How to study Sahih Muslim

Use Sharh Nawawi and Fath al-Mulhim as your base but supplement with relevant book dependent on the area of focus. Nawawi is better for sanad and aqa’id whilst Fath al-Mulhim for Hanafi fiqh and language.

By Muhaddith al-Asr Shaykh Yunus Jawnpuri
Yawaqit al-Ghaliya v.1 p. 275
Translated by Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami  – 28 Ramadan 1438 | 23 June 2017

In Muslim, there are both the disciplines of ilm riwayat al-hadith1 and ilm dirayat al-hadith2.

In the Muqaddimah, Imam Muslim discusses ilm dirayat al-hadith (usul hadith). Hence, you should get aid from the books usul hadith such as al-Kifayah of Khatib, ‘Ulum al-Hadith of Hakim, Fath al-Mughith of Sakhawi, Tadrib al-Rawi of Suyuti, Sharh Nukhbah of Ibn Hajar amongst others. Nawawi in Sharh Muslim has covered sufficient amount of usul. In Fath al-Mulhim there is also a significant amount, but in some instances, it is less than the Sharh of Nawawi.

After the Muqaddimah, the discipline of riwayat al-hadith starts. In riwayat, the sanad and matn are both worthy of attention.

In the present times, the practice of commenting on the sanads has ceased. However, if you want to review its, Sharh Nawawi has adequate records of the names and reports on the rijal (narrators). Before this check the books of rijal.3 Those hadith which are in Fath al-Bari etcetera, their status can be discovered there.

As for the matn of hadith, nowadays, there is a practice of commentary. On the matn, the usul is discussed as well as fiqh, lughat, and sarf. The points of usul are related to the muhaddithin as well as the mutakallimin.

The muhaddithin address the ilal (علل) and other matters of the matn. Hence, it is necessary to review the books of ilal. At present, Ilal Ibn Abi Hatim has passed my attention. If you can access other books of ilal review them such Ilal Darqutni, Ilal Kubra of Tirmidhi, Ilal Khallal among others.

The mutakallimin only comment on ahadith which relate to the names and qualities [of Allah Almighty]. Nawawi has elaborated on the issue significantly. Beyond this, you will find it a good amount in Mushkil al-Hadith of Ibn Furak and Mushkil al-Athar of Tahawi. Hafiz Ibn Hajar, Allamah Ayni and others in the commentaries of Bukhari have discussed it in detail. In Fatawa Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah, he addresses the issue of Istiwa ala al-Arsh and Nuzul Bari in fine detail, but due to it, the Asha’irah are on his throat.

In terms of Hanafi fiqh, Fath al-Mulhim is better. However, one should not suffice on it alone rather you should review the Sharh of ‘Ayni on Bukhari, Awjaz, Bazl, and Fath al-Bari. The lectures of A’lam al-Muta’khkhirin4 Mawlana Anwar Shah Kashmiri are essential and particularly important. These books also contain discussion on lughat and sarf. For further research [on fiqh] study the books of mutun5.

Muhaddith al-Asr Shaykh Muhammad Yunus Jawnpuri
Circa 1387 AH (1968 CE)6

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Supplementary reading

Nawhami, Muhammad Saifur Rahman. (2014). Introduction to Hadith. Islamic Studies Bulletin (DIBAJ), Number 3. Available at http://uloom.com/dibaj/article/141227501

Nawhami, Muhammad Saifur Rahman. (2014). Muslim b. Hajjaj al-Qushayri – d. 261. Islamic Studies Bulletin (DIBAJ), Number 3. Available at http://uloom.com/dibaj/article/110905501

Nawhami, Muhammad Saifur Rahman. (2016). How to Prepare for Lesson. The Students’ Notebook. Available at: http://uloom.com/student/201601111801

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[1] علم رواية الحديث هو علم بنقل اقوال النبي صلي الله عليه و سلم و افعاله و احواله بالسماع المتصل و ضبطها و تحريرها

[2] علم دراية الحديث هو علم يتعرف به انواع الرواية و احكامها و شروط الرواة و اصناف المرويات واستخراج معانيها

[3] Rijal relates to the critical study of narrators. In one lecture, in reference to Muslim, I heard Shaykh Yunus recommend Tahzib al-Kamal as a good choice for checking rijal.

[4] Lit. The most knowledgeable of the later scholars. The work is scattered but see Fayd al-Bari.

[5] Such as Quduri, Kanz, Wiqayah, Bidayah, Tuhfat, Majma’ al-Bahrayn, and Multaqa al-Abhur. See ‘How to study Hidayah’ available online at: http://uloom.com/dibaj/article/120426501

[6] The letter is not dated but the question was asked in 12 Zul Qa’dah 1387 AH.
—–

Cite Key: #170624501 – 28 Ramadan 1438 | 23 June 2017

اليانع الجني – إسناد كتاب الصحيح للإمام مسلم بن الحجّاج القشيري

قال الشيخ عبد الغني المجددي في اليانع الجني:

يرويه شيخنا العلامة بسنده الّذي مرّ في ((المُوطّأ)) إلى الشيخ أبي عبد العزيز صدر الأئمّة رضي الله عنه، قال: أخبرني به الشيخ أبو طاهر، عن والده الشيخ إبراهيم الكرديّ المدنيّ، عن الشيخ سلطان بن أحمد المزّاحي، قال: أخبرنا الشيخ أحمد السّبكي، عن النّجم الغيطي، عن الزّين زكريّا، عن أبي الفضل الحافظ ابن حجرٍ، عن الصّلاح بن أبي عمر المقدسيّ، عن عليِّ بن أحمد بن البخاريّ، عن المُؤيِّد الطُّوسي، عن أبي عبد الله الفراويّ، عن عبد الغافر الفارسيّ، عن أبي أحمد محمّد بن عيسى الجُلُوديّ، عن أبي إسحاق إبراهيم بن محمّدٍ، عن مؤلفه مسلم ابن الحجّاج رضي الله تعالى عنه.

قلت: الّذي ذكرته من لفظ هذا السّياق هو كما حكاه الإسحاقيّ السّهارنفوريّ، والله أعلم.

والمزّاحيّ: هو الأزهريّ، تُوفيّ سنة خمسٍ و سبعين و ألفٍ.

والنّجم محمّد بن أحمد الغيطيّ تُوفّي سنة إحدى و ثمانين و تسعِ مئة.

والمقدسيّ: لعله هو الصّلاح محمّد بن يّ: لعله هو الصّلاح محمّد بن إبراهيم بن عمر المقدسيّ ثمّ الصّالحيّ، تُوفّي سنة ثمانين و سبعِ مئة.

وابن البخاريّ: هو الفخر أبو الحسن، عُرِف بابن البخاريّ المقدسيّ، ثم الصّالحيّ، تُوفيّ سنة تسعين و ستِّ مئة.

والمؤيِّدُ الطّوسي أصلاً، والنَّيسابوريّ داراً، تُوفّي سنة سبعٍ و عشرينَ و ستِّ مئة، والله أعلم.

طريقٌ آخِر

ويريه شيخنا العلامة عن الحافظ الحجّة الشيخ عابدٍ الأنصاريّ، عن عمّه العلامة الشيخ محمّد حُسَيّنٍ السِّنْدِيّ، عن الشيخ أبي الحسن بن محمّد صادقٍ السّنديّ، عن الشيخ محمّد حياة السِّنْديّ، عن الشيخ الأجلّ العلامة أبى الحسن السّنْدي الكبير، عن الشيخ عبد الله بن سالمٍ البصريّ، عن محمّد بن علاءِ الدّين البابليّ، عن الشّهاب أخمد السّنهوريّ، عن أحمد بن حجرٍ المكّي الهيثَمي، عن القاضي زكريا الأنصاريّ، قال: أخبرنا مسند الدّيار المصرية عزُّ الدّين عبد الرحيم بن محمّدٍ المعروف بابن الفرات القاهريّ الحنقيّ، قال: أخبرنا أبو الثّناء محمودُ بن خليفة المنبجيّ، قال: أخبرنا به الحافظ شرف الدّينِ عبد المؤمن بن خلفٍ الدّمياطيّ، قال: أخبرني به أبو الحسن المؤيّد بن محمّدٍ الطُّوسيّ النّيْسابوريّ، قال : أخبرنا فقيه الحرم أبو عبد الله محمّد بن الفضل بن أحمد الصّاعديّ، الفُراويّ، قال: أخبرنا أبو الحسين عبد الغافر بن محمّدٍ الفارسيّ، قال: أخبرنا أبو أحمد محمّد بن عيسى بن عمرويه الجلوديّ، قال: أخبرنا إبراهيم ابن محمّد بن سفيان، قال: أخبرنا مسلم بن الحجّاج القُشيْريُّ رضي الله تعالى عنه.

قلت: عمّه حسينٌ صنو أبيه، كان عالماً جلِيلاً، جامعاً بين علوم الأديان والأبدان.

وأبو الحسن الّذي روى عنه عمُّهُ لعله غير أبي الحسن الّذي يُعرفُ بالصّغير، فإنّي وجدتُ بخطِّ الشيخ عابدٍ: أبو الحسن الصّغير تلميذ الشيخ محمّد حياةٍ السّنديّ اسمه الشيخ محمّد بن الشيخ جمال الدّين بن الشيخ عبد الواسع، فليُحفَظُ، والله أعلم.

والشيخ حياة السّنديّ تُوفّي بالمدينةِ المنورة، وأظُنُّ أنَّ الشريف آزاج الحُسينيّ البلجراميّ ذكره في كتابه: ((سبحةِ المرحان))، وله رسالةٌ لطيفةٌ في وجوب العمل بالحديث و إن خالف المذهب.

وأبو الحسن الكبير هو ابن عبد الهادي التّتّويّ، نسبةٌ إلى تتَّى-بمثنّاتَيْنِ من فوق، وفتح الأولى، و تشديد الثّانية، و قصر الألفِ – بلدةٌ على شاطئ نهر السّند، كان عالماً، جليلاً، فقيهاً، أُصُوْلِياً، محَدِّثاً، من أسحاب الوُجُوه في المذهب، له مصنَّفاتٌ نافعةٌ جدًّا وهي ((أذيالُهُ على الكُتُبِ السُّتَّةِ))، و ((مسندِ الإمام أحمد))، و ((فتح القدير)) لابن الهمام، تُوفّي بالمدينة المنورة سنة تسعٍ و ثلاثين و مئة و ألفٍ، رحمه الله تعالى.

والسّنهوريّ – بفتح السّين وإسكان النُّون، و ضمِّ الهاء بعدها واوٌ فراءٌ مهملةٌ – نسبةٌ إلى بعض قرى مصر.

والهيثمي – بفتح الهاء و المثلّثَةِ بينهما مثنّاةٌ تحْتانيةٌ ساكنةٌ – هو الفقيهُ المعروفُ، نزيلُ مكّة المشرَّفة، تُوفيّ سنة أربعٍ و سبعين و تسعِ مئة.

وابن الفرات: هو الحافظ مسند وقته، تُوفّي سنةَ سبعين و ثمان مئة.

والمنبجيّ- بتقديم النُّون على الموحَّدة والجيمِ على زنة مجلسٍ.

والدّمياطيّ من أهل تونةَ- بضمِّ المثنّاة من فوقُ و إسكان الواو بعدها نونٌ ثمّ هاءٌ- جزيرةٌ بقُرب دمياطٍ – بكسر الدّال المهملةِ – و قد خربت، تُوفيّ سنة خمسٍ و سبعِ مئة، يُحكى عنه أنّه قال: رأيت النَّبيّ (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) في النَّوم و سألتُهُ عَنْ حَدِيْثِ: (( مَنْ أَكَلَ مَعَ مَغْفُوْرٍ غُفِرَ لَهُ))، فقال لي: لم أقُلهُ، وأرجو أنْ يَكُونَ كَذَلِك، والله أعلم.

قال الشيخُ عابدٌ: وقد فات إبراهيم بن محمّدٍ سماعُ ثلاثةِ مواضِعَ على مسلمٍ، كان إبراهيم يقول فيها: عن مسلمٍ، و لا يقول: أخبرنا مسلمٌ، قال: قال ابن الصّلاح: فلا ندري حَمَلَها عنه إجازةً، أو وِجَادةً .

الفوتُ الأول في كتاب الحجّ: حدثنا ابن نميرٍ، نا أبي، عن عبيدِ الله، عن نافعٍ، عن ابن عمر، حديث المقصّر والمحلقين، إلى حديث: (( لا يخلُونَّ رَجُلٌ بامرأةٍ إلاَّ ومعها ذُوْ مَحَرَمٍ)).

والثّاني في كتاب الوصايا من قول مسلمٍ: حدّثني أبو خيثّمةَ و محمّد بن المُثَنَّى، فذكر حديث ابن عمر: (( ما حقٌّ امرئٍ مُسْلِمٍ ))، إلى حديث القسامة.

والثّالثُ في كتاب الإمارة من قول مسلمٍ: حدَّثَنِي زُهيرُ بن حَرْبٍ، نا شبابةُ، فذكر حديث أبي هريرةَ: (( إنّما الإمام جُنَّةٌ))، إلى قوله في حديث ثعْلَبةَ: (( إذا رمَيْتَ بسهْمِكَ)).

ثُمَّ ذكر عن ابن حجرٍ أنّه حرَّرَ الأفواتَ المذكورة من هوامشِ نُسْخَةِ الحافظِ أبي بَحْرٍ سُفْيَان بن العاص، و هو شيخ القاضي عياضٍ، قال: و كان من المتقنينَ.

قال الحافظُ ابن حجَرٍ: و أخبرنا بهذه الأفوات أبو العبّاس أحمد بن أبي بكرٍ الحنْبَلِيُّ في كتابه من دمشق، قال: أخبرنا الفخر عثمان بن محمّدٍ التٌّوزِرِيّ في كتابه من مصر، قال: أخبرنا أبو بكرٍ محمّد بن يوسف بن مسدي إجازةً، قال: أنبأنا أبو جعفرٍ أحمد بن عبد الرّحْمن بن مضاءٍ، قال: قرأتُ جميع ((صحيح مسلمٍ)) على أبي عمر أحمد بن عبد الله بن جابرِ بن صالحٍ الأزدي بسَماعه له على أبي محمّدٍ عبد الله بن عليٍّ بنْ محمّد الباجيّ، قال: أخبرنا أبو عبد الله محمّد بن أحمد بن عبد الله الباجيّ، قال: أخبرنا أبو العلاء عبد الوهّاب بن عيسى بن ماهان، قال: حدّثنا أبو بكرٍ أحمد بن يحيى بن الأشقر، قال: أخبرنا مسلمٌ بِجميع الصّحيح قراءةً عليه و أنا أسمَعُ، من أوّله إلى حديث الإفك في أواخر الكتاب.

قلت: ابن ماهان البغداديّ المصريّ تُوفّي سنة ثمانٍ و ثمانين و ثلاثِ مئة.

والباجيّ – بالموحّدةِ والجيم – نسبةٌ إلى باجةَ الأندلسٍ.

والقلانسيّ – بفتح القاف و كسر النّون قبل المهملة – أحد رواةِ ((صحيح مسلمٍ))، و روايته عند المغاربةِ من طريق ابن ماهان، {و} من رواة كتابه: مكّيّ ابن عبدان النّيْسابوريّ.

وللشيخ عابدٍ من طريقه إسنادٌ أعلى ما يكونُ من الأسانيد إلى مسلمٍ، والله أعلم.

ذكر الإمام مسلم بن الحجّاج القشيري رضي الله تعالى عنه، و ثناءُ النّاس على كتابه الصحيح

هو الإمام الحافظ الحجّة أبو الحسين مسلم بن الحجّاج القشيري من أنفسهم، عربيّ صليبة من بني قشيرِ بن كعبِ بن ربيعة، قبيلةٌ من هوازن معروفةٌ، النّيْسابوريّ نسبةٌ إلى نيسابور، مدينةٌ مشهورةٌ بخُر اسان، إمام أصحاب الحديث، أجمعوا على جلالته و إمامته، و علوِّ مرتبته.

وُلِد على المعروفِ عامَ وفاةِ الشّافعي سنة أربعٍ و مئتين، و تُوفّيّ عشية يومِ الأحدِ بنيسابور، و دُفِنَ يَوْمَ الإثنين لخمسٍ بقِيْنَ من رجبٍ سنةَ إحدى و ستّين و مئتين.

رُوِي عنه أنّه قال: صنَّفتُ الصّحيحَ من ثلاث مئة ألفِ حديثٍ مَسْمٌوْعةٍ، و هو أربعةُ آلافٍ بإسقاطِ المُكَرَّرة، لا يَخْتَلِفُوْن في ذلك، و أمّا معها فيزيد على كتاب البخاريّ لكثرةِ الطُّرُقِ عند مسلمٍ.

قال العراقيّ: و قد رأيتُ عن أبي ابفضل أحمد بن سلمة أنّه اثنا عشر ألف حديثٍ، و قيل غير ذلك، والله أعلم.

وأعلى أسانيده ما يكونُ بينه و بين النبي (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) أربعُ و سائط، و له بضعٌ و ثمانونُ حديثاً بهذا الطّريق، و لم يتعرّض في ((صحيحه)) للموقوفات و المقاطيع إلاّ قي موضعين فيما أظُنُّ، والله أعلم.

وذكر الحافظ أبو عليٍّ الغسّان الجيّانيّ- بشدّة المثناة التحتية، ثمّ بالنّون -: إنَّ الانقطاع وقع في كتابه في أربعة عشر موضعاً، فأوهمَ ذل

Muqaddimah Muslim: The men criticised

Imam Muslim in the introduction to his Sahih, outlines the need to critically analyse narrators in order to determine the reliability of the source of a narration attributed to the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him). In this context, he lists some 50 plus narrators who have been criticised in a variety of ways. Below is a background to these individuals.

rejected

Imam Muslim in the introduction to his Sahih, outlines the need to critically analyse narrators in order to determine the reliability of the source of a narration attributed to the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him).  In this context, he lists some 50 plus narrators who have been criticised in a variety of ways. Below is a background to these individuals.

[1] Shahr b. Hawshab (شهر بن حوشب)

Shahr b. Hawshab al-Asha’ari al-Shami (d. 112). An ordinary narrator. The great Muhaddith Abu ‘Awn b. Abd Allah b. Awn b. Artaban Basri has criticised him. His narrations have a lot of doubts (أوهام) and irsal (ارسال). The author of the four sunans have narrated from him in their book.

[2] ‘Abbad b. Kathir

Abbad b. Kathir Shami1 (d. ?). He is Da’if and Matruk. Imams Sufyan Thawri and Shu’bah have criticised him. Imams Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah narrate from him in their respective sunan.

[3] Muhammad b. Sa’id Maslub

Muhammad b. Sa’id b. Hassan Asadi Shami . He is a notorious liar and would fabricate hadith. Ahmad b. Salih states, ‘He has fabricated four thousand hadith’. Imam Nasa’i also warned against him and called him ‘an infamous liar and fabricator in Syria’. According Abu Zar’a, ‘He himself is of the opinion that there is nothing wrong in fabricating hadith for good things’. Imam Thawri declared him to be a liar (كذاب). Imams Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah narrate from him in their respective sunan.

[4] The Hadith of the Sufi.

Read Shaykh Yunus Jawnpuri’s article on the issue.

[5] Ghalib b. Ubayd Allah

Ghalib b. Ubayd Allah Jazari ‘Uqayli (d. 135). He is extremely weak. Imam Bukhari declares him to be ‘Munkar al-Hadith

[6] Abu Miqdam Hisham Basri

Abu Miqdam Hisham b. Ziyad Basri. He is a Matruk narrator.

[7] Sulayman b. Hajjaj Ta’ifi

Sulayman b. Hajjaj Ta’ifi. He is a Majhul al-Hal narrator. Darawardi, Abd Allah b. Muhammad have narrated from him. Abdullah b. Mubarak has also narrated from him, however, upon further consideration stopped.

[8] Rawh b. Ghutayf

Rawh b. Ghutayf Thaqafi Jazari. He is munkar al-Hadith and used to fabricate hadith.

[9] Baqiyyah b. al-Walid

Abu Yuhmid Baqiyyah b. al-Walid b. Sayid Kali’I Himsi (110-197). He is a good narrator but ‘Uqayli, Abu Mushiz, Abd Allah Mubarak et al. warn that he narrates from all sorts. Hafidh Ibn Hajar ‘Asqalani state that he is truthful but does tadlis. Imam Ahmad and Abu Ishaq Fazari state that, ‘do not accept his narrations if he narrates from an narrators who are not Ma’ruf, however, if he narrates from Ma’ruf narrator it may be accepted’. Imam narrates from him in his sahih as supporting evidence (ta’liqan). The remaining five books also narrate from him.

[10] Harith A’war Kufi

Abu Zuhayr Harith b. Abd Allah Hamdani al-A’war al-Kufi (d. 65). The authorities are split in their judgment on him. Ibn Ma’in, Nasa’i, Ahmad, Ibn Salih, Ibn Abu Dawud  et al. have commended him (توثيق). On the other hand, Thawri, Ibn Mada’ini, Abu Zar’a Razi, Ibn Adi, Daraqutni, Ibn Sa’d, Abu Hatim, Sha’bi, Ibrahim Nakh’i et al. have criticised him. Ibn Hibban declares him to be a Ghali Shi’a. Allama Zahabi. The four sunans narrate from him although he occurs in Sunan Nasa’i only twice.

[11] Mughyarah b. Sa’id

Abu Abd Allah Mughayrah b. Sa’id Bajali Kufi. What a liar (كذاب) and a staunch Rafidhi. He used to believe that Ali (رضي الله عنه) had the ability to revive the dead. He was the first to speak badly about Abubakr and Umar (رضي الله عنهما). At the end he claimed himself to be a prophet and as a result was burnt.

[12] Abu Abd al-Rahim

Abu Abd al-Rahim Shaqiq Dabbi (ضبي) Kufi. He became also became known by the name ‘Qass’ because he used to give speeches in Kufa. He was the leader of the deviant sect Khawarij.  He is a liar and a weak narrator.

[13] Hadith narrated by orators.
[14] Jabir b.Yazid Ju’fi

Abu ‘Abd Allah Jabir b.Yazid Ju’fi Kufi (d. 167). He is a well known weak narrator. He was okay at first but later became a Saba’i Shia. Those who commended him did so prior to him deviating and those criticised him based it upon his later condition. Imam Abu Hanifa severely criticises him. He is narrated from in Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah.

[15] Harith b. Hasirah

Abu al-Nu’man Harith b. Hasirah Azdi Kufi. He is a weak narrator. He is the student of Jabir b. Yazid Ju’fi (see no. 14) and is a ghali Shi’ah. He was alright at first but turned later to Shi’ism as such some have commended (توثيق) him based on his previous condition. Imam Bukhari narrates from him in Adab al-Mufrad and Imam Nasa’i in his sunan [2].

[16] Two unknown people
[17] Abu Umayya Abd al-Karim Basri

Abu Umayyah Abd al-Karim b. al-Makhariq al-Mu’allim al-Basri (d. 126). Many authorities have criticised including Imams Ibn ‘Uyaynah, Ibn Mahdi, Yahya b. Qattan, Ahmad b. Hanbal, Ibn Adi and Ayyub Sakhtiyani. Imam Bukhari narrates from him once in his Sahih. Imam Nasa’i narrates from him a few times and Imams Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah of often in their respective sunans.

[18] Abu Dawud A’ma

Abu Dawud Nafi’ b. Haris, “Alqas al-A’ma” Kufi. He is a Matruk narrator. He has been narrated from by Timidhi and Ibn Majah.

[19] Abu Ja’far Hashimi Madani

Abu Ja’far Abd Allah b. Miswar Mada’ini (also Madani) Hashimi. He is a liar (كذاب) and fabricator of hadith (واضع الحديث).

[20] Amr b. ‘Ubayd

Abu Uthman Amr b. ‘Ubayd b. Bab Basri (d. 143). He is a well known Mu’tazili and is a weak narrator. He is devout and practising man but calls other towards his Mu’tazili belief.

[21] Abu Shaybah Qadhi Wasit

Ibrahim b.Uthman Abu Shaybah ‘Abasi Kufi[3]; also referred to as ‘Qadhi Wasit’ (d. 169). He is Matruk al-Hadith and is very weak. Imams Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah narrate from him in their respective sunans.

[22] Salih Murri

Abu Bishr Salih b. Bashir b. Wadi’ Murri Basri (d. 173). He is a pious person but when giving sermons he would narrate weak hadith. Imam Abu Dawud and Tirmidhi narrate from him in their respective sunan.

[23] Hasan b. ‘Umara

Abu Muhammad Hasan b. ‘Umara Bajali Kufi (d. 153). He was judge in Baghdad. He is extremely weak and has been declared Matruk. Imam Bukhari includes him in his Sahih as supporting evidence (Ta’liqan). Imam Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah narrate from him in his sunan.

[24] Ziyad b. Maymun

Abu Ammar Ziyad b. Maymun Thaqafi Fakihani Basri. He was big liar and fabricator of Hadith. He would fabricate and attribute hadith to the Sahabiyah ‘Attarah and the Sahabi Anas b. Malik (رضي الله عنهما) even though he never met the latter.

[25] Khalid b. Mahduj

Abu Rawh Khalid b. Mahduj Wasiti. He was a very and Matruk narrator. He would attribute narrations to Anas b. Malik despite never meeting him.

[26] Abd al-Quddus Shami

Abu Sa’id Abd al-Quddus b. Habib Kala’I Dimashqi Shami. All muhaddith are unanimous that he is Matruk. Not only was he weak he was also negligent (مغفل). Abd Allah b. Mubarak says, ‘In my opinion it is better do dacoity than to accept hadith from Abd Quddud Shami ’. Imam states, ‘His [Abd al-Quddus] hadith are all over the place’

[27] Mahdi b. Hilal

Abu Abd Allah Mahdi b. Hilal Basri. He is a Matruk narrator and associated with the Qadriyya. According to Ibn Ma’in, ‘he was a deviant and would fabricate narration’.

[28] Aban b. Abu Ayash

Abu Isma’il Aban b. Abu ‘Ayash Fayruz Abdi Zahid Basri (d. 140 circa). He was a minor Tabi’i  and a Matruk narrator. Imam Abu Dawud narrates from him in his sunan.

[29] Ismail b. ‘Ayash

Abu Utbah Ismail b. Ayash b. Sulaym ‘Anasi Himsi (106-182). He was a great man. His narration pertaining to his Syrian teacher are universally accepted, however, his narration originating from the Hijaz or Iraq have been criticised.

[30] Mu’alla b. Urfan

Mu’alla b. Urfan. He is considered Munkar and is a Ghali Shia. He had little knowledge of history. He usually narrates from his uncle Abu Wa’il Shaqiq b. Salamah

[31] Unknown narrator
[32] Muhammad b. Abd al-Rahman

Abu Jabir Muhammad b. Abd al-Rahman Bayadi (بياضي) Madani. All scholars are unanimous on him being weak. Imam Ahmad says, ‘He is extremely weak’. He usually narrates Sa’id b. al-Musayyab.

[33] Abu Huwayrith

Abu Huwayrith Abd al-Rahman b. Mu’awiyah b. Huwayrith Ansari Zuraqi Madani. He is an ordinary narrator. He had a poor memory and is accused of being associated with the Murjiyah sect. Imam Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah narrate from him in their sunan.

[34] Shu’bah Qurashi Hashimi

Abu Abd Allah Shu’bah b. Yahya (Dinar) Qurashi Hashimi Madani. He is the Mawla of Abd Allah b. Abbas (رضي الله عنه) and is an ordinary narrator. Imam Abu Dawud narrates from him in his Sunan.

[35] Salih, Mawla al-Tiwama

Salih b. Nahban, Mawla al-Tiwama, Madani (d. 125). He is an ordinary narrator. He is a honest person (صدوق) but his memory became in his later age. As such only his narrations from students of his early narrations are accepted. Imam Malik classification of him as unreliable (غير ثقة) was in reference to his last years.

[36] Haram b. Uthman

Haram b. Uthman Ansari Salami. He was a very weak narrator and a Ghali Shia. Imams Shafi and Ibn Mu’in say, “الرواية عن حرامٍ حرامٌ”.

[37] Unknown
[38] Shurahbil b. Sa’d

Abu Sa’d Shurahbil b. Sa’d Madani (d. 123). He was a honest person. Imam Bukhari narrates from him al-Adab al-Mufrad, Imams Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah in their respective Sunans. During his later years his memory became weak; he lived up to a hundred. As such some have criticised him.

[39] Abd Allah b. Muharrar

Abd Allah b. Muharrar Jazri; also known as Qadhi Raqqa. He is Matruk and unreliable. He is narrated from in Ibn Majah.

[40] Yahya b. Abu Unaysah

Yahya b. Abu Unaysah Jazri Ruhawi. He is a Matruk narrator. Fallas states that, ‘All scholars are unanimous in rejecting him’

[41] Farqad b. Ya’qub Sabakhi

Abu Ya’qub Farqad b. Ya’qub Sabakhi (d. 131). He was a pious man, however, was weak in hadith as he would make a lot of errors. Imams Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah have narrated from him.

[42] Muhammad b. Abdullah Laythi

Muhammad b. Abdullah b. Ubayd b. Umayr Laythi Makki. He is a very weak narrator. Imam Bukhari classifies him as Munkar. Imam Nasa’i calls him matruk. He usually narrates from ‘Ata b. Abu Rabah.

[43] Ya’qub b. Ata’

Ya’qub b. Ata’ b. Abu Rabah Makki (d. 155). He is a weak narrator. He narrates from his father. Imam Nasa’i has narrated from him.

[44] Hakim b. Jubayr

Hakim b. Jubayr Asadi Kufi. A famous controversial narrator of the four sunans. He is weak and is accused of being a Shia.

[45] Abd al-A’la b. Amir Tha’labi

Abd al-A’la b. Amir Tha’labi Kufi (d. 129). He is an honest narrator; however, there are doubts (وهم) in his narrations. He is narrated from in the four sunans.

[46] Musa b. Dinar

Musa b. Dinar Makki. He is a weak narrator. Saji declares him to be a liar (كذاب) and Matruk. He narrates from Sa’id b. Jubayr (رضي الله عنه).

[47] Musa b. Dihqan

Musa b. Dihqan Kufi Madani (d. before 150). He is a weak narrator. His memory became weak in his later years. Narrate from Abu Sa’id Khudri (رضي الله عنه).

[48] Isa b. Abu Isa Madani

Isa b. Abu Isa Maysarah Kufi Madani Khayyat (d. 151). He is a Matruk narrator. He is narrated by Imam Ibn Majah in his Sunan.

[49] Ubaydah b. Mu’attib

Abu Abd al-Rahim Ubaydah b. Mu’attib Dabbi (ضبي) Kufi. He is considered weak. His memory became poor in his last years. He is quoted in Bukhari (ch. Adahi) as supporting evidence. Imams Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah have taken from him, however, Imams Muslim and Nasa’i have not quoted in their sahih or sunan.

[50] al-Sariyy b. Isma’il

al-Sariyy b. Isma’il Hamdani Kufi. He was a judge and the Uncle of Sha’bi. He is a Matruk narrator. Imam Ibn Majah has taken hadith from him.

[51] Muhammad b. Salim

Muhammad b. Salim Hamdani Kufi. He is a weak narrator. Imam Tirmidhi has taken hadith from him.

————

[1] In another place he is referred to as Basri

[2] In Kitab al-Khasa’is

[3] The paternal grandfather of the great muhaddith Abu Bakr b. Abu Shaybah, the author of Musannif Abu Shaybah

Muqaddimah Muslim #1: Salutation

This is the exposition on the Muqaddimah of Imam Muslim which in effect is a preface to his famous Sahih. Here, if Allah almighty gives ability, I will clarify the text and summarise the issues rather than delve deep or prolong discussion for which I will merely point towards relevant article. Imam Muslim starts his Muqaddimah with the following declaration:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ وَالْعَاقِبَةُ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ وَصَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ خَاتَمِ النَّبِيِّينَ وَعَلَى جَمِيعِ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ وَالْمُرْسَلِينَ أَمَّا بَعْدُ

"In the name of Allah, the very merciful and very kind. All praise is to Allah, the lord of the worlds. Salutation (salat) be upon Muhammad, the last of the prophets. [Salutations] be upon all the prophets and messengers.

Imam Muslim start with bimillah, hamd of Allah almighty and salat upon the prophet (peace be upon him). There are three topics discussed here; (1) the sequence of uttering bismillah, hamd and salat, (2) the detailed analysis of these three, (3) the validity of omitting salam when sending salat.

Firstly, in regards to the sequence of uttering bismillah, hamd and salat in the beginning. Although it is better to read or write all three, it is sufficient that the remembrance of Allah occurs in some way. This is the best solution for reconciling the narrations as the pronouncement must be sequential. The prophet (peace be upon him) declared in separate narrations that any matter of significance starting without bismillah, hamd or salah will be decrepit1. The arguments of relative beginnings is posited but is largely rejected.

Secondly, in regards to the detailed analysis of Bismillah, Hamd and the Salat. This is a long topic and one discussed in length in most tafasir. See the article bismillah, hamd and salat2.

Thirdly, in regards to omitting salam and relying upon salat as done by Imam Muslim. It is better to declare both3 as indicated in the Quran4, however, it is tolerable to rely upon only the salat or salam as was seen in numerous ahadith.

——–

Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
9 Sha’ban 1437
16 May 2016

———-

1 Lacking barakah

2 Note unpublished

3 Shami p.10 v.1

4 Surah Ahzab: 56. صلوا عليه و سلموا تسليما

The Definitions of Dhubba’, Hantham, Muzaffat and Naqir

These four types of vessels were commonly used for the production and storage of drinks which would become quickly intoxicant. The prophet (peace be upon him) forbade drinking from it regardless. The ruling was later abrogated when people became aware of its danger.

stack-of-wine-barrels-hdr-313809

By Sh. R. Kazi
17 Rabi II 1437 | 28 January 2016

It has been reported by Imam Muslim that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said,

I command you with four and I forbid you from four. Worship Allah and do not associate with him any partner, establish prayer, give zakah, fast the month of ramadhan, and give one fifth of what you have gained as booty and I forbid you from four, from Dhubba’, Hantham, Muzaffath and Naqir.

These were four types of vessels in which the Arabs at the time of the prophet (peace be upon him) would immerse dates, raisins etcetera in water until it would sweeten. Thereafter, they would drink it once it had become intoxicant. The reason why these have been forbidden specifically is due to the speed with which the substances in them intoxicate. Thus making the drink impure, forbidden, valueless and a means of destruction of wealth. It was also easy for a person do drink such drinks from these vessels being unaware that it had become intoxicant as opposed to vessels made of leather skin; this was not prohibited due to its thinness; any drink that had become intoxicant will become obvious; when it did, the vessel would tear. This was the initial command.  Later on, the prohibition of producing drinks in these vessels was abrogated with a narration of Buraydah RA,

I forbade you from producing drinks (in vessels) except for some, (now) produce drinks in any vessel, however, do not drink anything intoxicant.

Hereunder are the definitions of each type of vessel mentioned in the narration,

  1. Dhubba: Dried up gourd/pumpkin or a vessel made out of this
  2. Hantham: Singular is “hanthamah”. This is also called “Jirar”; singular is “Jarrah”, an earthenware jar. There are differences of opinion in regards to the type of earthenware jar. Strongest opinion is that it is a green earthenware jar.
  3. Naqir: This is when the inside of the trunk of a palm tree is excavated, hollowed out and made into a vessel.
  4. Muzaffat: Also referred to as “Muqayyar”. This is a vessel that has been coated with asphalt1.

————-

17 Rabi II 1437 AH
28 January 2015 CE

[1] Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product; it is a substance classed as a pitch.

Praying salah without wudu

Salah will not be accepted without cleanliness so what should one do if they were stuck in a plane with no way of doing wudhu or tayammum? This issue is known as faqid al-tahurayn.

Metal-Sub

By A. Rahman
14 Rabi II 1437 | 25 January 2016

The prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) said, لاَ تُقْبَلُ صَلاَةٌ بِغَيْرِ طُهُورٍ (trans. salah will not be accepted without cleanliness). This was reported in Tirmidhi and Muslim. The sanad  is sahih. The scholars are unanimous that salah is not permitted without cleanliness and consider a severe sin if one prays without wudhu or tayammum.

So here is the conundrum. What is the ruling if salah time comes and one has no water or soil available with which they may gain cleanliness through wudhu or tayammum respectively?

The schools are differed on this matter. This case is called faqid tahurayn (a person who has no access to water or soil).

قضاء اداء امام
لا لا مالك
نعم نعم شافعي
لا نعم احمد
نعم لا أبو حنيفة

Imam Malik (may Allah almighty have mercy upon him): Both ada and qadha are not wajib as the person is ‘ajiz (incapacitated). So salah is dropped similar to how it is dropped for a woman on her haydh.

Imam Shafi’i (may Allah almighty have mercy upon him): The person should read salah even though he is not tahir (clean), but they will have to do qadha when they have sufficient water. This is also one of the views of Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal.

Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal (may Allah almighty have mercy upon him): Ada is wajib even though the person is not tahir. They do not need to do qadha later.

Imam Abu Hanifa (may Allah almighty have mercy upon him): Ada is not wajib, but the person must do qadha later when water is available. Imam Abu Yusuf (may Allah almighty have mercy upon him) asserts that if possible the person should imitate those praying salah  (do the actions but not read anything) and then do qadha later. This is generally the preferred view amongst the ahnaf.

Note! Here ada means to read on time and qada means to read after the alloted time for salah has expired.

—–

14 Rabi II 1437
25 January 2016

Hadiths reported by Sufis

The experts of hadith are weary of the hadith of sufis as highlighted by Imam Muslim. It should be noted that it is not the fact that they are sufi which makes them unreliable rather it is the manner in which they evaluate hadith.

By Muhaddith al-Asr Shaykh Muhammad Yunus Jawnpuri
al-Yawaqit al-Ghaliyah fi Tahqiq wa Takhrij al-Ahadith al-‘Aliyah
Translated by Ml. Muhammad Habib in Deoband – 4th April 2010

[This is a beneficial read to understand the rationale of Imam Muslim (may Allah almighty have mercy upon him) when he writes in his Muqaddimah that the hadith of the sufis are not to be relied upon. Also note that the term sufi in some parts sparks debate. Before embarking on a discussion first determine the definition of a sufi as it is not uniform. –Saif]

Scholars have not given credence to the [hadith] reports of Sufis, as these respected people, due to their preoccupation with acts of devotion (‘ibadat), are unable to fully dedicate themselves to [the seeking of] knowledge. This is why their reports are littered with errors and confusions. Likewise, their husn al-zann (good opinions regarding others) is to such a degree that they do not even make critical analysis and, consequently, accept any spoken word without investigation. This is why their reports contain weak, rejected and fabricated hadiths in abundance.

This becomes evident after seeing Abu Talib Makki’s Qut al-Qulub and the works of Imam al-Ghazali, Abu ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami and others.

‘Allamah Taj al-Din al-Subki has compiled all those countless reports which Imam al-Ghazali has mentioned in Ihya’ al-‘Ulum, but are not found elsewhere. There are, however, many reports which do exist either in wording or meaning.

The truth is that every art has its connoisseurs. We gladly accept that the Sufis are worthy of veneration. However, that does not mean we also accept their word in those sciences in which they do not specialise.

Yahya al-Qattan says: ”We have not seen the pious (Sufis) more imprecise in anything as they are in hadith.” Another variation reads, “We have not seen the people of good (Sufis) more imprecise in anything as they are in hadith.”

Explaining this, Imam Muslim (pg. 14) writes: “Imprecision finds its way on to their tongues but they do not intend it.”

Imam al-Nawawi elaborates: ”This is so because of their non-possession of the skills employed by the people of hadith, and hence, error creeps into their reports without their knowledge and they tend to relate inaccurate reports not suspecting them to be false.”

However, no one has rejected the reports of those Sufis who have gained proficiency in this science. For example, Imam Abu Isma’il al-Ansari al-Harawi (d. 481 AH), the author of Manazil al-Sa’irin, was a Sufi as well as a hadith scholar. His work, Manazil al-Sa’irin, is a renowned work of tasawwuf, of which al-Hafiz Ibn al-Qayyim wrote an extremely detailed commentary, entitled Madarij al-Salikin.

Similarly, the student of Imam Muslim, Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Sufyan and his student Abu Ahmad al-Jaludi and others were all from amongst the ascetic Sufis, and people (hadith scholars) have accepted their reports.

The hadith scholar, Abu ‘Abd Allah Yunini, is from amongst the great Sufis. He attained the mantle of tasawwuf from the respected Shaykh ‘Abd Allah al-Bata’ihi, who is from the companions of Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani. [Abu ‘Abd Allah] Yunini is also a renowned hafiz of hadith. Al-Hafiz al-Dhahabi has specifically mentioned him in Tadhkirat al-Huffaz (Vol. 4, p. 223).

Similarly ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad al-Dawudi (d. 467 AH) is a renowned Sufi. Al-Hafiz al-Sam’ani relates in Al-Ansab: ”He was a master in tasawwuf”, and he is from amongst the transmitters of [Sahih] al-Bukhari.

The likes of ‘Allamah Ibn Daqiq al-‘Id and Ibn al-Humam and others being Sufis is a known fact.

[Finally], all praise is due to Allah, most of our shaykhs of the Wali Allahi tradition were Sufis as well as imams of hadith.

That is the bounty of Allah, He grants to whom He wills.

Only Allah knows best.

The servant
Muhammad Yunus
(may Allah forgive him)
Monday 11th Rabi’ al-Thani 1391 AH.