِي الله عَنْهُ و عَنْهُم أجْمَعِين.

قلت: مِن لَطَائفِ هذا السَّنَدِ أنَّه انْتَظَمَ رهطاً مِن اليمانيين، و أهل الشرَف مِنْهُم، مِن الّذِيْنَ هُمُ الغُرّةُ فِيْ جَبْهةِ الزَّمَان، والتَّحجيلُ فِيْ قَوَائِمِه، فَإِنَّ بَنِي الأهدَل فَرغٌ فارغٌ مِن الدُّوحةِ الثَّابتةِ النَّبُوية، مَوصوفُونَ بِالعِلْمِ، والصَّلاح، والخَير، مُنْذُ الدّهر:

إليهم كلّ منقبةٍ تؤُولُ                         إذا ما قيل: جُدُّهُمُ الرَّسُولُ

والشّيخُ عَابِدٌ رَحِمَه اللهٌ مِن بَنِي الخَزْرَجِ، ويُقَال: إنَّ أصلَ الأنْصارِ مِنَ اليَمَن، و قد أقامَ الشّيْخُ بِه دَهَرًا مِن عُمُرِهِ حَتَّى عدَّهُ ابنُ ساباط في ((فهرسته)) الّذي مُلحَقٌ بِكِتَابِهِ ((البَرَاهينُ السّابِطيةُ)) مِن عُلَمَاء زَبِيد، فهو يُمْنيّ أيضاً.

وعَبدُ الرَّحمنِ بنُ عَلِيٍّ الدَّيْبَعُ اليَمَانيّ تُوُفّي سنةَ إحدَى عشرةَ و تِسعِ مئة، و الدَّيبَع – بالدّال المُهْمَلةِ و فتحِها وإسكانِ التَّحتيةِ بَعْدَها مُوحَّدةٌ مَفْتوحةٌ وآخِرُهُ مُهمَلَةٌ – معنَاهُ الأبيضُ بلُغةِ النُّوبة، ويُلَقَّبُ به أيْضاً النُّورُ علِيُّ بِن مُحَمَّدٍ الدَّيبَعُ شَيْخٌ لأبي الأسرارِ العُجَيميّ.

والشّرحيّ: في ((ثَبَتِه)) بالحاء المُهمَلة، وبَنُو شرح بَطنُ العَرَب، وشرحةُ بنُ عُدَّةَ بَطنٌ مِن بَنِي سَامةَ بنِ لُؤَيٍّ، فإن كان بالجيمِ فَيَحْتَمِلُ أن يَكُونَ مَنْسُوْبًا إلى شرجةٍ، بَلَدٌ بساحِل اليمن أو إلى الشرج.

والشَّماخيّ: بالمُعجَمَةِ و تشديدِ الميمِ آخِرُهُ مُعْجَمَةٌ.

والخضْرَميّ: نِسْبَةٌ إلى حضْرَمَوتَ مِخْلافٌ مَعْرُوفٌ بِاليَمَن.

وابنُ أحمدَ الشرَّاحيّ: كذلك في ((ثبته)) مُعْجَمَةٌ فَمهْمَلَةٌ قَبْلَه الألفُ و كذا بَعْدَها.

والرُّكَبِّيّ: بالمَهْمَلَةِ في أوله والموحَّدةِ في آخِرِهِ، والرُّكَبُ كصُرَدٍ: بَلَدٌ باليمن، والعَجينُ بالمُهْمَلَةِ والجيمِ والمُثَنّاةِ مِن تحتُ بَعْدَها نُونٌ.

والخَضُوريّ: بِمَهْملةٍ فَمُعجَمَةٍ، و الخَضُورُ بِالرَّأءِ المُهْمَلَةِ كصَبُورٍ بَلَدٌ بِاليمن.

والتُّسْتُرِي: مَنْسُوْبٌ إلى تُستُر بِمُثَنّاتَيْنِ مِن فَوْقُ بِينهُما سينٌ مُهْمَلَةٌ وآخِرُهُ رَأءٌ مُهْمَلَةٌ كَجُنْدُبٍ، بَلَدٌ بالأهواز، والله أعلم.

و يَرْوِيها الشَّيْخُ عَابِدٌ مِن طريق الفلاَّنيّ، روايةَ ابي الحسنِ عَلِيِّ بِن عَبْدِ المَعْرُوْفِ بابن العبدِ، عن أبي داود، و هو أعلى أسانيده في هذا الكتاب، و هذا يدُلُّ أنَّ له رِوايةً خَامِسةً سِوى الأربعِ المَشْهُوْرةِ، و لكن لم يُنَبِّه الشَّيخُ على ذلك في ((ثَبَتِه))، و لا شَيْخُهُ الفُلاَّنيّ، واللهُ تعالى أعلم.

اليانع الجني – إسناد كتاب الصحيح للإمام مسلم بن الحجّاج القشيري

قال الشيخ عبد الغني المجددي في اليانع الجني:

يرويه شيخنا العلامة بسنده الّذي مرّ في ((المُوطّأ)) إلى الشيخ أبي عبد العزيز صدر الأئمّة رضي الله عنه، قال: أخبرني به الشيخ أبو طاهر، عن والده الشيخ إبراهيم الكرديّ المدنيّ، عن الشيخ سلطان بن أحمد المزّاحي، قال: أخبرنا الشيخ أحمد السّبكي، عن النّجم الغيطي، عن الزّين زكريّا، عن أبي الفضل الحافظ ابن حجرٍ، عن الصّلاح بن أبي عمر المقدسيّ، عن عليِّ بن أحمد بن البخاريّ، عن المُؤيِّد الطُّوسي، عن أبي عبد الله الفراويّ، عن عبد الغافر الفارسيّ، عن أبي أحمد محمّد بن عيسى الجُلُوديّ، عن أبي إسحاق إبراهيم بن محمّدٍ، عن مؤلفه مسلم ابن الحجّاج رضي الله تعالى عنه.

قلت: الّذي ذكرته من لفظ هذا السّياق هو كما حكاه الإسحاقيّ السّهارنفوريّ، والله أعلم.

والمزّاحيّ: هو الأزهريّ، تُوفيّ سنة خمسٍ و سبعين و ألفٍ.

والنّجم محمّد بن أحمد الغيطيّ تُوفّي سنة إحدى و ثمانين و تسعِ مئة.

والمقدسيّ: لعله هو الصّلاح محمّد بن يّ: لعله هو الصّلاح محمّد بن إبراهيم بن عمر المقدسيّ ثمّ الصّالحيّ، تُوفّي سنة ثمانين و سبعِ مئة.

وابن البخاريّ: هو الفخر أبو الحسن، عُرِف بابن البخاريّ المقدسيّ، ثم الصّالحيّ، تُوفيّ سنة تسعين و ستِّ مئة.

والمؤيِّدُ الطّوسي أصلاً، والنَّيسابوريّ داراً، تُوفّي سنة سبعٍ و عشرينَ و ستِّ مئة، والله أعلم.

طريقٌ آخِر

ويريه شيخنا العلامة عن الحافظ الحجّة الشيخ عابدٍ الأنصاريّ، عن عمّه العلامة الشيخ محمّد حُسَيّنٍ السِّنْدِيّ، عن الشيخ أبي الحسن بن محمّد صادقٍ السّنديّ، عن الشيخ محمّد حياة السِّنْديّ، عن الشيخ الأجلّ العلامة أبى الحسن السّنْدي الكبير، عن الشيخ عبد الله بن سالمٍ البصريّ، عن محمّد بن علاءِ الدّين البابليّ، عن الشّهاب أخمد السّنهوريّ، عن أحمد بن حجرٍ المكّي الهيثَمي، عن القاضي زكريا الأنصاريّ، قال: أخبرنا مسند الدّيار المصرية عزُّ الدّين عبد الرحيم بن محمّدٍ المعروف بابن الفرات القاهريّ الحنقيّ، قال: أخبرنا أبو الثّناء محمودُ بن خليفة المنبجيّ، قال: أخبرنا به الحافظ شرف الدّينِ عبد المؤمن بن خلفٍ الدّمياطيّ، قال: أخبرني به أبو الحسن المؤيّد بن محمّدٍ الطُّوسيّ النّيْسابوريّ، قال : أخبرنا فقيه الحرم أبو عبد الله محمّد بن الفضل بن أحمد الصّاعديّ، الفُراويّ، قال: أخبرنا أبو الحسين عبد الغافر بن محمّدٍ الفارسيّ، قال: أخبرنا أبو أحمد محمّد بن عيسى بن عمرويه الجلوديّ، قال: أخبرنا إبراهيم ابن محمّد بن سفيان، قال: أخبرنا مسلم بن الحجّاج القُشيْريُّ رضي الله تعالى عنه.

قلت: عمّه حسينٌ صنو أبيه، كان عالماً جلِيلاً، جامعاً بين علوم الأديان والأبدان.

وأبو الحسن الّذي روى عنه عمُّهُ لعله غير أبي الحسن الّذي يُعرفُ بالصّغير، فإنّي وجدتُ بخطِّ الشيخ عابدٍ: أبو الحسن الصّغير تلميذ الشيخ محمّد حياةٍ السّنديّ اسمه الشيخ محمّد بن الشيخ جمال الدّين بن الشيخ عبد الواسع، فليُحفَظُ، والله أعلم.

والشيخ حياة السّنديّ تُوفّي بالمدينةِ المنورة، وأظُنُّ أنَّ الشريف آزاج الحُسينيّ البلجراميّ ذكره في كتابه: ((سبحةِ المرحان))، وله رسالةٌ لطيفةٌ في وجوب العمل بالحديث و إن خالف المذهب.

وأبو الحسن الكبير هو ابن عبد الهادي التّتّويّ، نسبةٌ إلى تتَّى-بمثنّاتَيْنِ من فوق، وفتح الأولى، و تشديد الثّانية، و قصر الألفِ – بلدةٌ على شاطئ نهر السّند، كان عالماً، جليلاً، فقيهاً، أُصُوْلِياً، محَدِّثاً، من أسحاب الوُجُوه في المذهب، له مصنَّفاتٌ نافعةٌ جدًّا وهي ((أذيالُهُ على الكُتُبِ السُّتَّةِ))، و ((مسندِ الإمام أحمد))، و ((فتح القدير)) لابن الهمام، تُوفّي بالمدينة المنورة سنة تسعٍ و ثلاثين و مئة و ألفٍ، رحمه الله تعالى.

والسّنهوريّ – بفتح السّين وإسكان النُّون، و ضمِّ الهاء بعدها واوٌ فراءٌ مهملةٌ – نسبةٌ إلى بعض قرى مصر.

والهيثمي – بفتح الهاء و المثلّثَةِ بينهما مثنّاةٌ تحْتانيةٌ ساكنةٌ – هو الفقيهُ المعروفُ، نزيلُ مكّة المشرَّفة، تُوفيّ سنة أربعٍ و سبعين و تسعِ مئة.

وابن الفرات: هو الحافظ مسند وقته، تُوفّي سنةَ سبعين و ثمان مئة.

والمنبجيّ- بتقديم النُّون على الموحَّدة والجيمِ على زنة مجلسٍ.

والدّمياطيّ من أهل تونةَ- بضمِّ المثنّاة من فوقُ و إسكان الواو بعدها نونٌ ثمّ هاءٌ- جزيرةٌ بقُرب دمياطٍ – بكسر الدّال المهملةِ – و قد خربت، تُوفيّ سنة خمسٍ و سبعِ مئة، يُحكى عنه أنّه قال: رأيت النَّبيّ (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) في النَّوم و سألتُهُ عَنْ حَدِيْثِ: (( مَنْ أَكَلَ مَعَ مَغْفُوْرٍ غُفِرَ لَهُ))، فقال لي: لم أقُلهُ، وأرجو أنْ يَكُونَ كَذَلِك، والله أعلم.

قال الشيخُ عابدٌ: وقد فات إبراهيم بن محمّدٍ سماعُ ثلاثةِ مواضِعَ على مسلمٍ، كان إبراهيم يقول فيها: عن مسلمٍ، و لا يقول: أخبرنا مسلمٌ، قال: قال ابن الصّلاح: فلا ندري حَمَلَها عنه إجازةً، أو وِجَادةً .

الفوتُ الأول في كتاب الحجّ: حدثنا ابن نميرٍ، نا أبي، عن عبيدِ الله، عن نافعٍ، عن ابن عمر، حديث المقصّر والمحلقين، إلى حديث: (( لا يخلُونَّ رَجُلٌ بامرأةٍ إلاَّ ومعها ذُوْ مَحَرَمٍ)).

والثّاني في كتاب الوصايا من قول مسلمٍ: حدّثني أبو خيثّمةَ و محمّد بن المُثَنَّى، فذكر حديث ابن عمر: (( ما حقٌّ امرئٍ مُسْلِمٍ ))، إلى حديث القسامة.

والثّالثُ في كتاب الإمارة من قول مسلمٍ: حدَّثَنِي زُهيرُ بن حَرْبٍ، نا شبابةُ، فذكر حديث أبي هريرةَ: (( إنّما الإمام جُنَّةٌ))، إلى قوله في حديث ثعْلَبةَ: (( إذا رمَيْتَ بسهْمِكَ)).

ثُمَّ ذكر عن ابن حجرٍ أنّه حرَّرَ الأفواتَ المذكورة من هوامشِ نُسْخَةِ الحافظِ أبي بَحْرٍ سُفْيَان بن العاص، و هو شيخ القاضي عياضٍ، قال: و كان من المتقنينَ.

قال الحافظُ ابن حجَرٍ: و أخبرنا بهذه الأفوات أبو العبّاس أحمد بن أبي بكرٍ الحنْبَلِيُّ في كتابه من دمشق، قال: أخبرنا الفخر عثمان بن محمّدٍ التٌّوزِرِيّ في كتابه من مصر، قال: أخبرنا أبو بكرٍ محمّد بن يوسف بن مسدي إجازةً، قال: أنبأنا أبو جعفرٍ أحمد بن عبد الرّحْمن بن مضاءٍ، قال: قرأتُ جميع ((صحيح مسلمٍ)) على أبي عمر أحمد بن عبد الله بن جابرِ بن صالحٍ الأزدي بسَماعه له على أبي محمّدٍ عبد الله بن عليٍّ بنْ محمّد الباجيّ، قال: أخبرنا أبو عبد الله محمّد بن أحمد بن عبد الله الباجيّ، قال: أخبرنا أبو العلاء عبد الوهّاب بن عيسى بن ماهان، قال: حدّثنا أبو بكرٍ أحمد بن يحيى بن الأشقر، قال: أخبرنا مسلمٌ بِجميع الصّحيح قراءةً عليه و أنا أسمَعُ، من أوّله إلى حديث الإفك في أواخر الكتاب.

قلت: ابن ماهان البغداديّ المصريّ تُوفّي سنة ثمانٍ و ثمانين و ثلاثِ مئة.

والباجيّ – بالموحّدةِ والجيم – نسبةٌ إلى باجةَ الأندلسٍ.

والقلانسيّ – بفتح القاف و كسر النّون قبل المهملة – أحد رواةِ ((صحيح مسلمٍ))، و روايته عند المغاربةِ من طريق ابن ماهان، {و} من رواة كتابه: مكّيّ ابن عبدان النّيْسابوريّ.

وللشيخ عابدٍ من طريقه إسنادٌ أعلى ما يكونُ من الأسانيد إلى مسلمٍ، والله أعلم.

ذكر الإمام مسلم بن الحجّاج القشيري رضي الله تعالى عنه، و ثناءُ النّاس على كتابه الصحيح

هو الإمام الحافظ الحجّة أبو الحسين مسلم بن الحجّاج القشيري من أنفسهم، عربيّ صليبة من بني قشيرِ بن كعبِ بن ربيعة، قبيلةٌ من هوازن معروفةٌ، النّيْسابوريّ نسبةٌ إلى نيسابور، مدينةٌ مشهورةٌ بخُر اسان، إمام أصحاب الحديث، أجمعوا على جلالته و إمامته، و علوِّ مرتبته.

وُلِد على المعروفِ عامَ وفاةِ الشّافعي سنة أربعٍ و مئتين، و تُوفّيّ عشية يومِ الأحدِ بنيسابور، و دُفِنَ يَوْمَ الإثنين لخمسٍ بقِيْنَ من رجبٍ سنةَ إحدى و ستّين و مئتين.

رُوِي عنه أنّه قال: صنَّفتُ الصّحيحَ من ثلاث مئة ألفِ حديثٍ مَسْمٌوْعةٍ، و هو أربعةُ آلافٍ بإسقاطِ المُكَرَّرة، لا يَخْتَلِفُوْن في ذلك، و أمّا معها فيزيد على كتاب البخاريّ لكثرةِ الطُّرُقِ عند مسلمٍ.

قال العراقيّ: و قد رأيتُ عن أبي ابفضل أحمد بن سلمة أنّه اثنا عشر ألف حديثٍ، و قيل غير ذلك، والله أعلم.

وأعلى أسانيده ما يكونُ بينه و بين النبي (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) أربعُ و سائط، و له بضعٌ و ثمانونُ حديثاً بهذا الطّريق، و لم يتعرّض في ((صحيحه)) للموقوفات و المقاطيع إلاّ قي موضعين فيما أظُنُّ، والله أعلم.

وذكر الحافظ أبو عليٍّ الغسّان الجيّانيّ- بشدّة المثناة التحتية، ثمّ بالنّون -: إنَّ الانقطاع وقع في كتابه في أربعة عشر موضعاً، فأوهمَ ذل

Muqaddimah Muslim: The men criticised

Imam Muslim in the introduction to his Sahih, outlines the need to critically analyse narrators in order to determine the reliability of the source of a narration attributed to the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him). In this context, he lists some 50 plus narrators who have been criticised in a variety of ways. Below is a background to these individuals.

rejected

Imam Muslim in the introduction to his Sahih, outlines the need to critically analyse narrators in order to determine the reliability of the source of a narration attributed to the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him).  In this context, he lists some 50 plus narrators who have been criticised in a variety of ways. Below is a background to these individuals.

[1] Shahr b. Hawshab (شهر بن حوشب)

Shahr b. Hawshab al-Asha’ari al-Shami (d. 112). An ordinary narrator. The great Muhaddith Abu ‘Awn b. Abd Allah b. Awn b. Artaban Basri has criticised him. His narrations have a lot of doubts (أوهام) and irsal (ارسال). The author of the four sunans have narrated from him in their book.

[2] ‘Abbad b. Kathir

Abbad b. Kathir Shami1 (d. ?). He is Da’if and Matruk. Imams Sufyan Thawri and Shu’bah have criticised him. Imams Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah narrate from him in their respective sunan.

[3] Muhammad b. Sa’id Maslub

Muhammad b. Sa’id b. Hassan Asadi Shami . He is a notorious liar and would fabricate hadith. Ahmad b. Salih states, ‘He has fabricated four thousand hadith’. Imam Nasa’i also warned against him and called him ‘an infamous liar and fabricator in Syria’. According Abu Zar’a, ‘He himself is of the opinion that there is nothing wrong in fabricating hadith for good things’. Imam Thawri declared him to be a liar (كذاب). Imams Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah narrate from him in their respective sunan.

[4] The Hadith of the Sufi.

Read Shaykh Yunus Jawnpuri’s article on the issue.

[5] Ghalib b. Ubayd Allah

Ghalib b. Ubayd Allah Jazari ‘Uqayli (d. 135). He is extremely weak. Imam Bukhari declares him to be ‘Munkar al-Hadith

[6] Abu Miqdam Hisham Basri

Abu Miqdam Hisham b. Ziyad Basri. He is a Matruk narrator.

[7] Sulayman b. Hajjaj Ta’ifi

Sulayman b. Hajjaj Ta’ifi. He is a Majhul al-Hal narrator. Darawardi, Abd Allah b. Muhammad have narrated from him. Abdullah b. Mubarak has also narrated from him, however, upon further consideration stopped.

[8] Rawh b. Ghutayf

Rawh b. Ghutayf Thaqafi Jazari. He is munkar al-Hadith and used to fabricate hadith.

[9] Baqiyyah b. al-Walid

Abu Yuhmid Baqiyyah b. al-Walid b. Sayid Kali’I Himsi (110-197). He is a good narrator but ‘Uqayli, Abu Mushiz, Abd Allah Mubarak et al. warn that he narrates from all sorts. Hafidh Ibn Hajar ‘Asqalani state that he is truthful but does tadlis. Imam Ahmad and Abu Ishaq Fazari state that, ‘do not accept his narrations if he narrates from an narrators who are not Ma’ruf, however, if he narrates from Ma’ruf narrator it may be accepted’. Imam narrates from him in his sahih as supporting evidence (ta’liqan). The remaining five books also narrate from him.

[10] Harith A’war Kufi

Abu Zuhayr Harith b. Abd Allah Hamdani al-A’war al-Kufi (d. 65). The authorities are split in their judgment on him. Ibn Ma’in, Nasa’i, Ahmad, Ibn Salih, Ibn Abu Dawud  et al. have commended him (توثيق). On the other hand, Thawri, Ibn Mada’ini, Abu Zar’a Razi, Ibn Adi, Daraqutni, Ibn Sa’d, Abu Hatim, Sha’bi, Ibrahim Nakh’i et al. have criticised him. Ibn Hibban declares him to be a Ghali Shi’a. Allama Zahabi. The four sunans narrate from him although he occurs in Sunan Nasa’i only twice.

[11] Mughyarah b. Sa’id

Abu Abd Allah Mughayrah b. Sa’id Bajali Kufi. What a liar (كذاب) and a staunch Rafidhi. He used to believe that Ali (رضي الله عنه) had the ability to revive the dead. He was the first to speak badly about Abubakr and Umar (رضي الله عنهما). At the end he claimed himself to be a prophet and as a result was burnt.

[12] Abu Abd al-Rahim

Abu Abd al-Rahim Shaqiq Dabbi (ضبي) Kufi. He became also became known by the name ‘Qass’ because he used to give speeches in Kufa. He was the leader of the deviant sect Khawarij.  He is a liar and a weak narrator.

[13] Hadith narrated by orators.
[14] Jabir b.Yazid Ju’fi

Abu ‘Abd Allah Jabir b.Yazid Ju’fi Kufi (d. 167). He is a well known weak narrator. He was okay at first but later became a Saba’i Shia. Those who commended him did so prior to him deviating and those criticised him based it upon his later condition. Imam Abu Hanifa severely criticises him. He is narrated from in Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah.

[15] Harith b. Hasirah

Abu al-Nu’man Harith b. Hasirah Azdi Kufi. He is a weak narrator. He is the student of Jabir b. Yazid Ju’fi (see no. 14) and is a ghali Shi’ah. He was alright at first but turned later to Shi’ism as such some have commended (توثيق) him based on his previous condition. Imam Bukhari narrates from him in Adab al-Mufrad and Imam Nasa’i in his sunan [2].

[16] Two unknown people
[17] Abu Umayya Abd al-Karim Basri

Abu Umayyah Abd al-Karim b. al-Makhariq al-Mu’allim al-Basri (d. 126). Many authorities have criticised including Imams Ibn ‘Uyaynah, Ibn Mahdi, Yahya b. Qattan, Ahmad b. Hanbal, Ibn Adi and Ayyub Sakhtiyani. Imam Bukhari narrates from him once in his Sahih. Imam Nasa’i narrates from him a few times and Imams Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah of often in their respective sunans.

[18] Abu Dawud A’ma

Abu Dawud Nafi’ b. Haris, “Alqas al-A’ma” Kufi. He is a Matruk narrator. He has been narrated from by Timidhi and Ibn Majah.

[19] Abu Ja’far Hashimi Madani

Abu Ja’far Abd Allah b. Miswar Mada’ini (also Madani) Hashimi. He is a liar (كذاب) and fabricator of hadith (واضع الحديث).

[20] Amr b. ‘Ubayd

Abu Uthman Amr b. ‘Ubayd b. Bab Basri (d. 143). He is a well known Mu’tazili and is a weak narrator. He is devout and practising man but calls other towards his Mu’tazili belief.

[21] Abu Shaybah Qadhi Wasit

Ibrahim b.Uthman Abu Shaybah ‘Abasi Kufi[3]; also referred to as ‘Qadhi Wasit’ (d. 169). He is Matruk al-Hadith and is very weak. Imams Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah narrate from him in their respective sunans.

[22] Salih Murri

Abu Bishr Salih b. Bashir b. Wadi’ Murri Basri (d. 173). He is a pious person but when giving sermons he would narrate weak hadith. Imam Abu Dawud and Tirmidhi narrate from him in their respective sunan.

[23] Hasan b. ‘Umara

Abu Muhammad Hasan b. ‘Umara Bajali Kufi (d. 153). He was judge in Baghdad. He is extremely weak and has been declared Matruk. Imam Bukhari includes him in his Sahih as supporting evidence (Ta’liqan). Imam Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah narrate from him in his sunan.

[24] Ziyad b. Maymun

Abu Ammar Ziyad b. Maymun Thaqafi Fakihani Basri. He was big liar and fabricator of Hadith. He would fabricate and attribute hadith to the Sahabiyah ‘Attarah and the Sahabi Anas b. Malik (رضي الله عنهما) even though he never met the latter.

[25] Khalid b. Mahduj

Abu Rawh Khalid b. Mahduj Wasiti. He was a very and Matruk narrator. He would attribute narrations to Anas b. Malik despite never meeting him.

[26] Abd al-Quddus Shami

Abu Sa’id Abd al-Quddus b. Habib Kala’I Dimashqi Shami. All muhaddith are unanimous that he is Matruk. Not only was he weak he was also negligent (مغفل). Abd Allah b. Mubarak says, ‘In my opinion it is better do dacoity than to accept hadith from Abd Quddud Shami ’. Imam states, ‘His [Abd al-Quddus] hadith are all over the place’

[27] Mahdi b. Hilal

Abu Abd Allah Mahdi b. Hilal Basri. He is a Matruk narrator and associated with the Qadriyya. According to Ibn Ma’in, ‘he was a deviant and would fabricate narration’.

[28] Aban b. Abu Ayash

Abu Isma’il Aban b. Abu ‘Ayash Fayruz Abdi Zahid Basri (d. 140 circa). He was a minor Tabi’i  and a Matruk narrator. Imam Abu Dawud narrates from him in his sunan.

[29] Ismail b. ‘Ayash

Abu Utbah Ismail b. Ayash b. Sulaym ‘Anasi Himsi (106-182). He was a great man. His narration pertaining to his Syrian teacher are universally accepted, however, his narration originating from the Hijaz or Iraq have been criticised.

[30] Mu’alla b. Urfan

Mu’alla b. Urfan. He is considered Munkar and is a Ghali Shia. He had little knowledge of history. He usually narrates from his uncle Abu Wa’il Shaqiq b. Salamah

[31] Unknown narrator
[32] Muhammad b. Abd al-Rahman

Abu Jabir Muhammad b. Abd al-Rahman Bayadi (بياضي) Madani. All scholars are unanimous on him being weak. Imam Ahmad says, ‘He is extremely weak’. He usually narrates Sa’id b. al-Musayyab.

[33] Abu Huwayrith

Abu Huwayrith Abd al-Rahman b. Mu’awiyah b. Huwayrith Ansari Zuraqi Madani. He is an ordinary narrator. He had a poor memory and is accused of being associated with the Murjiyah sect. Imam Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah narrate from him in their sunan.

[34] Shu’bah Qurashi Hashimi

Abu Abd Allah Shu’bah b. Yahya (Dinar) Qurashi Hashimi Madani. He is the Mawla of Abd Allah b. Abbas (رضي الله عنه) and is an ordinary narrator. Imam Abu Dawud narrates from him in his Sunan.

[35] Salih, Mawla al-Tiwama

Salih b. Nahban, Mawla al-Tiwama, Madani (d. 125). He is an ordinary narrator. He is a honest person (صدوق) but his memory became in his later age. As such only his narrations from students of his early narrations are accepted. Imam Malik classification of him as unreliable (غير ثقة) was in reference to his last years.

[36] Haram b. Uthman

Haram b. Uthman Ansari Salami. He was a very weak narrator and a Ghali Shia. Imams Shafi and Ibn Mu’in say, “الرواية عن حرامٍ حرامٌ”.

[37] Unknown
[38] Shurahbil b. Sa’d

Abu Sa’d Shurahbil b. Sa’d Madani (d. 123). He was a honest person. Imam Bukhari narrates from him al-Adab al-Mufrad, Imams Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah in their respective Sunans. During his later years his memory became weak; he lived up to a hundred. As such some have criticised him.

[39] Abd Allah b. Muharrar

Abd Allah b. Muharrar Jazri; also known as Qadhi Raqqa. He is Matruk and unreliable. He is narrated from in Ibn Majah.

[40] Yahya b. Abu Unaysah

Yahya b. Abu Unaysah Jazri Ruhawi. He is a Matruk narrator. Fallas states that, ‘All scholars are unanimous in rejecting him’

[41] Farqad b. Ya’qub Sabakhi

Abu Ya’qub Farqad b. Ya’qub Sabakhi (d. 131). He was a pious man, however, was weak in hadith as he would make a lot of errors. Imams Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah have narrated from him.

[42] Muhammad b. Abdullah Laythi

Muhammad b. Abdullah b. Ubayd b. Umayr Laythi Makki. He is a very weak narrator. Imam Bukhari classifies him as Munkar. Imam Nasa’i calls him matruk. He usually narrates from ‘Ata b. Abu Rabah.

[43] Ya’qub b. Ata’

Ya’qub b. Ata’ b. Abu Rabah Makki (d. 155). He is a weak narrator. He narrates from his father. Imam Nasa’i has narrated from him.

[44] Hakim b. Jubayr

Hakim b. Jubayr Asadi Kufi. A famous controversial narrator of the four sunans. He is weak and is accused of being a Shia.

[45] Abd al-A’la b. Amir Tha’labi

Abd al-A’la b. Amir Tha’labi Kufi (d. 129). He is an honest narrator; however, there are doubts (وهم) in his narrations. He is narrated from in the four sunans.

[46] Musa b. Dinar

Musa b. Dinar Makki. He is a weak narrator. Saji declares him to be a liar (كذاب) and Matruk. He narrates from Sa’id b. Jubayr (رضي الله عنه).

[47] Musa b. Dihqan

Musa b. Dihqan Kufi Madani (d. before 150). He is a weak narrator. His memory became weak in his later years. Narrate from Abu Sa’id Khudri (رضي الله عنه).

[48] Isa b. Abu Isa Madani

Isa b. Abu Isa Maysarah Kufi Madani Khayyat (d. 151). He is a Matruk narrator. He is narrated by Imam Ibn Majah in his Sunan.

[49] Ubaydah b. Mu’attib

Abu Abd al-Rahim Ubaydah b. Mu’attib Dabbi (ضبي) Kufi. He is considered weak. His memory became poor in his last years. He is quoted in Bukhari (ch. Adahi) as supporting evidence. Imams Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah have taken from him, however, Imams Muslim and Nasa’i have not quoted in their sahih or sunan.

[50] al-Sariyy b. Isma’il

al-Sariyy b. Isma’il Hamdani Kufi. He was a judge and the Uncle of Sha’bi. He is a Matruk narrator. Imam Ibn Majah has taken hadith from him.

[51] Muhammad b. Salim

Muhammad b. Salim Hamdani Kufi. He is a weak narrator. Imam Tirmidhi has taken hadith from him.

————

[1] In another place he is referred to as Basri

[2] In Kitab al-Khasa’is

[3] The paternal grandfather of the great muhaddith Abu Bakr b. Abu Shaybah, the author of Musannif Abu Shaybah

Muqaddimah Muslim #1: Salutation

This is the exposition on the Muqaddimah of Imam Muslim which in effect is a preface to his famous Sahih. Here, if Allah almighty gives ability, I will clarify the text and summarise the issues rather than delve deep or prolong discussion for which I will merely point towards relevant article. Imam Muslim starts his Muqaddimah with the following declaration:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ وَالْعَاقِبَةُ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ وَصَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ خَاتَمِ النَّبِيِّينَ وَعَلَى جَمِيعِ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ وَالْمُرْسَلِينَ أَمَّا بَعْدُ

"In the name of Allah, the very merciful and very kind. All praise is to Allah, the lord of the worlds. Salutation (salat) be upon Muhammad, the last of the prophets. [Salutations] be upon all the prophets and messengers.

Imam Muslim start with bimillah, hamd of Allah almighty and salat upon the prophet (peace be upon him). There are three topics discussed here; (1) the sequence of uttering bismillah, hamd and salat, (2) the detailed analysis of these three, (3) the validity of omitting salam when sending salat.

Firstly, in regards to the sequence of uttering bismillah, hamd and salat in the beginning. Although it is better to read or write all three, it is sufficient that the remembrance of Allah occurs in some way. This is the best solution for reconciling the narrations as the pronouncement must be sequential. The prophet (peace be upon him) declared in separate narrations that any matter of significance starting without bismillah, hamd or salah will be decrepit1. The arguments of relative beginnings is posited but is largely rejected.

Secondly, in regards to the detailed analysis of Bismillah, Hamd and the Salat. This is a long topic and one discussed in length in most tafasir. See the article bismillah, hamd and salat2.

Thirdly, in regards to omitting salam and relying upon salat as done by Imam Muslim. It is better to declare both3 as indicated in the Quran4, however, it is tolerable to rely upon only the salat or salam as was seen in numerous ahadith.

——–

Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
9 Sha’ban 1437
16 May 2016

———-

1 Lacking barakah

2 Note unpublished

3 Shami p.10 v.1

4 Surah Ahzab: 56. صلوا عليه و سلموا تسليما

Abu Dawud ch. 40: forbearance

حَدَّثَنَا مَخْلَدُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ الشَّعِيرِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا عُمَرُ بْنُ يُونُسَ، حَدَّثَنَا عِكْرِمَةُ يَعْنِي ابْنَ عَمَّارٍ قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي إِسْحَاقُ يَعْنِي ابْنَ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ أَبِي طَلْحَةَ قَالَ قَالَ أَنَسٌ كَانَ رَسُولُ الله صلى الله عليه وسلم مِنْ أَحْسَنِ النَّاسِ خُلُقًا فَأَرْسَلَنِي يَوْمًا لِحَاجَةٍ فَقُلْتُ وَاللهِ لاَ أَذْهَبُ (مزاحا و هو غلام غير مكلف) وَفِي نَفْسِي أَنْ أَذْهَبَ لِمَا أَمَرَنِي بِهِ نَبِيُّ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم‏.‏ قَالَ (أنس) فَخَرَجْتُ حَتَّى أَمُرَّ عَلَى صِبْيَانٍ وَهُمْ يَلْعَبُونَ فِي السُّوقِ (فاشتغلت معهم في اللعب) فَإِذَا رَسُولُ الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قَابِضٌ بِقَفَاىَ () مِنْ وَرَائِي فَنَظَرْتُ إِلَيْهِ وَهُوَ يَضْحَكُ (أي يتبسم رفقا به) فَقَالَ ‏يَا أُنَيْسُ اذْهَبْ حَيْثُ أَمَرْتُكَ‏.‏ قُلْتُ نَعَمْ أَنَا أَذْهَبُ يَا رَسُولَ الله (أي أنا في سبيل إليه)‏.‏ قَالَ أَنَسٌ وَاللهِ لَقَدْ خَدَمْتُهُ سَبْعَ سِنِينَ أَوْ تِسْعَ سِنِينَ (شك الراوي لكن جزم تسع سنين في رواية المسلم) مَا عَلِمْتُ قَالَ لِشَىْءٍ صَنَعْتُ لِمَ فَعَلْتَ كَذَا وَكَذَا ولاَ لِشَىْءٍ تَرَكْتُ هَلاَّ فَعَلْتَ كَذَا وَكَذَا

#4773: Ishaq b. Abdullah b. Abu Talhah1 reports that Hadrat (May Allah be pleased with him) said, The prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) had the best of character. Once He sent me on an errand. I [being a child jokingly] said, ‘By Allah I won’t go’ but in my heart I intended to go to do what the prophet (peace be upon him) commanded me.

He (may Allah Almighty be pleased with him) said, I went out [to fulfil the errand] until I passed upon some boys who were playing in the market. [Distracted from his task, he joined them in play.] Then suddenly, the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) [standing] behind me grabbed the back of my neck. I [turned and] looked towards him and He was smiling. He (peace be upon him) said, ‘O Unays (Little Anas)! Go and do what I told you!’ I said, ‘Yes, I am going, O prophet of Allah’.

Anas (may Allah almighty be pleased with him) said, By Allah, I served [the Prophet] for seven or nine years. [During that time], I never knew Him to say on something I did, ‘Why did you do this or that!’ Nor did He say on something I missed, ‘Why didn’t you do this and that!’

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللهِ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمَانُ يَعْنِي ابْنَ الْمُغِيرَةِ عَنْ ثَابِتٍ (بن اسلم البناني) عَنْ أَنَسٍ قَالَ خَدَمْتُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَشْرَ سِنِينَ بِالْمَدِينَةِ وَأَنَا غُلاَمٌ لَيْسَ كُلُّ أَمْرِي كَمَا يَشْتَهِي صَاحِبِي أَنْ أَكُونَ عَلَيْهِ مَا قَالَ لِي فِيهَا أُفٍّ قَطُّ وَمَا قَالَ لِي لِمَ فَعَلْتَ هَذَا أَوْ أَلاَ فَعَلْتَ هَذَا.‏

#4774: Thabit (b. Aslam al-Bunani)2 reports from Hadrat Anas that he said, I served the Prophet (peace be upon him) for ten years in Madinah. I a was a boy; not everything of mine was as my sire wanted it to be. He never said ‘uff‘ to me and he said to me, ‘why did you do this or why did you not do this?’

See Takmilah Fath al-Mulhim p. 454 v. 4; Bazl al-Majhud p. 29 v. 20

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[1] The sanad is Sahih. Imam Muslim narrates with the same sanad except that he reports from Abu Ma’n rather than Makhlad b. Khalid both of whom are thiqah. Some have commented on the sanad due to the presence of Ikramah b. Ammar. The words in Muslim is the same except that the narrator is not conflicted and flatly reports nine years.

[2] —

Avoid some common mistakes in evaluating hadith

ball-figure-eight-black-white-grass-old

The following is a summary of some remedial principles mentioned by Mufti Taqi Usmani. This is in order to avoid the common mistakes in evaluating hadith and making unwarranted objections that one abandons strong evidences.

(1) A hadith is evaluated on the reliability of the sanad and validity of the matn not merely based on the collection it belongs.

(2) The appraisal of the hadith is a tedious task and solely the purview of those who possess the requisite criteria and the rank of ijtihad in the field.

(3) When such experts differ in their appraisal, prioritise the cautious expert over the lenient and the fair over the harsh. If both the experts are fair and cautious one should judge the rationale if they are qualified to do so or else they should choose the one they trust.

(4) Know that the opinion of one expert is not evidence against another expert.

(5) Furthermore, note that the experts judge with the quality of the sources at hand, hence, the loss of information at a later stage does not negate the classification of the earlier experts.

(6) The declaration of sahih or da’if signifies that it fulfils or lacks the set criteria for acceptance; it is highly likely that it reflects the reality but not certainly so. One must act upon the likelihood unless strong evidence indicates to the contrary.

(7) The ahnaf amongst others consider the practice of the sahabah and tabi’in as significant evidence to strengthen a seemingly weak hadith similar to the existence of multiple sanads which in effect reclassifies it to hasan li ghayrihi.

(8) If two reliable ahadith collide, the ahnaf will prioritise the content which conforms to the Quran or the general principles of Shari’ah irrespective if the other sanad is relatively stronger as according to them effect in superior to quantity once reliability is established.

For more details, read Eight Remedial principles in evaluating hadith

الدر المنضود في أسانيد شيخ الهند محمود

كتب الشيخ الفقيه المفسر المفتي الأعظم لباكستان محمد شفيع العثماني رحمه الله تعالي
في الإزدياد السَني علي اليانع الجَني

حصل له، قدس سره القراءة والسماعة والإجازة  من الصدر الأكبر، والبدرلمنير، المسند الرحلة، حجة الإسلام أبي أحمد مونا محمد قاسم الصديقي النانوتوي. و سبق مناشئ من ذكره. قال قذس سره: و حصل لي إجازة من الفقيه  المحدث، صدر الإسلام،والبدر التمام، قطب العالم، حضرة مولانا رشيد أحمد الأنصاري الكنكوهي. قالا (يعني شيخيه النانوتوي والكنكوهي) حصل لنا القراءة والسماع والإجازة عن الصدر الزاهد، والبدر السافر، المحدث العارف بالله، الشيخ عبد الغني المجددي المهاجر، بإسناده المثبت في اليانع الجني من أسانيد الشيخ عبد الغني، عن الصدر الأجل والبدر الأكمل، المشتهر في الأفاق، الحاففظ الحجة، مولانا إسحاق الدهلوي، رحمهم الله.

قال رحمه الله: و حصل الإجازة عن علم العلوم العلماء، حضرة سيدنا العلامة الورع التقي، مولانا أحمد علي المحدث السهارنفوري، صاحب التعليقات المعروضة المقبولة على صحيح البخاري و غيره. وعن الصدر الأكبر، والبدر الأنور، حضرة مولانا الشيخ محمد مظهر، المحدث النانوتوي، مؤسس المدرسة المسماة بمظاهر العلوم بسهارنفور. وعن شمش العلوم، وزين العلماء، حضرة العالم الرباني، مولاناالشيخ عبد الرحمن القارئ الفاني فتي، رحمة الله عليهم أجمعين رحمة واسعة. كلهم (يعني الثلاثة الأخيرة) عن مسند العلم والعلماء، في عصره، مدارالإسناد والتحديث في وقته، حضرة مولانا الشاه محمد إسحاق الدهلوي، الموصوف فيما سبق بإسناده المثبت في اليانع الجني

هذا كله ما ذكره الشيخ، قدس سره، في سند الإجازة الذي كتبه لشيخنا الأبجل، زهري الوقت، حافظ العصر، حضرة مولانا الشاه محمد أنور الكشميري، متعنا الله تعالى بطول بقائه بالخير. ثم رأيت شيخي الهمام، والمولى الهمام، الورع التقي العارف بالله، السيد الأكبر، مولانا السيد أصغر حسين، المحدث الفقيه الديوبندي، متعنا الله تعالى بطول بقائه بالخير، ذكر في تذكرته المسماة بحياة شيخ الهند أن الشيخ رحمه الله لما حضر المدينة المنورة، زادها الله تعالي شرفا و إجلالا، مع شيخه النانوتوي والكنكوهي، رحمة الله تعالي عليهما، و تشرفوا بزيارة شيخ المشائخ مسند أسانيدهم، حضرة مولانا الشاه عبد الغني رحمه الله، (و كان قد هاجر إلى المدينة) فأستدعاه الشيخ النانوتوي، رحمه الله، أن يكتب الإجازة لشيخنا شيخ الهند رحمه الله، فأجازه بأسانيده الثابتة في اليانع الجني.

The conditions for ijazah in hadith

By Mufti Sa’eed Ahmad Palanpuri
Tuhfat al-Qari v.1 p. 116
Translated by Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami  – 13 Jumada I 1436

The ijazah for hadith is given with three conditions. When these three conditions are found, there will be ijazah or else not.

The first condition is that the student should have heard or read the hadith to a teacher. If they have neither heard or read the hadith rather they were absent or sleeping whilst sat, they will not have ijazah.

The second condition is that they must have understood the hadith. Those who did not understand, do not have permission.

The third condition is that the hadith be firmly remembered and relayed forward with caution.

Hence, the students should consistently be present in lessons. No hadith should remain unread or unheard. It should be understood with full focus and when stating the hadith in future it should be done with full caution. Reading in this form is ijazah. The teacher sitting to teach (تصدي للإقراء) is ijazah – there is no need to seek a separate ijazah at the end of the year. The ijazah which is given after cursory reading of the beginning of books is only for the kamil – it is not given to any and all. Hence, in the sanad of the Darul Uloom an ijazah for the hadith is not written. It simply states that this graduate has studied such and such hadith books and that’s it.

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Note! The condition are not exhaustive rather the most pertinent for those studying in their final year. The criteria of piety is a given for one who has already studied for six years.

#201602221801 – 13 Jumada I 1436 | 22 February 2016

سلسة الزبرجد في أسانيد الشيح حسين أحمد

كتب الشيخ الفقيه المفسر المفتي الأعظم لباكستان محمد شفيع العثماني رحمه الله تعالي
في الإزدياد السَني علي اليانع الجَني

زين المشاهد والمنابر، بقية أولئك ألأكابير، المجاهد في سبيل الله، حضرة الشيخ مولانا حسين أحمد المدني، أدامه الله تعالى، بقي مد ظله من ريعان عمره تحت إشراف حضرة الشيخ شيخ الهند رحمه الله، و كان كبعض عياله، بل من أعز عترته، فقرأ ما قرأ تحت إشرافه، و قرأ عليه كتابا عديدة من الفنون المختلفة، و لا سيما كتب الحديث، فلا أحصي عدد قراءتها عليه مرة بعد مرة، حتّى عاد مرجع الخلائق في العلم والإرشاد فعلم الفنون برمتها، ولا سيما العلوم الحديثية مدة مديدة في المدينة المنورة تجاه من هو مبدأ الأحاديث و منتهاها صلى الله عليه و سلم، فأشهر أسناده مد ظله عن حضرة شيخ الهند رحمه الله بأسانيده التي مرت منا في هذه الرّسالة، و هو اليوم زين صدارة المدرسين بدار العلوم الديوبندية أداماها الله تعالى فنذكر ما ذكره هو بنفسه في ورقة أسانيده اامطبوعة بلفظها و هي هذه: أجازني بها الأئمة الفحول، أجلهم و أمجدهم سراج المحققين، و إمام أهل المعرفة واليقين، والعارف بالله، شيخ الهند مولانا أبو ميمون محمود الحسن العثماني الديوبندي موطنا، والحنفي مسلكا، والجشتي النقشبندي القادري السهروردي مشربا، (قدس الله سره العزيز) عن أئمة أعلام أجلهم مولانا شمس الإسلام والمسلمين، العارف بالله، مولانا أبو أحمد محمد قاسم العلوم والحكم النانوتوي موطنا، الحنفي مسلكا، والجشتي النقشبندي القادري، السهروردي مشربا، رحمهما الله تعالى. و هما قد أخذا سائر الفنون والكتب الدرسية، خلا علم الحديث، عن أئمة أعلام أجاهم مولانا الثبت أبي يعقوب، مملوك علي النانوتوي الحنفي، والمفتي صدر الدين الدهلوي، قدس الله أسرارهما، و غيرهما من أساتذة الفنون بدهلي، المعاصرين لهما عن أئمة أعلام أجلهم مولانا رشيد الدين الدهلوي، عن الإمام الحجة، مولانا العارف بالله، الشاه عبد العزيز الدهلوي، الحنفي، قدس الله سره العزيز رحمه الله، ويروي الشمسان، المؤمى إليهما سابقا، كتب الحديث والتفسير قراءة وإجازة عن أئمة أعلام أجلهم شيخ مشائخ الحديث، (يعني الكنكوهي والنانوتوي رحمهما الله) الإمام الحجة، العارف بالله، الشيخ عبد الغني المجددي الدهلوي ثم المدني، و عن الشيخ أحمد سعيد المجددي الدهلوي، ثم المدني، و مولانا أحمد علي السهارنفوري قدس الله أسرارهم، كلهم عن الشهير في الآفاق مولانا الإمام الحجة محمد إسحاق الدهلوي، ثم المكي، قدس الله سره العزيز، عن جده أبي أمه إمام الأئمة، العارف بالله، مولانا الشاه عبد العزيز الدهلوي، قدس الله سره العزيز، عن إمام الأئمة في المنقول، مركز دوائر الفروع والأصول، مولانا العارف بالله، الشاه ولي الله الدهلوي النقشبندي، وأسانيده إلى المحقق الدواني والسيد الجرجاني، والعلامة التفتازاني، قدس الله أسرارهم، مذكورة في القول الجميل و غيره، وكذلك أسانيده إلى أصحاب السنن ومصنفي كتب الحديث، مذكورة في ثبته، وكذلك في أوائل الصحاح الست.ح. ويروى حضرة مولانا الشاه عبد الغني الدهلوي المرحوم سائر الكتب، سيما الصحاح الست، عن الإمام الحجة محمد عابد الأنصاري السندي ثم المدني، صاحب التصانيف المشهورة، وأسانيده مذكورة في ثبته المسمى بحصر الشارد في أسانيد الشيخ محمد عابد، و كذلك في ثبت الشيخ عبد الغني، المعروف باليانع الجني. ح. ويروى شيخنا العلامة شيخ الهند المرحوم، عن العلامة محمد مظهر النانوتوي، و مولانا القارئ عبد الرحمن الفاني فتي، المرحوم كلاهما عن العارف بالله، الشيخ محمد إسحاق المرحوم، ح، و أروى هذه العلوم و الكتب عن الشيخ الأجل مولانا عبد العلي، قدس الله سره العزيز، أكبر المدرسين في مدرسة  مولانا عبدالرب المرحوم بدهلي و عن الشيخ الأجل مولانا خليل أحمد السهارنفوري ثم المدني كلاهما عن أئمة أعلام، سيما الشمسان المؤمى إليهما. ح. وأروى عن مشيخة أعلام من الحجاز إجازة وقراءة لأوائل بعض الكتب أجلهم شيخ التفسير حسب الله الشافعي المكي، و مولانا عبد الجليل برادة المدني، و مولانا عثمان عبد السلام الداغستاني، مفتي الأحناف بالمدينة المنورة، و مولانا السيد أحمد البرزنجي مفتي الشافعية بالمدنية المنورة، رحمهم الله تعالى وأرضهم

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اللعة: الزبرجد – الحجر الكريم الأرزق المخضرّ

المسك الأزفر من أسانيد الشيخ محمد أنور

كتب الشيخ الفقيه المفسر المفتي الأعظم لباكستان محمد شفيع العثماني رحمه الله تعالي
في الإزدياد السَني علي اليانع الجَني

وهو حافظ العصر، ذهبي وقته و عسقلاني دهره، بحر العلوم والفنون، شيخي وشيخ المشائخ، حضرة مولانا الشاه محمد أنور الهاشمي القرشي الكشميري، و هو الذي أقام بصدارة المدرسين بدار العلوم الديوبندية بعد شيخه الأجل حضرة شيخ الهند مولانا محمود حسن، رحمه الله تعالى، المؤمى إليه سابقا، و بقي نحو عشرين سنة مكبا على درس الحديث بفنونه، وكشف معضله و مكنونه، حتى انزوى عن هذا المنصب سنة ١٣٤٦ من الهجرة، فتخرج عليه نحو ألف رجل من العلماء والفقها، والمحدثين. و قد ألف بعض أصحابه قدس سره سيرته و ترجمته مفصلا سماه نفحة العنبر في هدي الشيخ الأنور من شاه فليراجعه. قرأ عليه العبد الضعيف الصحيح للإمام البحاري، والجامع للترمذي، والشمائل له، و دروس البلاغة، والنفيسي في الطب، وشطرا من الفلسفة الطبعية الجديدة. وهو-متعنا الله تعالى بفيوضه- قرأ أكثر كتب الصحاح على شيخ المشائخ حضرة شيخ الهند، رحمه الله، بأسناده المذكور آنفا، وحصل له الإجازة بقراءة الأطراف عن مسند وقته، علامة عصره، شمس العلوم والعلماء، حضرة مولانا حسين الجسر الطرابلسي البغدادي، صاحب الرسالة الحميدية، والحصون الحميدية، المشهورة المفيدة في علم الكلام الجديد، و صاحب تأليفات أخرى، بإسناده إلى العلامة الطحاوي، المذكور مفصلا في ثبته. وذلك حين رحليه إلى الحرمين، زادهما الله تعالى شرفا. فلشيخنا الأنور قدس سره في أسانيد الحديث ثلاثا طرق اهـ من نفحة العنبر ص ٣٨ إلى ص ٨٤

الإسناد الأول لسائر كتب الحديث عن شيخه و شيخ العالم المحدث البارع، مولانا الشيخ محمود حسن الديوبندي، المدعو بشيخ الهند قدس سره، ثم لإسناده طرق:

الأول: عن الحجة العارف، مولانا محمد قاسم النانوتوي الديوبندي رحمه الله، و عن المحدث الحجة مولانا رشيد أحمد الكنكوهي رحمه الله، كلاهما عن الشيخ المحدث الشاه عبد الغني الدهلوي، ننزيل المدينة المنورة.

الثاني: عن الشيخ المحدث مولانا أحمد علي السهارنفوري رحمه الله، محشي صحيح البخاري.

والثالث: عن الشيخ العارف، مولانا محمد مظهر النانوتوي رحمه الله.

والرابع: الشيخ المحدث القاري، مولانا عبد الرحمن الفاني فتي رحمه الله، و هؤلاء، الأعلام، الشاه عبد الغني والمحدث السهارنفوري، والمظهر النانوتوي، والمحدث الفاني فتي، كلهم عن الشيخ الأجل المحدث الشاه محمد إسحاق الدهلوي عن حبر الأمة المحدث العارف الشيخ عبد العزيز الدهلوي، عن والده الشيخ الإمام الحجة قطب الدين أبي الفياض أحمد المدعو بالشاه ولي الله الدهلوي، عن الشيخ أبي طاهر المدني، عن والده الشيخ إبراهيم الكردي، عن الشيخ المزاحي، عن الشهاب أحمد السبكي، عن الشيخ النجم الغيطي، عن الشيخ زين الدين زكريا، عن عزالدين الشيخ عبد الرحيم، عن الشيخ عمر المراغي، عن الفخر بن البخاري، عن عمر بن طبرزد البغدادي، بإسناده إلى الحافظ الحجة أبي عيسى الترمذي، صاحب الجامع. و من شاه االإطلاع على أسانيد الشيخ عبد الغني، وأحوال رجالها، فليرجع إلى اليانع الجني في أسانيد الشيخ عبد الغني، و قد طبع بحيدرآباد مرة، وأخرى بديوبند.

الإسناد الثاني عن شيخه اليخ محمد إسحق الكشميري، عن الشيخ السيد نعمان الآلوسي، عن والده أعلم بغداد الشيخ الحبر مولانا مخمود الآلوسي البغدادي، صاحب روح المعاني، بالإسناد المثبت في ثبته، وهذا هو الإسناد الذي يقول لأجله شيخنا رحمه الله في بعض مؤلفاته قال شيخي بواسطتين محمود الآلوسي في روح المعاني فاغتنمه.

الإسناد الثالث عن الشيخ حسين الطرابلسي الجسر صاحب الحميدية، والحصون الحميدية، الجسر صاحب الحميدية، بإسناده إلى الشيخ السيد أحمد الطحطاوي المصري، صاحب التعليق على الدر المختار، و مراقي الفلاح، استجاز عند الشيخ رحمه الله، بالمدينة المنورة، زادها الله شرفا وتعظيما، كما أشرنا إليه فيما سلف، فهذا ما اطلعت عليه من أسانيد هؤلاء المشائخ الذين كانوا غرر عصرهم، ومسانيد وقتهم، قدس الله أسرارهم وأشاع في العالمين أنوارهم وبركاتهم. و قد أجازني شيخي رحمه الله بأسانيده هذه كلها، فلله الحمد والمنة، ثم له جزيل الشكر و حسن الثناء، وصلى الله تعالى على خير حلقه سيدنا محمد وآله و صحبه أجمعين يوم الجزاء. ولئن أنام الله تعالى طبعه مرة أخرى فسأكر فيه مفصلا إن شاء الله تعالى مع شئ من تفصيل أحوال هؤلاء، الكرام، متعنا الله تعالى بعلومهم، و إلا فكم غادر الأول للآخر، و كم حسرات في بطون المقابر.

Preferred wordings for Tashahhud

By T. Zaman
24 Rabi II 1437 | 4 February 2016

The wordings of tashahhud in salah differ slightly in the narrations with the reports of Hadrats Umar, Abdullah b. Mas’ud, and Abdullah b. Ibn Abbas (may Allah Almighty be pleased with them) considered the clearest. If one were to read any of these it would be permissible1. However, the schools differ as to which is the most preferred form of tashahhud of the three.

Imam Abu Hanifah2 and Imam Ahmad b. Hanbal3 (may Allah Almighty be pleased with them) give preference to the narration of Hadrat Abdullah b. Mas’ud (may Allah Almighty be pleased with him) as it is considered the most authentic4, consistent5 (asah and athbat) and in line with the practice of majority of the ahlul ilm amongst the sahabah. He relates:

التحيات لله و الصلوات و الطيبات، السلام عليك أيها النبي و رحمة الله و بركاته، السلام علينا و على عباد الله الصالحين أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله، و أشهد أن محمدا عبده و رسوله

Imam Shafi’i6 (may Allah Almighty have mercy upon him) gives preference to the narration of Hadrat Abdullah b. Abbas (may Allah Almighty be pleased with him) as he considered it the most comprehensive. He relates:

التحيات المباركات الصلوات الطيبات لله، سلام عليك أيها النبى و رحمة الله و بركاته، سلام علينا و على عباد الله الصالحين، أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله و أن محمدا رسول الله

Imam Malik Bin Anas7 (may Allah Almighty have mercy upon him) gives preference to the narration of Hadrat Umar b. Khattab (may Allah Almighty be pleased with him) as he mentioned it in the pulpit (minbar) and none in the congregation objected. His relates:

التحيات لله الزاكيات لله الطيبات الصلوات لله السلام عليك أيها النبى و رحمة الله السلام علينا و على عباد الله الصالحين أشهد أن لا اله الا الله و أشهد أن محمدا عبد الله و رسوله

Read Fath al-Mulhim for more detail8.

———————

[1] The great Hanafi scholar Allm. Ibn Nujaym in Bahr suggests that to read any other al-tahiyyat other than the one reported by Hadrat Abdullah b. Mas’ud is Makruh Tahrimi. However, this is not so as Imam Muhammad in Muwatta indicates it is permissible and this is the position of the majority of the Ahnaf (See Fath al-Mulhim v. 2 p. 311).

[2] Imam Quduri. 2008. Mukhtasar Al-Quduri. Maktabah al-Bushra; Pakistan p. 76

[3] Ibn Qudama. al-Mughni.

[4] See Sunan Tirmidhi

[5] Hadrat Abdullah b. Mas’ud did not used to like to add or decrease any words of the tahiyyat, hence, his reported form is consistent throughout.

[6] al-Umm li Imam al-Shafi’i. 2001. Dar Al-Wafa; Egypt

[7] Imam Maalik bin Anas & Sahnun (ed). al- Mudawwanah al-Kubrah. v. 1 p.143

[8] Usmani, Allm. Shabbir Ahmad. 2006. Fath al-Mulhim. Darul Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi; Beirut, Lebanon. v. 3 pp. 310-312

The Definitions of Dhubba’, Hantham, Muzaffat and Naqir

These four types of vessels were commonly used for the production and storage of drinks which would become quickly intoxicant. The prophet (peace be upon him) forbade drinking from it regardless. The ruling was later abrogated when people became aware of its danger.

stack-of-wine-barrels-hdr-313809

By Sh. R. Kazi
17 Rabi II 1437 | 28 January 2016

It has been reported by Imam Muslim that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said,

I command you with four and I forbid you from four. Worship Allah and do not associate with him any partner, establish prayer, give zakah, fast the month of ramadhan, and give one fifth of what you have gained as booty and I forbid you from four, from Dhubba’, Hantham, Muzaffath and Naqir.

These were four types of vessels in which the Arabs at the time of the prophet (peace be upon him) would immerse dates, raisins etcetera in water until it would sweeten. Thereafter, they would drink it once it had become intoxicant. The reason why these have been forbidden specifically is due to the speed with which the substances in them intoxicate. Thus making the drink impure, forbidden, valueless and a means of destruction of wealth. It was also easy for a person do drink such drinks from these vessels being unaware that it had become intoxicant as opposed to vessels made of leather skin; this was not prohibited due to its thinness; any drink that had become intoxicant will become obvious; when it did, the vessel would tear. This was the initial command.  Later on, the prohibition of producing drinks in these vessels was abrogated with a narration of Buraydah RA,

I forbade you from producing drinks (in vessels) except for some, (now) produce drinks in any vessel, however, do not drink anything intoxicant.

Hereunder are the definitions of each type of vessel mentioned in the narration,

  1. Dhubba: Dried up gourd/pumpkin or a vessel made out of this
  2. Hantham: Singular is “hanthamah”. This is also called “Jirar”; singular is “Jarrah”, an earthenware jar. There are differences of opinion in regards to the type of earthenware jar. Strongest opinion is that it is a green earthenware jar.
  3. Naqir: This is when the inside of the trunk of a palm tree is excavated, hollowed out and made into a vessel.
  4. Muzaffat: Also referred to as “Muqayyar”. This is a vessel that has been coated with asphalt1.

————-

17 Rabi II 1437 AH
28 January 2015 CE

[1] Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product; it is a substance classed as a pitch.

Praying salah without wudu

Salah will not be accepted without cleanliness so what should one do if they were stuck in a plane with no way of doing wudhu or tayammum? This issue is known as faqid al-tahurayn.

Metal-Sub

By A. Rahman
14 Rabi II 1437 | 25 January 2016

The prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) said, لاَ تُقْبَلُ صَلاَةٌ بِغَيْرِ طُهُورٍ (trans. salah will not be accepted without cleanliness). This was reported in Tirmidhi and Muslim. The sanad  is sahih. The scholars are unanimous that salah is not permitted without cleanliness and consider a severe sin if one prays without wudhu or tayammum.

So here is the conundrum. What is the ruling if salah time comes and one has no water or soil available with which they may gain cleanliness through wudhu or tayammum respectively?

The schools are differed on this matter. This case is called faqid tahurayn (a person who has no access to water or soil).

قضاء اداء امام
لا لا مالك
نعم نعم شافعي
لا نعم احمد
نعم لا أبو حنيفة

Imam Malik (may Allah almighty have mercy upon him): Both ada and qadha are not wajib as the person is ‘ajiz (incapacitated). So salah is dropped similar to how it is dropped for a woman on her haydh.

Imam Shafi’i (may Allah almighty have mercy upon him): The person should read salah even though he is not tahir (clean), but they will have to do qadha when they have sufficient water. This is also one of the views of Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal.

Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal (may Allah almighty have mercy upon him): Ada is wajib even though the person is not tahir. They do not need to do qadha later.

Imam Abu Hanifa (may Allah almighty have mercy upon him): Ada is not wajib, but the person must do qadha later when water is available. Imam Abu Yusuf (may Allah almighty have mercy upon him) asserts that if possible the person should imitate those praying salah  (do the actions but not read anything) and then do qadha later. This is generally the preferred view amongst the ahnaf.

Note! Here ada means to read on time and qada means to read after the alloted time for salah has expired.

—–

14 Rabi II 1437
25 January 2016

The Miqat

Miqat is the set boundary beyond which a Muslim intending to do hajj or umrah is not allowed to cross without ihram.

In essence there are two sets of boundaries. The outer boundary and the inner boundary. The first (marked red) highlights the point before which a person must start Ihram for those living beyond it. The second (marked blue) highlights the boundary of the haram and requires those living within to go beyond it and initiate ihram if they wish to do umrah such as the case of Hadrat Aysha (may Allah almighty be please with her) who whilst in Makkah was sent to Tan’im to put on her ihram for umrah.

Thulathiyat of Ibn Majah

By Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami

Thulathi (pl. thulathiyat) is a hadith where there are only three narrators between the author and the Prophet (peace be upon him) in the sanad. A thulathi is the shortest chains available in the kutub sittah.

Sanads with shorter chains (‘ali) are favoured over those that have longer chains (nazil). The reason being, a shorter chain is easier to analyse and has a lower margin of error as opposed to  a sanad that has more people in the chain. However, it should be noted that a short sanad does not guarantee that the hadith is reliable.

There are five thulathiyat in Sunan Ibn Majah. These are as follows:

حدّثنا جبارة بن المغلّس، حدّثنا كثير بن سليمٍ، قال: سمعت أنس بن مالكٍ، يقول: قال رسول الله صلّى الله عليه وسلّم : من أحبّ أن يكثر الله خير بيته، فليتوضّأ إذا حضر غداؤه، وإذا رفع – رواه ابن ماجة (3620) باب الوضوء عند الطعام

حدّثنا جبارة بن المغلّس، حدّثنا كثير بن سليمٍ عن أنس بن مالكٍ، قال: ما رفع من بين يدي رسول الله صلّى الله عليه وسلّم فضل شواءٍ قطّ، ولا حملت معه طنفسةٌ – رواه ابن ماجة (3110) باب الشواء

حدّثنا جبارة بن المغلّس، حدّثنا كثير بن سليمٍ عن أنس بن مالكٍ، قال: قال رسول الله صلّى الله عليه وسلّم : الخير أسرع إلى البيت الّذي يغشى من الشّفرة إلى سنام البعير – رواه ابن ماجة (3356) باب الضيافة

حدّثنا جبارة بن المغلّس، حدّثنا كثير بن سليمٍ سمعت أنس بن مالكٍ يقول: قال رسول الله صلّى الله عليه وسلّم : ما مررت ليلة أسري بي بملإٍ إلّا قالوا: يا محمّد، مر أمّتك بالحجامة  – رواه ابن ماجة (3479) باب الحجامة

حدّثنا جبارة بن المغلّس، حدّثنا كثير بن سليمٍ عن أنس بن مالكٍ، قال: قال رسول الله صلّى الله عليه وسلّم : إنّ هذه الأمّة مرحومةٌ، عذابها بأيديها، فإذا كان يوم القيامة دفع إلى كلّ رجلٍ من المسلمين رجلٌ من المشركين، فيقال: هذا فداؤك من النّار  – رواه ابن ماجة (4292) باب صفة أمة محمد صلي الله عليه وسلم

In all of these narrations the sanad is the same which is from Jubarah b. Mughallith who narrates from Kathir b. Sulaym who in turn narrates from Anas b. Malik (may Allah almighty be  pleased upon him) who says that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said …

The above mentioned sanad is da’if due to Kathir b. Sulaym who is generally criticised (cf Tahzib al-Kamal) particularly when he quotes Hadrat Anas b. Malik (may Allah almighty be pleased with him). Hafidh Ibn Hajar Asqalani declares him da’if, Imam Bukhari calls him munkar whilst Imam Nasa’i classed him to be matruk.

Jubarah b. Mughallith is a mutakallam fih narrator. Ibn Numayr says that he is ‘honest’ and Imam Abu Dawud Sajistani says he is ‘a pious man’. In contrast, Imam Zahabi et al. simply call him weak. The weakness does not arise from the lack of piety. Abu Zur’a states, ‘I do not see him as a person who would lie rather he was presented with fabricated hadith and he in turn forwarded it; I do not think he intended to lie.’ Imam Ahmad b. Hanbal said, ‘Some of his hadith are fabricated.’ Hafidh Ibn Hajar Asqalani clarifies that he reported the fabricated collection of Kathir b. Sulaym. Yahya b.Mu’in calls him a liar which is a bit harsh whilst Imam Bukhari is more reserved and declares his hadith Mudhtarab as in its authenticity are hit and miss. Considering this it is understandable why Usman b. Abi Shaybah and Maslamah consider him reliable.

In summary, Jubarah b. Mughallith is a good person and can be reliable person, however, his hadith cannot be accepted outright rather  one should check from whom he narrates. If it is from Kathir b. Sulaym and the like, reject it whilst if it is a reliable narrator his narration may be accepted (cf Tahzib al-Kamal).

 

——————

Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
24 Rabi I 1437 AH
4 January 2016 CE

Pray for knowledge

Knowledge is light. It is a gift given by Allah almighty and cannot be merely acquired by sheer ability alone. We must beseech Allah for knowledge.

By Shaykh al-Islam Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani
In’am al-Bari v.1 p.46
Translated by Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami ijtima.org #111123501

[Knowledge is light. It is a gift given by Allah almighty and cannot be merely acquired by sheer ability alone. We must beseech Allah for knowledge. Mufti Taqi Usmani advises students of Hadith how to pray and outlines a dua. He says:]

Oh Allah! In truth we are not deserving of gaining this knowledge or becoming its student; we have no capacity. The reality is that our smutty mouths and filthy tongues are not even good enough to be permitted to say the name of Muhammad Rasul Allah (صلي الله عليه و سلم) let alone be given the opportunity to study his Ahadith and utterances. Oh Allah! We have absolutely no capacity to study the words of your beloved (صلي الله عليه و سلم), however, Oh Allah! You are the creator and maintainer of capacity. Through your grace, generosity and mercy, grant us this aptitude and fitness. Grant us the ability to value this blessing. Grant us the ability to fulfil the rights associated with this knowledge. The radiance and blessing which you have gifted within the Ahadith, we deserve none of it but Oh Allah! We are definitely in need. We deserve nothing at all but are in need of everything. Oh Allah! Consider what we deserve, consider what we need and with your grace and generosity give us the radiance and blessing based on our needs. Give us the ability to fulfil the etiquettes, conditions and requisites needed for acquiring this knowledge. Give us the proper understanding of this knowledge. Give us the ability to act and stay steadfast upon it.

Hadiths reported by Sufis

The experts of hadith are weary of the hadith of sufis as highlighted by Imam Muslim. It should be noted that it is not the fact that they are sufi which makes them unreliable rather it is the manner in which they evaluate hadith.

By Muhaddith al-Asr Shaykh Muhammad Yunus Jawnpuri
al-Yawaqit al-Ghaliyah fi Tahqiq wa Takhrij al-Ahadith al-‘Aliyah
Translated by Ml. Muhammad Habib in Deoband – 4th April 2010

[This is a beneficial read to understand the rationale of Imam Muslim (may Allah almighty have mercy upon him) when he writes in his Muqaddimah that the hadith of the sufis are not to be relied upon. Also note that the term sufi in some parts sparks debate. Before embarking on a discussion first determine the definition of a sufi as it is not uniform. –Saif]

Scholars have not given credence to the [hadith] reports of Sufis, as these respected people, due to their preoccupation with acts of devotion (‘ibadat), are unable to fully dedicate themselves to [the seeking of] knowledge. This is why their reports are littered with errors and confusions. Likewise, their husn al-zann (good opinions regarding others) is to such a degree that they do not even make critical analysis and, consequently, accept any spoken word without investigation. This is why their reports contain weak, rejected and fabricated hadiths in abundance.

This becomes evident after seeing Abu Talib Makki’s Qut al-Qulub and the works of Imam al-Ghazali, Abu ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami and others.

‘Allamah Taj al-Din al-Subki has compiled all those countless reports which Imam al-Ghazali has mentioned in Ihya’ al-‘Ulum, but are not found elsewhere. There are, however, many reports which do exist either in wording or meaning.

The truth is that every art has its connoisseurs. We gladly accept that the Sufis are worthy of veneration. However, that does not mean we also accept their word in those sciences in which they do not specialise.

Yahya al-Qattan says: ”We have not seen the pious (Sufis) more imprecise in anything as they are in hadith.” Another variation reads, “We have not seen the people of good (Sufis) more imprecise in anything as they are in hadith.”

Explaining this, Imam Muslim (pg. 14) writes: “Imprecision finds its way on to their tongues but they do not intend it.”

Imam al-Nawawi elaborates: ”This is so because of their non-possession of the skills employed by the people of hadith, and hence, error creeps into their reports without their knowledge and they tend to relate inaccurate reports not suspecting them to be false.”

However, no one has rejected the reports of those Sufis who have gained proficiency in this science. For example, Imam Abu Isma’il al-Ansari al-Harawi (d. 481 AH), the author of Manazil al-Sa’irin, was a Sufi as well as a hadith scholar. His work, Manazil al-Sa’irin, is a renowned work of tasawwuf, of which al-Hafiz Ibn al-Qayyim wrote an extremely detailed commentary, entitled Madarij al-Salikin.

Similarly, the student of Imam Muslim, Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Sufyan and his student Abu Ahmad al-Jaludi and others were all from amongst the ascetic Sufis, and people (hadith scholars) have accepted their reports.

The hadith scholar, Abu ‘Abd Allah Yunini, is from amongst the great Sufis. He attained the mantle of tasawwuf from the respected Shaykh ‘Abd Allah al-Bata’ihi, who is from the companions of Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani. [Abu ‘Abd Allah] Yunini is also a renowned hafiz of hadith. Al-Hafiz al-Dhahabi has specifically mentioned him in Tadhkirat al-Huffaz (Vol. 4, p. 223).

Similarly ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad al-Dawudi (d. 467 AH) is a renowned Sufi. Al-Hafiz al-Sam’ani relates in Al-Ansab: ”He was a master in tasawwuf”, and he is from amongst the transmitters of [Sahih] al-Bukhari.

The likes of ‘Allamah Ibn Daqiq al-‘Id and Ibn al-Humam and others being Sufis is a known fact.

[Finally], all praise is due to Allah, most of our shaykhs of the Wali Allahi tradition were Sufis as well as imams of hadith.

That is the bounty of Allah, He grants to whom He wills.

Only Allah knows best.

The servant
Muhammad Yunus
(may Allah forgive him)
Monday 11th Rabi’ al-Thani 1391 AH.

Hadith Musalsal bil Awwaliyat

The very first hadith that normally teachers teach is the hadith rahmah. This custom is known as Musalsal bil Awwaliyat.

By Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
Nawhami Bulletin #151218501 – 6 Rabi I 1437 / 18 December 2015

الحمد لله رب  العالمين. و الصلاة و السلام علي سيدنا و مولانا محمد خاتم النبيين، و علي اله و أصحابه أجمعين، و علي كل من تبعهم بإحسان إلي يوم الدين. أما بعد: قال النبي صلي الله عليه و سلم:  الراحمون يرحمهم الرحمن – تبارك و تعالي –ارحموا من في الأرض يرحمكم من في السماء. رواه أبو داود  و الترمذي و احمد عن عبد الله بن عمرو بن العاص رضي الله عنهما

It is customary that the very first hadith that a teacher teaches be the hadith rahmah which is the following hadith:

الراحمون يرحمهم الرحمن، ارحموا من في الأرض يرحكمك من في السمآء

Trans: The prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “Rahman has mercy upon those who show mercy. Have mercy upon those who are on the earth and He who is in the sky will have mercy upon you”.

The custom of starting with this hadith is called musalal bil awwaliyat. It has been done for many generations.

This was the very first hadith which I heard from the pre-eminent muhaddith of our time, Shaykh Yunus Jawnpuri (may Allah almighty raise his rank). The same was for him from his teacher and they from their teachers and so on and so forth. The chart below recounts one of the chains.

Sh. Yunus Jawnpuri الشيخ يونس الجونبوري
Sh. Zakariyyah Kandhalwi شيخ الحديث مولانا محمد زكريا كهاندلوي
Ml. Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri الشيخ مولانا خليل أحمد سهارنبوري
Ml. ‘Abd al-Qayyūm Badanwi مولانا عبد القيوم البدانوي
Sh. Ishaq Dehlawi الشاه اسحاق الدهلوي
Shah ‘Abd al-Aziz Dehlawi الشاه عبد العزيز الدهلوي
Shah Wali Allah Muhaddith Dehlawi الشاه ولي الله المحدث الدهلوي
Sayyid ‘Umar ibn Ahmad al-Saqqaf السيد عمر بن أحمد السقاف
Sh. ‘Abdullah b. Salim al-Basri الشيخ عبد الله بن سالم البصري
Sh. Yahya b. Muhammad al-Shawi الشيخ يحي بن محمد الشاوي
Sh. Sa’id b. Ibrahim al-Jazayiri الشيخ سعيد بن ابراهيم الجزائري
Sh. Sa’id b. Muhammad al-Maqqari الشيخ سعيد بن محمد المقري
Sh. Ahmad Haji al-Wahrani الشيخ أحمد حاجي الوهراني
Sh. Ibrahim al-Tazi الشيخ ابراهيم التازي
Sh. Muhammad b. Abi Bakr al-Maraghi الشيخ محمد بن أبي بكر المراغي
Hafidh Zayn al-Din al-Iraqi حافظ زين الدين العراقي
Sh. Muhammad b. Muhammad al-Bakri al-Maydumi الشيخ محمد بن محمد البكري الميدومي
Sh. ‘Abd al-Latif b. ‘Abd al-Mun’im al-Harrani الشيخ عبد اللطيف بن عبد المنعم الحراني
Hafidh Ibn al-Jawzi الحافظ ابن الجوزي
Sh. Isma’il b. Abi Salih al-Nayshaburi الشيخ إسماعيل بن أبي صالح النيشابوري
Sh. Abu Salih Ahmad b. ‘Abd al-Malik al-Mu’adhdhin الشيخ أبو صالح أحمد بن عبد المالك المؤذن
Sh. Muhammad b. Muhammad Mahmish al-Zabadi الشيخ محمد بن محمد المهمش الزبدي
Shaykh Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Bazzaz الشيخ أحمد بن محمد البزاز
Shaykh ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Bishr ibn al-Hakam الشيخ عبد الرحمن بن بشر بن حكم
Hadrat Sufyan b. ‘Uyaynah حضرت سفيان بن عيينة

This is where the custom terminates whereby the hadith rahmat was the very first hadith which was taught. After this point the hadith was taught but it was not the very first hadith learned.

Hadrat Amr b. Dinar عمر بن دينار
Hadrat Abu Qabus (the Mawla of Abd Allah b. Amr) أبو قابوس مولي عبد الله بن عمرو بن العاص
Hadrat Abdullah b. Amr b. al-‘As (may Allah almighty be pleased with them) عبد الله بن عمرو بن العاص رضي الله عنهما
The final prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم

The total of this chain is 29 generations. May Allah almighty have mercy upon them all. Shaykh Yunus relays this hadith with the same form from other teachers also.

Furthermore, the very first hadith I heard from Shaykh al-Hadith Mawlana Fazlur Rahman Azami (may Allah almighty raise his rank) was also this hadith.

I also heard this hadith from Shaykh al-Islam Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani as well as my esteemed teachers Shaykh al-Hadith Mufti Umar Faruq Lawharwi on numerous occasions and Shaykh al-Hadith Mawlana Yusuf Koti whilst studying Tirmidhi. However, it was not the very first hadith as I heard other ahadith from them before. May Allah almighty protect them and raise their ranks.

The custom is followed to initiate a bond between the teacher and student. To iterate that the din is acquired and preserved through person to person – it is not merely confined to the text. Allah almighty sent the Quran and along with it the prophet (peace be upon him) to explain, expound and demonstrate the Quran. Without the texts one will be lost and without the person one will become wretched.

The full explanation of the hadith is the subject of another lesson. Suffice it to say, be kind to others and Allah almighty will be kind to you. Indeed it is a great kindness that Allah almighty gave us intellect and knowledge. It is what differentiated Hadrat Adam (peace be upon him) from the others.  Allah almighty says,

الرَّحْمَـٰنُ – عَلَّمَ الْقُرْآنَ – خَلَقَ الْإِنسَانَ – عَلَّمَهُ الْبَيَانَ

Trans: al-Rahman. He taught them the Quran. He created man. He taught them expression.

 

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Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
6 Rabi I 1437
18 December 2015